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1.
Br J Health Psychol ; 2023 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314571

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to conduct a process evaluation of a whole-genome sequence report form (SRF) used to reduce nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 through changing infection prevention and control (IPC) behaviours within the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We used a three-staged design. Firstly, we described and theorized the purported content of the SRF using the behaviour change wheel (BCW). Secondly, we used inductive thematic analysis of one-to-one interviews (n = 39) to explore contextual accounts of using the SRF. Thirdly, further deductive analysis gauged support for the intervention working as earlier anticipated. RESULTS: It was possible to theorize the SRF using the BCW approach and visualize it within a simple logic model. Inductive thematic analyses identified the SRF's acceptability, ease of use and perceived effectiveness. However, major challenges to embedding it in routine practice during the unfolding COVID-19 crisis were reported. Notwithstanding this insight, deductive analysis showed support for the putative intervention functions 'Education', 'Persuasion' and 'Enablement'; behaviour change techniques '1.2 Problem solving', '2.6 Biofeedback', '2.7 Feedback on outcomes of behaviour' and '7.1 Prompts and cues'; and theoretical domains framework domains 'Knowledge' and 'Behavioural regulation'. CONCLUSIONS: Our process evaluation of the SRF, using the BCW approach to describe and theorize its content, provided granular support for the SRF working to change IPC behaviours as anticipated. However, our complementary inductive thematic analysis highlighted the importance of the local context in constraining its routine use. For SRFs to reach their full potential in reducing nosocomial infections, further implementation research is needed.

2.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-16, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261302

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 restrictions drove rapid adaptations to service delivery and new ways of working within Scotland's mental health sector. This study explores mental health workers' (MHWs') experiences of delivering their services remotely. Twenty participants, who had worked in mental health professions in the National Health Service (NHS) in Scotland throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, took part in online semi-structured interviews. Data was transcribed then analysed using an inductive thematic analysis. Two major themes are reported: (1) 'Improved Flexibility for both MHWs and Service Users' and (2) 'Teletherapies Challenge Therapeutic Boundaries'. In relation to (1) virtual platforms were seen as vital in maintaining patient care throughout the COVID-19 pandemic and a valuable resource for service users (SUs) who had previously struggled with mobility or social anxieties when accessing face-to-face services. Some MHWs' also noted benefits for their productivity and comfort. Regarding (2) MHWs highlighted that whilst conducting teletherapies from home, work-life boundaries became blurred and, in some instances, typically comforting spaces became associated with the traumatic content discussed by SUs. These stressors seemed to be compounded by MHWs' isolation, as they were less able to draw upon their colleagues for support. Further, confidentiality could not be assured, as MHWs and SUs alike had to accommodate their family members. These findings highlight important insights from MHWs in adapting to rapid changes in mental health working practices, particularly in relation to the challenges of delivering quality, safe and equitable services and the increased use of teletherapies. Such insights are vital in informing service developments and supporting future pandemic preparedness across a range of healthcare contexts and countries seeking to adopt hybrid models of mental health service delivery.

3.
Elife ; 112022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217486

ABSTRACT

Background: Viral sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 has been used for outbreak investigation, but there is limited evidence supporting routine use for infection prevention and control (IPC) within hospital settings. Methods: We conducted a prospective non-randomised trial of sequencing at 14 acute UK hospital trusts. Sites each had a 4-week baseline data collection period, followed by intervention periods comprising 8 weeks of 'rapid' (<48 hr) and 4 weeks of 'longer-turnaround' (5-10 days) sequencing using a sequence reporting tool (SRT). Data were collected on all hospital-onset COVID-19 infections (HOCIs; detected ≥48 hr from admission). The impact of the sequencing intervention on IPC knowledge and actions, and on the incidence of probable/definite hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), was evaluated. Results: A total of 2170 HOCI cases were recorded from October 2020 to April 2021, corresponding to a period of extreme strain on the health service, with sequence reports returned for 650/1320 (49.2%) during intervention phases. We did not detect a statistically significant change in weekly incidence of HAIs in longer-turnaround (incidence rate ratio 1.60, 95% CI 0.85-3.01; p=0.14) or rapid (0.85, 0.48-1.50; p=0.54) intervention phases compared to baseline phase. However, IPC practice was changed in 7.8 and 7.4% of all HOCI cases in rapid and longer-turnaround phases, respectively, and 17.2 and 11.6% of cases where the report was returned. In a 'per-protocol' sensitivity analysis, there was an impact on IPC actions in 20.7% of HOCI cases when the SRT report was returned within 5 days. Capacity to respond effectively to insights from sequencing was breached in most sites by the volume of cases and limited resources. Conclusions: While we did not demonstrate a direct impact of sequencing on the incidence of nosocomial transmission, our results suggest that sequencing can inform IPC response to HOCIs, particularly when returned within 5 days. Funding: COG-UK is supported by funding from the Medical Research Council (MRC) part of UK Research & Innovation (UKRI), the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) (grant code: MC_PC_19027), and Genome Research Limited, operating as the Wellcome Sanger Institute. Clinical trial number: NCT04405934.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Infection Control/methods , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hospitals
4.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-15, 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008428

ABSTRACT

Health and social care workers (HSCWs) have an essential role in the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine. Vaccination is an emotionally charged issue and perceptions of risk associated with COVID19 can contribute towards vaccine hesitancy (VH). The aim of this study was to explore the role of emotion and risk perception associated with HSCWs' uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine during the initial mass roll-out of the vaccine in Scotland. A cross-sectional online survey with a correlational design was used. An online survey was conducted with HSCWs (N = 1189) aged 18 to 67 years (M = 44.09 yrs, SD = 11.48) working in Scotland during the third lockdown period (26 December - 31 March 2021) of the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey collected data relating to sociodemographic characteristics, vaccine uptake and VH, emotions associated with the COVID-19 vaccine, and risk perception. Open-ended free text data were also collected on HSCWs' main reasons for VH. Most participants (83.96%) felt positively about the roll-out of the COVID-19 vaccine, stating it would be beneficial for themselves and others to receive it. Nonetheless, 16.04% of HSCWs expressed VH. Occupational group, age, gender and risk perceptions did not affect variance in VH, but positive emotions associated with the COVID-19 vaccine and years of experience did. We emphasise the importance of future interventions to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake by enhancing positive emotions and reducing ambivalent emotions associated with the COVID-19 vaccine particularly among less experienced HSCWs.

5.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e052514, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been a significant cause of mortality in National Health Service (NHS) hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic. The COG-UK Consortium Hospital-Onset COVID-19 Infections (COG-UK HOCI) study aims to evaluate whether the use of rapid whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2, supported by a novel probabilistic reporting methodology, can inform infection prevention and control (IPC) practice within NHS hospital settings. DESIGN: Multicentre, prospective, interventional, superiority study. SETTING: 14 participating NHS hospitals over winter-spring 2020/2021 in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible patients must be admitted to hospital with first-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive test result >48 hour from time of admission, where COVID-19 diagnosis not suspected on admission. The projected sample size is 2380 patients. INTERVENTION: The intervention is the return of a sequence report, within 48 hours in one phase (rapid local lab processing) and within 5-10 days in a second phase (mimicking central lab), comparing the viral genome from an eligible study participant with others within and outside the hospital site. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes are incidence of Public Health England (PHE)/IPC-defined SARS-CoV-2 hospital-acquired infection during the baseline and two interventional phases, and proportion of hospital-onset cases with genomic evidence of transmission linkage following implementation of the intervention where such linkage was not suspected by initial IPC investigation. Secondary outcomes include incidence of hospital outbreaks, with and without sequencing data; actual and desirable changes to IPC actions; periods of healthcare worker (HCW) absence. Health economic analysis will be conducted to determine cost benefit of the intervention. A process evaluation using qualitative interviews with HCWs will be conducted alongside the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN50212645. Pre-results stage. This manuscript is based on protocol V.6.0. 2 September 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hospitals , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , State Medicine , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom/epidemiology
6.
Front Psychol ; 13: 861192, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875430

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 lockdown presented a novel opportunity to study the experiences of people attempting to maintain friendships in the context of worldwide, government-enforced physical distancing and lockdown. Here we report on an experiential, idiographic qualitative project with a purposive sample of Scottish students. Data was collected via one-to-one on-line interviews with nine student participants (N = 9). Data was transcribed and analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Analysis highlighted three group-level experiential themes (GETs) and associated subthemes. Participants' shared experiences of maintaining friendships were reflected in a dynamic process by which (1) 'changes to communication' were associated with experiences of (2) 'effort and balance' across friendships. Participants reported becoming particularly aware of the psychological processes involved in maintaining friendships, in turn, this was associated with (3) 'reflection and growth.' These experiential findings resonate well with several longstanding classic theories; however, they also speak to the particularities of the context in which the study was conducted. They suggest the need for a pandemic psychology that moves beyond the typical focus on the direct impacts of infectious disease to address the wider psychosocial impacts with equal vigor.

8.
Health Psychol Behav Med ; 10(1): 357-378, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774269

ABSTRACT

Background: Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) are at far greater risk of experiencing poor mental health (MH) than wider society. This disparity was exacerbated by additional 'unique to sexual minority status' COVID-19 stressors. Objective: This sequential, mixed-methods study examined remote MH help-seeking among GBMSM in the U.K. and Ireland during the first COVID-19 lockdown. Methods and Results: Quantitative survey data (n = 1368), analysed with logistic regression, suggested GBMSM experiencing moderate-to-severe anxiety and those with a past MH diagnosis were most likely to seek MH support. Thematic analysis of qualitative interview (n = 18) data identified multiple barriers and enablers to GBMSM seeking remote MH help, with the help primarily sought from GBMSM-facing organisations and generic online resources. Finally, the behaviour change wheel was used to generate theoretically informed recommendations to promote MH help-seeking among GBMSM in Scotland. Implications: We discuss how applying these recommendations in the short, medium and long term will begin to address GBMSM's MH needs, post COVID-19.

9.
Health Psychol ; 40(10): 655-665, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559244

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The negative consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) national lockdowns have been well documented, including the worsening of mental health for many and the amplification of preexisting inequalities. As a counterpoint, the current study uses a mixed-methods coproduction approach to share psychosocial insights into the adoption of positive changes made during national lockdown in Scotland. This study examines the psychosocial patterning of positive behavior changes and the psychosocial processes by which positive change was realized and shared these insights with partner organizations. METHOD: A sequential mixed-methods design included an online survey (N = 2,445) assessing positive changes in sleep and physical activity patterns and the role of sociodemographics, mood, social support, coping, and resilience using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Interviews were performed with a purposive diverse subsample of people self-reporting high levels of positive change (n = 48) and used thematic analysis. RESULTS: The survey identified that positive behavior change was significantly patterned by age, gender, and vulnerability to COVID-19. Higher levels of positive reframing and active coping in relation to stress were associated with higher levels of positive behavior change. Higher symptoms of depression, planning, and self-distraction were associated with less positive behavior change. Thematic analysis showed the centrality of perceptions of time, opportunities to self-reflect and engage with the natural world, access support in diverse ways, actively build routine, and purposefully build self-efficacy and a sense of control were key to initiating positive change. CONCLUSIONS: The current study yields insights into achieving positive behavior change at a time of international crisis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Sex Transm Infect ; 97(4): 276-281, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: 1.5 million people in the UK have mild to moderate learning disabilities. STIs and bloodborne viruses (BBVs) are over-represented in people experiencing broader health inequalities, which include those with mild learning disabilities. Self-managed care, including self-sampling for STIs/BBVs, is increasingly commonplace, requiring agency and health literacy. To inform the development of a partner notification trial, we explored barriers and facilitators to correct use of an STI/BBV self-sampling pack among people with mild learning disabilities. METHODS: Using purposive and convenience sampling we conducted four interviews and five gender-specific focus groups with 25 people (13 women, 12 men) with mild learning disabilities (July-August 2018) in Scotland. We balanced deductive and inductive thematic analyses of audio transcripts to explore issues associated with barriers and facilitators to correct use of the pack. RESULTS: All participants found at least one element of the pack challenging or impossible, but welcomed the opportunity to undertake sexual health screening without attending a clinic and welcomed the inclusion of condoms. Reported barriers to correct use included perceived overly complex STI/BBV information and instructions, feeling overwhelmed and the manual dexterity required for blood sampling. Many women struggled interpreting anatomical diagrams depicting vulvovaginal self-swabbing. Facilitators included pre-existing STI/BBV knowledge, familiarity with self-management, good social support and knowing that the service afforded privacy. CONCLUSION: In the first study to explore the usability of self-sampling packs for STI/BBV in people with learning disabilities, participants found it challenging to use the pack. Limiting information to the minimum required to inform decision-making, 'easy read' formats, simple language, large font sizes and simpler diagrams could improve acceptability. However, some people will remain unable to engage with self-sampling at all. To avoid widening health inequalities, face-to-face options should continue to be provided for those unable or unwilling to engage with self-managed care.


Subject(s)
Blood-Borne Infections/diagnosis , Disabled Persons/psychology , Learning Disabilities/psychology , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/standards , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Adult , Female , Health Literacy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , Scotland/epidemiology , Self Care , Specimen Handling
12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(1)2021 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011631

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is central to controlling COVID-19. Its success relies on having safe and effective vaccines and also on high levels of uptake by the public over time. Addressing questions of population-level acceptability, stability of acceptance, and sub-population variation in acceptability are imperative. Using a prospective design, a repeated measures two-wave online survey was conducted to assess key sociodemographic variables and intention to accept a COVID-19 vaccine. The first survey (Time 1) was completed by 3436 people during the period of national lockdown in Scotland and the second survey (n = 2016) was completed two months later (Time 2) when restrictions had been eased. In the first survey, 74% reported being willing to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Logistic regression analyses showed that there were clear sociodemographic differences in intention to accept a vaccine for COVID-19 with intention being higher in participants of white ethnicity as compared with Black, Asian, and minority ethnic (BAME) groups, and in those with higher income levels and higher education levels. Intention was also higher in those who had "shielding" status due to underlying medical conditions. Our results suggest that future interventions, such as mass media and social marketing, need to be targeted at a range of sub-populations and diverse communities.

13.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244873, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have highlighted the negative impact of COVID-19 and its particular effects on vulnerable sub-populations. Complementing this work, here, we report on the social patterning of self-reported positive changes experienced during COVID-19 national lockdown in Scotland. METHODS: The CATALYST study collected data from 3342 adults in Scotland during weeks 9-12 of a national lockdown. Using a cross-sectional design, participants completed an online questionnaire providing data on key sociodemographic and health variables, and completed a measure of positive change. The positive change measure spanned diverse domains (e.g., more quality time with family, developing new hobbies, more physical activity, and better quality of sleep). We used univariate analysis and stepwise regression to examine the contribution of a range of sociodemographic factors (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity, educational attainment, and employment status) in explaining positive change. RESULTS: There were clear sociodemographic differences across positive change scores. Those reporting higher levels of positive change were female, from younger age groups, married or living with their partner, employed, and in better health. CONCLUSION: Overall our results highlight the social patterning of positive changes during lockdown in Scotland. These findings begin to illuminate the complexity of the unanticipated effects of national lockdown and will be used to support future intervention development work sharing lessons learned from lockdown to increase positive health change amongst those who may benefit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise/psychology , Family/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Scotland/epidemiology , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Hygiene , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(24)2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977748

ABSTRACT

We examine the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak and concomitant restrictions (i.e., lockdown) on 24-hour movement behaviors (i.e., physical activity, sitting, sleep) in a purposive sample of people (n = 3230) reporting change recruited online. Participants' self-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), walking, sitting and sleep prior to lockdown (T1), during the first national lockdown (T2) and as restrictions initially started to ease (T3). For each 24-hour movement behavior, category-shifts are reported (positive, negative or did not change), as well as the percentage of participants recording positive/negative changes across clusters of behaviors and the percentage of participants recording improvement or maintenance of change across time. From T1 to T2 walking decreased, whereas MVPA, sitting and sleep increased, from T2 to T3 levels returned to pre-lockdown for all but MVPA. Participants who changed one behavior positively were more likely to report a positive change in another and 50% of those who reported positive changes from T1 to T2 maintained or improved further when restrictions started to ease. The current study showed that a large proportion of the sample reported positive changes, most notably those displaying initially poor levels of each behavior. These findings will inform salutogenic intervention development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Pandemics , Sedentary Behavior , Sleep , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Scotland , Sitting Position , Young Adult
15.
Br J Health Psychol ; 25(4): 1039-1054, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744705

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Development of a vaccine against COVID-19 will be key to controlling the pandemic. We need to understand the barriers and facilitators to receiving a future COVID-19 vaccine so that we can provide recommendations for the design of interventions aimed at maximizing public acceptance. DESIGN: Cross-sectional UK survey with older adults and patients with chronic respiratory disease. METHODS: During the UK's early April 2020 'lockdown' period, 527 participants (311 older adults, mean age = 70.4 years; 216 chronic respiratory participants, mean age = 43.8 years) completed an online questionnaire assessing willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, perceptions of COVID-19, and intention to receive influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. A free text response (n = 502) examined barriers and facilitators to uptake. The Behaviour Change Wheel informed the analysis of these responses, which were coded to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Behaviour change techniques (BCTs) were identified. RESULTS: Eighty-six per cent of respondents want to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. This was positively correlated with the perception that COVID-19 will persist over time, and negatively associated with perceiving the media to have over-exaggerated the risk. The majority of barriers and facilitators were mapped onto the 'beliefs about consequences' TDF domain, with themes relating to personal health, health consequences to others, concerns of vaccine safety, and severity of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination is currently high among high-risk individuals. Mass media interventions aimed at maximizing vaccine uptake should utilize the BCTs of information about health, emotional, social and environmental consequences, and salience of consequences.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Vaccination , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines
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