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1.
Panminerva Med ; 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, millions of people have been infected and died. Different therapeutic approaches have been recommended, but only a few have shown clinical advantages. Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) has been recommended to prevent COVID-19-related thrombo-embolic events. We aim to evaluate the impact of early treatment with LMWH on hospital admission and death in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We conducted an observational monocentric retrospective study to evaluate the preventive role of LMWH on the mortality rate of COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were recruited from the beginning of the Italian epidemic to March 31st, 2021. We excluded patients with missing data and those chronically exposed to LMWH. Treatment prescription was based on international and national guidelines and modified depending on clinical presentation and drug-drug interactions. RESULTS: of 734 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were recruited, with 357 (48.6%) males and a median (IQR) age of 77.9 (65-85.7) years. 77.5% of people developed SARS-CoV-2-related symptoms and 62.8% were admitted to the hospital, and 20.2% died. Four hundred ninety-two (67%) started LMWH. In particular, 296 (40.3%) were treated within five days since symptoms onset. At logistic regression, early LMWH therapy was associated with lower mortality. Furthermore, remdesivir treatment showed a lower risk of death. On the contrary, age, BMI >30Kg/m2, neurological diseases, fever or dyspnea were associated with an increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, early treatment with LMWH was associated with lower mortality in our cohort. Further studies are needed to better assess the role of wider LMWH administration in terms of timing and regimen dose.

2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 705916, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399192

ABSTRACT

Lipid profile alterations have been observed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in relation to disease severity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with meta-regression of studies reporting total, HDL, and LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, between January 2020 and January 2021, for studies describing lipid concentrations, COVID-19 severity, and survival status (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021253401). Twenty-two studies in 10,122 COVID-19 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled results showed that hospitalized patients with severe disease or non-survivor status had significantly lower total cholesterol (standardized mean difference, SMD = -0.29, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.16, p < 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (SMD = -0.30, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.18, p < 0.001), and HDL-cholesterol (SMD = -0.44, 95% CI -0.62 to -0.26, p < 0.001), but not triglyceride (SMD = 0.04, 95% CI -0.10 to -0.19, p = 0.57), concentrations compared to patients with milder disease or survivor status during follow up. Between-study heterogeneity was large-to-extreme. In sensitivity analysis, the effect size of different lipid fractions was not affected when each study was in turn removed. The Begg's and Egger's t-tests did not show evidence of publication bias, except for studies investigating LDL-cholesterol. In meta-regression, significant associations were observed between the SMD of LDL-cholesterol and age and hypertension, and between the SMD of triglycerides and study endpoint and aspartate aminotransferase. In our systematic review and meta-analysis, lower total, HDL, and LDL-cholesterol, but not triglyceride, concentrations were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. Cholesterol concentrations might be useful, in combination with other clinical and demographic variables, for risk stratification and monitoring in this group. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021253401.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, HDL , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglycerides
3.
Laryngoscope ; 131(10): 2312-2318, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318729

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between the severity and duration of olfactory dysfunctions (OD), assessed with psychophysical tests, and the viral load on the rhino-pharyngeal swab determined with a direct method, in patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Patients underwent psychophysical olfactory assessment with Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center test and determination of the normalized viral load on nasopharyngeal swab within 10 days of the clinical onset of COVID-19. RESULTS: Sixty COVID-19 patients were included in this study. On psychophysical testing, 12 patients (20% of the cohort) presented with anosmia, 11 (18.3%) severe hyposmia, 13 (18.3%) moderate hyposmia, and 10 (16.7%) mild hyposmia with an overall prevalence of OD of 76.7%. The overall median olfactory score was 50 (interquartile range [IQR] 30-72.5) with no significant differences between clinical severity subgroups. The median normalized viral load detected in the series was 2.56E+06 viral copies/106 copies of human beta-2microglobulin mRNA present in the sample (IQR 3.17E+04-1.58E+07) without any significant correlations with COVID-19 severity. The correlation between viral load and olfactory scores at baseline (R2  = 0.0007; P = .844) and 60-day follow-up (R2  = 0.0077; P = .519) was weak and not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of OD does not seem to be useful in identifying subjects at risk for being super-spreaders or who is at risk of developing long-term OD. Similarly, the pathogenesis of OD is probably related to individual factors rather than to viral load and activity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:2312-2318, 2021.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies
4.
Adv Med Sci ; 66(2): 304-314, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300587

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with meta-regression of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), a biomarker of myocardial injury, in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, for studies published between January 2020 and January 2021 that reported CK-MB, COVID-19 severity and mortality (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021239657). RESULTS: Fifty-five studies in 11,791 COVID-19 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that CK-MB concentrations were significantly higher in patients with high disease severity or non-survivor status than patients with low severity or survivor status (standardized mean difference, SMD, 0.81, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.01, p<0.001). The rate of patients with CK-MB values above the normal range was also significantly higher in the former than the latter (60/350 vs 98/1,780; RR â€‹= â€‹2.84, 95%CI 1.89 to 4.27, p<0.001; I2 â€‹= â€‹19.9, p â€‹= â€‹0.254). Extreme between-study heterogeneity was observed (I2 â€‹= â€‹93.4%, p<0.001). Sensitivity analysis, performed by sequentially removing each study and re-assessing the pooled estimates, showed that the magnitude and direction of the effect size was not modified (effect size range, 0.77 to 0.84). Begg's (p â€‹= â€‹0.50) and Egger's (p â€‹= â€‹0.86) t-tests did not show publication bias. In meta-regression analysis, the SMD was significantly and positively associated with the white blood count, aspartate aminotransferase, myoglobin, troponin, brain natriuretic peptide, lactate dehydrogenase, and D-dimer. CONCLUSIONS: Higher CK-MB concentrations were significantly associated with severe disease and mortality in COVID-19 patients. This biomarker of myocardial injury might be useful for risk stratification in this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
Molecules ; 25(23)2020 Dec 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid onset of a systemic pro-inflammatory state followed by acute respiratory distress syndrome is the leading cause of mortality in patients with COVID-19. We performed a retrospective observational study to explore the capacity of different complete blood cell count (CBC)-derived inflammation indexes to predict in-hospital mortality in this group. METHODS: The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), mean platelet volume to platelet ratio (MPR), neutrophil to lymphocyte × platelet ratio (NLPR), monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR), systemic inflammation response index (SIRI), systemic inflammation index (SII), and the aggregate index of systemic inflammation (AISI) were calculated on hospital admission in 119 patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19. RESULTS: Non-survivors had significantly higher AISI, dNLR, NLPR, NLR, SII, and SIRI values when compared to survivors. Similarly, Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed significantly lower survival in patients with higher AISI, dNLR, MLR, NLPR, NLR, SII, and SIRI. However, after adjusting for confounders, only the SII remained significantly associated with survival (HR = 1.0001; 95% CI, 1.0000-1.0001, p = 0.029) in multivariate Cox regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The SII on admission independently predicts in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients and may assist with early risk stratification in this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Inflammation/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
6.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(1): e13427, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-846927

ABSTRACT

Increased concentrations of serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) are common in COVID-19 patients. However, their capacity to predict mortality, particularly the AST/ALT ratio, commonly referred to as the De Ritis ratio, is unknown. We investigated the association between the De Ritis ratio on admission and in-hospital mortality in 105 consecutive patients with coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to three COVID-19 referral centres in Sardinia, Italy. The De Ritis ratio was significantly lower in survivors than nonsurvivors (median: 1.25; IQR: 0.91-1.64 vs 1.67; IQR: 1.38-1.97, P = .002) whilst there were no significant between-group differences in ALT and AST concentrations. In ROC curve analysis, the AUC value of the De Ritis ratio was 0.701 (95% CI 0.603-0.787, P = .0006) with sensitivity and specificity of 74% and 70%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed a significant association between the De Ritis ratio and mortality (logrank test P = .014). By contrast, no associations were observed between the ALT and AST concentrations and mortality (logrank test P = .83 and P = .62, respectively). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, the HR in patients with De Ritis ratios ≥1.63 (upper tertile of this parameter) remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, cardiovascular disease, intensity of care, diabetes, respiratory diseases, malignancies and kidney disease (HR: 2.46, 95% CI 1.05-5.73, P = .037). Therefore, the De Ritis ratio on admission was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. Larger studies are required to confirm the capacity of this parameter to independently predict mortality in this group.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/blood , Hospital Mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , ROC Curve , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(7): 685-690, 2020 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721541

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is the greatest pandemic in modern history. Laboratory test alterations have been described in COVID-19 patients, but differences with other pneumonias have been poorly investigated to date, especially in Caucasian populations. The aim of this study was to investigate differences and prognostic potential of routine blood tests in a series of Italian patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 interstitial pneumonia. METHODOLOGY: Clinical data and routine laboratory tests of a consecutive series of 30 COVID-19 patients and 30 age and sex matched patients with non COVID-19 interstitial pneumonia have been retrospectively collected. Differences in laboratory tests between patients with COVID-19 and non COVID-19 pneumonias have been investigated, as well as differences between COVID-19 survivors and non survivors. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients had lower white blood cells, monocytes, neutrophils, and higher platelet counts. In addition, COVID-19 patients showed higher mean platelet volume, lower C reactive protein concentrations, and higher De Ritis ratio. Combined blood cell indexes of systemic inflammation were significantly lower in COVID-19 patients. In further analysis of the COVID-19 group, the neutrophil count, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR, systemic inflammation response index and De Ritis ratio, were significantly higher in non survivors than in survivors, while the number of platelets was significantly lower in non survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed several alterations in blood cell populations and indexes in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in comparison with patients with non COVID-19 pneumonia. Some of these indexes showed promising prognostic abilities. Further studies are necessary to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Lymphocytes , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
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