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1.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 134(9-10): 399-419, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802740

ABSTRACT

The Austrian Society of Pneumology (ASP) launched a first statement on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in May 2020, at a time when in Austria 285 people had died from this disease and vaccinations were not available. Lockdown and social distancing were the only available measures to prevent more infections and the breakdown of the health system. Meanwhile, in Austria over 13,000 patients have died in association with a SARS-CoV­2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was among the most common causes of death; however, SARS-CoV­2 has been mutating all the time and currently, most patients have been affected by the delta variant where the vaccination is very effective but the omicron variant is rapidly rising and becoming predominant. Particularly in children and young adults, where the vaccination rate is low, the omicron variant is expected to spread very fast. This poses a particular threat to unvaccinated people who are at elevated risk of severe COVID-19 disease but also to people with an active vaccination. There are few publications that comprehensively addressed the special issues with SARS-CoV­2 infection in patients with chronic lung diseases. These were the reasons for this updated statement. Pulmonologists care for many patients with an elevated risk of death in case of COVID-19 but also for patients that might be at an elevated risk of vaccination reactions or vaccination failure. In addition, lung function tests, bronchoscopy, respiratory physiotherapy and training therapy may put both patients and health professionals at an increased risk of infection. The working circles of the ASP have provided statements concerning these risks and how to avoid risks for the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Medicine , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
2.
Eur Respir J ; 2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the number of lung transplantations (LTx) performed worldwide for COVID-19 induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is still low, there is general agreement that this treatment can save a subgroup of most severly ill patients with irreversible lung damage. However, the true proportion of patients eligible for LTx, the overall outcome and the impact of LTx to the pandemic are unknown. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed using a nationwide registry of hospitalised patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-Cov-2) infection admitted between January 1, 2020 and May 30, 2021 in Austria. Patients referred to one of the two Austrian LTx centers were analyzed and grouped into patients accepted and rejected for LTx. Detailed outcome analysis was performed for all patients who received a LTx for post-COVID-19 ARDS and compared to patients who underwent LTx for other indications. RESULTS: Between January 1, 2020 and May 30, 2021, 39.485 patients were hospitalised for COVID-19 in Austria. 2323 required mechanical ventilation, 183 received extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. 106 patients with severe COVID-19 ARDS were referred for LTx. Of these, 19 (18%) underwent LTx. 30-day mortality after LTx was 0% for COVID-19 ARDS transplant recipients. With a median follow-up of 134 (47-450) days, 14/19 patients are alive. CONCLUSIONS: Early referral of ECMO patients to a LTx center is pivotal in order to select patients eligible for LTx. Transplantation offers excellent midterm outcomes and should be incorporated in the treatment algorithm of post-COVID-19 ARDS.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320203

ABSTRACT

Background: Although the burden of influenza infection is the highest in older adults, vaccination coverage remains low, despite this age group being more vulnerable than others. Aims: : Given the current pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, it was the aim of this scope review to update knowledge on factors affecting seasonal influenza vaccine uptake among older adults in order to strengthen prevention approaches in the context of an overall burden of infectious diseases. Methods: : We searched bibliographic databases from 2012 to 2019. All studies reviewed one or more social determinant of health listed by WHO, or factors affecting the decision-making process whether to accept influenza vaccine or not. Results: : Overall, 44 studies were included, 41 determinants were extracted and summarized into six categories. Older age and constitutional factors including multiple chronic diseases as well as preventive lifestyle and frequent routine healthcare utilization positively affected vaccination uptake (VU). Living and working conditions are also researched determinants of influenza vaccine uptake. A small number of studies explored the role of social inclusion and system-based interventions. Discussion: and Conclusions: This scope review provides a comprehensive overview on factors affecting seasonal influenza vaccination uptake among older citizens. The review also clearly shows gaps for evidence on system-based level or political strategies to improve vaccination uptake.

4.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(8): 2123-2132, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the burden of influenza infection is the highest in older adults, vaccination coverage remains low, despite this age group being more vulnerable than others. AIMS: Given the current pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, it was the aim of this scope review to update knowledge on factors affecting seasonal influenza vaccine uptake among older adults to strengthen prevention approaches in the context of an overall burden of infectious diseases. METHODS: We searched bibliographic databases from 2012 to 2019. All studies reviewed one or more social determinant of health listed by WHO, or factors affecting the decision-making process whether to accept influenza vaccine or not. RESULTS: Overall, 44 studies were included, 41 determinants were extracted and summarized into six categories. Older age and constitutional factors including multiple chronic diseases as well as preventive lifestyle and frequent routine healthcare utilization positively affected vaccination uptake (VU). Living and working conditions are also researched determinants of influenza vaccine uptake. A small number of studies explored the role of social inclusion and system-based interventions. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This scope review provides a comprehensive overview on factors affecting seasonal influenza vaccination uptake among older citizens. The review also clearly shows gaps for evidence on system-based level or political strategies to improve vaccination uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Aged , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 132(13-14): 365-386, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996394

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is currently a challenge worldwide. In Austria, a crisis within the healthcare system has so far been prevented. The treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), including SARS-CoV­2 infections, should continue to be based on evidence-based CAP guidelines during the pandemic; however, COVID-19 specific adjustments are useful. The treatment of patients with chronic lung diseases has to be adapted during the pandemic but must still be guaranteed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Lung Diseases/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pulmonary Medicine , Adolescent , Adult , Austria , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Lung Diseases/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Pneumologe (Berl) ; 17(6): 385-393, 2020.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893295

ABSTRACT

The severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia, the course, fatality and mortality are multifactorial and attributable to the immediate parenchymal damage in the region of the lungs (including pulmonary vessels), pre-existing comorbidities, extrapulmonary complications, secondary infections and the quality of the available medical care. In this respect, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is comparable with other severe community-acquired forms of pneumonia caused by conventional pathogens, even if the pathogenesis is different. The fatality of hospitalized COVID-19 patients is approximately 20% (and therefore higher than for other pneumonia pathogens), in intensive care patients 30-40% and in invasively ventilated patients ca. 50%. Risk factors that are decisive for the fatality are old age, overweight, male gender and typical age-related cardiopulmonary underlying diseases. The clinical risk estimation in hospital should essentially be carried out in accordance with the valid guidelines on pneumonia. The value of laboratory surrogate markers specific for COVID-19 for risk estimation and treatment optimization cannot yet be adequately assessed.

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