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1.
mBio ; : e0157722, 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909595

ABSTRACT

Persistent SARS-CoV-2 replication and systemic dissemination are linked to increased COVID-19 disease severity and mortality. However, the precise immune profiles that track with enhanced viral clearance, particularly from systemic RNAemia, remain incompletely defined. To define whether antibody characteristics, specificities, or functions that emerge during natural infection are linked to accelerated containment of viral replication, we examined the relationship of SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immune evolution in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 plasma RNAemia, which is tightly associated with disease severity and death. On presentation to the emergency department, S-specific IgG3, IgA1, and Fc-γ-receptor (Fcγ R) binding antibodies were all inversely associated with higher baseline plasma RNAemia. Importantly, the rapid development of spike (S) and its subunit (S1/S2/receptor binding domain)-specific IgG, especially FcγR binding activity, were associated with clearance of RNAemia. These results point to a potentially critical and direct role for SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immune clearance on viral dissemination, persistence, and disease outcome, providing novel insights for the development of more effective therapeutics to resolve COVID-19. IMPORTANCE We showed that persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia is an independent predictor of severe COVID-19. We observed that SARS-CoV-2-targeted antibody maturation, specifically Fc-effector functions rather than neutralization, was strongly linked with the ability to rapidly clear viremia. This highlights the critical role of key humoral features in preventing viral dissemination or accelerating viremia clearance and provides insights for the design of next-generation monoclonal therapeutics. The main key points will be that (i) persistent SARS-CoV-2 plasma RNAemia independently predicts severe COVID-19 and (ii) specific humoral immune functions play a critical role in halting viral dissemination and controlling COVID-19 disease progression.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901157

ABSTRACT

We enrolled seven individuals with recurrent symptoms or antigen test conversion following nirmatrelvir-ritonavir treatment. High viral loads (median 6.1 log10 copies/mL) were detected after rebound for a median of 17 days after initial diagnosis. Three had culturable virus for up to 16 days after initial diagnosis. No known resistance-associated mutations were identified.

4.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(7): 100678, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895506

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are among the treatments recommended for high-risk ambulatory persons with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we study viral culture dynamics post-treatment in a subset of participants receiving the mAb bamlanivimab in the ACTIV-2 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04518410). Viral load by qPCR and viral culture are performed from anterior nasal swabs collected on study days 0 (day of treatment), 1, 2, 3, and 7. Treatment with mAbs results in rapid clearance of culturable virus. One day after treatment, 0 of 28 (0%) participants receiving mAbs and 16 of 39 (41%) receiving placebo still have culturable virus (p < 0.0001). Recrudescence of culturable virus is detected in three participants with emerging mAb resistance and viral RNA rebound. While further studies are necessary to fully define the relationship between shed culturable virus and transmission, these results raise the possibility that mAbs may offer immediate (household) and public-health benefits by reducing onward transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofac022, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758826

ABSTRACT

We assessed the ability of the BinaxNow rapid test to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antigen from 4 individuals with Omicron and Delta infections. We performed serial dilutions of nasal swab samples, and specimens with concentrations of ≥100 000 copies/swab were positive, demonstrating that the BinaxNow test is able to detect the Omicron variant.

6.
JCI Insight ; 7(2)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649048

ABSTRACT

Isolation guidelines for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are largely derived from data collected prior to the emergence of the delta variant. We followed a cohort of ambulatory patients with postvaccination breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections with longitudinal collection of nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 viral load quantification, whole-genome sequencing, and viral culture. All delta variant infections in our cohort were symptomatic, compared with 64% of non-delta variant infections. Symptomatic delta variant breakthrough infections were characterized by higher initial viral load, longer duration of virologic shedding by PCR, greater likelihood of replication-competent virus at early stages of infection, and longer duration of culturable virus compared with non-delta variants. The duration of time since vaccination was also correlated with both duration of PCR positivity and duration of detection of replication-competent virus. Nonetheless, no individuals with symptomatic delta variant infections had replication-competent virus by day 10 after symptom onset or 24 hours after resolution of symptoms. These data support US CDC isolation guidelines as of November 2021, which recommend isolation for 10 days or until symptom resolution and reinforce the importance of prompt testing and isolation among symptomatic individuals with delta breakthrough infections. Additional data are needed to evaluate these relationships among asymptomatic and more severe delta variant breakthrough infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Virus Shedding/physiology , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors
7.
J Infect Dis ; 225(5): 754-758, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621621

ABSTRACT

There is limited information on the specific impact of maternal infection with the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (delta) variant on pregnancy outcomes. We present 2 cases of intrauterine fetal demise and 1 case of severe fetal distress in the setting of maternal infection with delta-variant SARS-CoV-2. In all cases, fetal demise or distress occurred within 14 days of COVID-19 diagnosis. Evaluation revealed maternal viremia, high nasopharyngeal viral load, evidence of placental infection with delta-variant SARS-CoV-2, and hallmark features of SARS-CoV-2 placentitis. We suggest that delta-variant SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy warrants vigilance for placental dysfunction and fetal compromise regardless of disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Fetal Death , Fetal Distress , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing , Chorioamnionitis , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis
8.
JCI Insight ; 7(2)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556107

ABSTRACT

Isolation guidelines for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are largely derived from data collected prior to the emergence of the delta variant. We followed a cohort of ambulatory patients with postvaccination breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections with longitudinal collection of nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 viral load quantification, whole-genome sequencing, and viral culture. All delta variant infections in our cohort were symptomatic, compared with 64% of non-delta variant infections. Symptomatic delta variant breakthrough infections were characterized by higher initial viral load, longer duration of virologic shedding by PCR, greater likelihood of replication-competent virus at early stages of infection, and longer duration of culturable virus compared with non-delta variants. The duration of time since vaccination was also correlated with both duration of PCR positivity and duration of detection of replication-competent virus. Nonetheless, no individuals with symptomatic delta variant infections had replication-competent virus by day 10 after symptom onset or 24 hours after resolution of symptoms. These data support US CDC isolation guidelines as of November 2021, which recommend isolation for 10 days or until symptom resolution and reinforce the importance of prompt testing and isolation among symptomatic individuals with delta breakthrough infections. Additional data are needed to evaluate these relationships among asymptomatic and more severe delta variant breakthrough infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Virus Shedding/physiology , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors
9.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(8): ofab153, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371740

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) kinetics remain understudied, including the impact of remdesivir. In hospitalized individuals, peak sputum viral load occurred in week 2 of symptoms, whereas viremia peaked within 1 week of symptom-onset, suggesting early systemic seeding of SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir treatment was associated with faster viral decay.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1275-1278, 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345718

ABSTRACT

The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination on viral characteristics of breakthrough infections is unknown. In this prospective cohort study, incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection decreased following vaccination. Although asymptomatic positive tests were observed following vaccination, the higher cycle thresholds, repeat negative tests, and inability to culture virus raise questions about their clinical significance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
11.
J Clin Invest ; 131(13)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDSARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia has been associated with severe disease and death in COVID-19 in small-scale cohort studies. The mechanisms behind this association remain elusive.METHODSWe evaluated the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viremia, disease outcome, and inflammatory and proteomic profiles in a cohort of COVID-19 emergency department participants. SARS-CoV-2 viral load was measured using a quantitative reverse transcription PCR-based platform. Proteomic data were generated with Proximity Extension Assay using the Olink platform.RESULTSThis study included 300 participants with nucleic acid test-confirmed COVID-19. Plasma SARS-CoV-2 viremia levels at the time of presentation predicted adverse disease outcomes, with an adjusted OR of 10.6 (95% CI 4.4-25.5, P < 0.001) for severe disease (mechanical ventilation and/or 28-day mortality) and 3.9 (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = 0.006) for 28-day mortality. Proteomic analyses revealed prominent proteomic pathways associated with SARS-CoV-2 viremia, including upregulation of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors (ACE2, CTSL, FURIN), heightened markers of tissue damage to the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and endothelium/vasculature, and alterations in coagulation pathways.CONCLUSIONThese results highlight the cascade of vascular and tissue damage associated with SARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia that underlies its ability to predict COVID-19 disease outcomes.FUNDINGMark and Lisa Schwartz; the National Institutes of Health (U19AI082630); the American Lung Association; the Executive Committee on Research at Massachusetts General Hospital; the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative; Arthur, Sandra, and Sarah Irving for the David P. Ryan, MD, Endowed Chair in Cancer Research; an EMBO Long-Term Fellowship (ALTF 486-2018); a Cancer Research Institute/Bristol Myers Squibb Fellowship (CRI2993); the Harvard Catalyst/Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center (National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, NIH awards UL1TR001102 and UL1TR002541-01); and by the Harvard University Center for AIDS Research (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 5P30AI060354).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viremia/blood , Viremia/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Prognosis , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Internalization
12.
J Clin Invest ; 131(13)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290978

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDSARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia has been associated with severe disease and death in COVID-19 in small-scale cohort studies. The mechanisms behind this association remain elusive.METHODSWe evaluated the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viremia, disease outcome, and inflammatory and proteomic profiles in a cohort of COVID-19 emergency department participants. SARS-CoV-2 viral load was measured using a quantitative reverse transcription PCR-based platform. Proteomic data were generated with Proximity Extension Assay using the Olink platform.RESULTSThis study included 300 participants with nucleic acid test-confirmed COVID-19. Plasma SARS-CoV-2 viremia levels at the time of presentation predicted adverse disease outcomes, with an adjusted OR of 10.6 (95% CI 4.4-25.5, P < 0.001) for severe disease (mechanical ventilation and/or 28-day mortality) and 3.9 (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = 0.006) for 28-day mortality. Proteomic analyses revealed prominent proteomic pathways associated with SARS-CoV-2 viremia, including upregulation of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors (ACE2, CTSL, FURIN), heightened markers of tissue damage to the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and endothelium/vasculature, and alterations in coagulation pathways.CONCLUSIONThese results highlight the cascade of vascular and tissue damage associated with SARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia that underlies its ability to predict COVID-19 disease outcomes.FUNDINGMark and Lisa Schwartz; the National Institutes of Health (U19AI082630); the American Lung Association; the Executive Committee on Research at Massachusetts General Hospital; the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative; Arthur, Sandra, and Sarah Irving for the David P. Ryan, MD, Endowed Chair in Cancer Research; an EMBO Long-Term Fellowship (ALTF 486-2018); a Cancer Research Institute/Bristol Myers Squibb Fellowship (CRI2993); the Harvard Catalyst/Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center (National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, NIH awards UL1TR001102 and UL1TR002541-01); and by the Harvard University Center for AIDS Research (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 5P30AI060354).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viremia/blood , Viremia/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Prognosis , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Internalization
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