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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(6): e024140, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731380

ABSTRACT

Background Little is known about how COVID-19 influenced engagement of citizen responders dispatched to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) by a smartphone application. The objective was to describe and analyze the Danish Citizen Responder Program and bystander interventions (both citizen responders and nondispatched bystanders) during the first COVID-19 lockdown in 2020. Methods and Results All OHCAs from January 1, 2020, to June 30, 2020, with citizen responder activation in 2 regions of Denmark were included. We compared citizen responder engagement for OHCA in the nonlockdown period (January 1, 2020, to March 10, 2020, and April 21, 2020, to June 30, 2020) with the lockdown period (March 11, 2020, to April 20, 2020). Data are displayed in the order lockdown versus nonlockdown period. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates did not differ in the 2 periods (99% versus 92%; P=0.07). Bystander defibrillation (9% versus 14%; P=0.4) or return-of-spontaneous circulation (23% versus 23%; P=1.0) also did not differ. A similar amount of citizen responders accepted alarms during the lockdown (6 per alarm; interquartile range, 6) compared with the nonlockdown period (5 per alarm; interquartile range, 5) (P=0.05). More citizen responders reported performing chest-compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation during lockdown compared with nonlockdown (79% versus 59%; P=0.0029), whereas fewer performed standardized cardiopulmonary resuscitation, including ventilations (19% versus 38%; P=0.0061). Finally, during lockdown, more citizen responders reported being not psychologically affected by attending an OHCA compared with nonlockdown period (68% versus 56%; P<0.0001). Likewise, fewer reported being mildly affected during lockdown (26%) compared with nonlockdown (35%) (P=0.003). Conclusions The COVID-19 lockdown in Denmark was not associated with decreased bystander-initiated resuscitation in OHCAs attended by citizen responders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Retrospective Studies
2.
Circulation ; 145(9): e645-e721, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714480

ABSTRACT

The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation initiated a continuous review of new, peer-reviewed published cardiopulmonary resuscitation science. This is the fifth annual summary of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations; a more comprehensive review was done in 2020. This latest summary addresses the most recently published resuscitation evidence reviewed by International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation task force science experts. Topics covered by systematic reviews in this summary include resuscitation topics of video-based dispatch systems; head-up cardiopulmonary resuscitation; early coronary angiography after return of spontaneous circulation; cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the prone patient; cord management at birth for preterm and term infants; devices for administering positive-pressure ventilation at birth; family presence during neonatal resuscitation; self-directed, digitally based basic life support education and training in adults and children; coronavirus disease 2019 infection risk to rescuers from patients in cardiac arrest; and first aid topics, including cooling with water for thermal burns, oral rehydration for exertional dehydration, pediatric tourniquet use, and methods of tick removal. Members from 6 International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation task forces have assessed, discussed, and debated the quality of the evidence, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria, and their statements include consensus treatment recommendations or good practice statements. Insights into the deliberations of the task forces are provided in Justification and Evidence-to-Decision Framework Highlights sections. In addition, the task forces listed priority knowledge gaps for further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Practice Guidelines as Topic
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 143, 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is thought to be more prevalent among ethnic minorities and individuals with low socioeconomic status. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies during the COVID-19 pandemic among citizens 15 years or older in Denmark living in social housing (SH) areas. METHODS: We conducted a study between January 8th and January 31st, 2021 with recruitment in 13 selected SH areas. Participants were offered a point-of-care rapid SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibody test and a questionnaire concerning risk factors associated with COVID-19. As a proxy for the general Danish population we accessed data on seroprevalence from Danish blood donors (total Ig ELISA assay) in same time period. RESULTS: Of the 13,279 included participants, 2296 (17.3%) were seropositive (mean age 46.6 (SD 16.4) years, 54.2% female), which was 3 times higher than in the general Danish population (mean age 41.7 (SD 14.1) years, 48.5% female) in the same period (5.8%, risk ratios (RR) 2.96, 95% CI 2.78-3.16, p > 0.001). Seropositivity was higher among males (RR 1.1, 95% CI 1.05-1.22%, p = 0.001) and increased with age, with an OR seropositivity of 1.03 for each 10-year increase in age (95% CI 1.00-1.06, p = 0.031). Close contact with COVID-19-infected individuals was associated with a higher risk of infection, especially among household members (OR 5.0, 95% CI 4.1-6.2 p < 0,001). Living at least four people in a household significantly increased the OR of seropositivity (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6, p = 0.02) as did living in a multi-generational household (OR 1.3 per generation, 95% CI 1.1-1.6, p = 0.003). Only 1.6% of participants reported not following any of the national COVID-19 recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Danish citizens living in SH areas of low socioeconomic status had a three times higher SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence compared to the general Danish population. The seroprevalence was significantly higher in males and increased slightly with age. Living in multiple generations households or in households of more than four persons was a strong risk factor for being seropositive. Results of this study can be used for future consideration of the need for preventive measures in the populations living in SH areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Housing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313309

ABSTRACT

Background: In emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, there is an increased need for contact withemergency medical services (EMS), and call volume might surpass capacity. Thus, the Copenhagen EMS in Denmark implemented a separate coronavirus hotline followed by a web-based self-triage system to reduce nonemergency call volume. The aim of this paper is to present the two measures implemented to handle the increased call volume to the Copenhagen EMSfromthose with mild or no relevant COVID-19 symptoms. Methods: This is a cross sectional observational study monitoring call volume in the first month of the COVID-19 pandemic in accumulated callnumbers, compared to the equivalent numbers during one month from the year before (2019). A coronavirus hotline and web-based self-triage system arepresented in absolute numbers of users. Results: In the first month of the COVID-19 pandemic in Copenhagen, emergency medical dispatch centers were extensively overloaded with more than 10.800 calls, resulting in significantly prolonged queue time (mean time in minutes:12:02;CI: 11:55-12:09)) compared to 2019 (mean time in minutes02:23;CI: 02:22-02:25) and thereby limiting access to emergency assistance and triage for citizens. The introduction of the coronavirus hotline showed reduced call volume and queue time to the EMS. The web-based self-triage system was used more than 107.000 times. However, no correlation between call volume and the use of a web-based self-triage systemwas observed. Conclusions: Creating a coronavirus hotlinestaffed by healthcare personnelseemed to have an impact on call volume and potentially relieved the strain in resources, while the web-based self-triage system was widely used and could be further developed to reach itsfull potential. Other EMS organizations can implement these measures to enhance capacity in a future epidemic.

5.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621617

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to assess if influenza vaccination has an impact on the risk of COVID-19. A cohort of 46,112 health care workers were tested for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and filled in a survey on COVID-19 symptoms, hospitalization, and influenza vaccination. The RR of hospitalization due to SARS-CoV-2 for influenza vaccinated compared with unvaccinated participants was 1.00 for the seasonal vaccination in 2019/2020 (CI 0.56-1.78, p=1.00). Likewise, no clinical effect of influenza vaccination on development of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was found. The present findings indicate that influenza vaccination does not affect the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19.

6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0133021, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583201

ABSTRACT

"Testing Denmark" is a national, large-scale, epidemiological surveillance study of SARS-CoV-2 in the Danish population. Between September and October 2020, approximately 1.3 million people (age >15 years) were randomly invited to fill in an electronic questionnaire covering COVID-19 exposures and symptoms. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was determined by point-of care rapid test (POCT) distributed to participants' home addresses. In total, 318,552 participants (24.5% invitees) completed the study and 2,519 (0.79%) were seropositive. Of the participants with a prior positive PCR test (n = 1,828), 29.1% were seropositive in the POCT. Although seropositivity increased with age, participants 61 years and over reported fewer symptoms and were tested less frequently. Seropositivity was associated with physical contact with SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals (risk ratio [RR] 7.43, 95% CI: 6.57-8.41), particular in household members (RR 17.70, 95% CI: 15.60-20.10). A greater risk of seropositivity was seen in home care workers (RR 2.09, 95% CI: 1.58-2.78) compared to office workers. A high degree of adherence with national preventive recommendations was reported (e.g., >80% use of face masks), but no difference were found between seropositive and seronegative participants. The seroprevalence result was somewhat hampered by a lower-than-expected performance of the POCT. This is likely due to a low sensitivity of the POCT or problems reading the test results, and the main findings therefore relate to risk associations. More emphasis should be placed on age, occupation, and exposure in local communities. IMPORTANCE To date, including 318,522 participants, this is the largest population-based study with broad national participation where tests and questionnaires have been sent to participants' homes. We found that more emphasis from national and local authorities toward the risk of infection should be placed on age of tested individuals, type of occupation, as well as exposure in local communities and households. To meet the challenge that broad nationwide information can be difficult to gather. This study design sets the stage for a novel way of conducting studies. Additionally, this study design can be used as a supplementary model in future general test strategy for ongoing monitoring of COVID-19 immunity in the population, both from past infection and from vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, however, with attention to the complexity of performing and reading the POCT at home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , Denmark , Female , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Point-of-Care Testing , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Circulation ; 145(9): e645-e721, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528611

ABSTRACT

The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation initiated a continuous review of new, peer-reviewed published cardiopulmonary resuscitation science. This is the fifth annual summary of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations; a more comprehensive review was done in 2020. This latest summary addresses the most recently published resuscitation evidence reviewed by International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation task force science experts. Topics covered by systematic reviews in this summary include resuscitation topics of video-based dispatch systems; head-up cardiopulmonary resuscitation; early coronary angiography after return of spontaneous circulation; cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the prone patient; cord management at birth for preterm and term infants; devices for administering positive-pressure ventilation at birth; family presence during neonatal resuscitation; self-directed, digitally based basic life support education and training in adults and children; coronavirus disease 2019 infection risk to rescuers from patients in cardiac arrest; and first aid topics, including cooling with water for thermal burns, oral rehydration for exertional dehydration, pediatric tourniquet use, and methods of tick removal. Members from 6 International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation task forces have assessed, discussed, and debated the quality of the evidence, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria, and their statements include consensus treatment recommendations or good practice statements. Insights into the deliberations of the task forces are provided in Justification and Evidence-to-Decision Framework Highlights sections. In addition, the task forces listed priority knowledge gaps for further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Practice Guidelines as Topic
8.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0090421, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476401

ABSTRACT

Most individuals seroconvert after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but being seronegative is observed in 1 to 9%. We aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with being seronegative following PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. In a prospective cohort study, we screened health care workers (HCW) in the Capital Region of Denmark for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. We performed three rounds of screening from April to October 2020 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method targeting SARS-CoV-2 total antibodies. Data on all participants' PCR for SARS-CoV-2 RNA were captured from national registries. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models were applied to investigate the probability of being seronegative and the related risk factors, respectively. Of 36,583 HCW, 866 (2.4%) had a positive PCR before or during the study period. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 866 HCW was 42 (31 to 53) years, and 666 (77%) were female. After a median of 132 (range, 35 to 180) days, 21 (2.4%) of 866 were seronegative. In a multivariable model, independent risk factors for being seronegative were self-reported asymptomatic or mild infection hazard ratio (HR) of 6.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6 to 17; P < 0.001) and body mass index (BMI) of ≥30, HR 3.1 (95% CI, 1.1 to 8.8; P = 0.039). Only a few (2.4%) HCW were not seropositive. Asymptomatic or mild infection as well as a BMI above 30 were associated with being seronegative. Since the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 reduces the risk of reinfection, efforts to protect HCW with risk factors for being seronegative may be needed in future COVID-19 surges. IMPORTANCE Most individuals seroconvert after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but negative serology is observed in 1 to 9%. We found that asymptomatic or mild infection as well as a BMI above 30 were associated with being seronegative. Since the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 reduces the risk of reinfection, efforts to protect HCW with risk factors for being seronegative may be needed in future COVID-19 surges.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Denmark , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/analysis , Seroconversion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
9.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(5): 710-717, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415294

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are a key factor in protecting against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We examined longitudinal changes in seroprevalence in healthcare workers (HCWs) in Copenhagen and the protective effect of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: In this prospective study, screening for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 (ELISA) was offered to HCWs three times over 6 months. HCW characteristics were obtained by questionnaires. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04346186. RESULTS: From April to October 2020 we screened 44 698 HCWs, of whom 2811 were seropositive at least once. The seroprevalence increased from 4.0% (1501/37 452) to 7.4% (2022/27 457) during the period (p < 0.001) and was significantly higher than in non-HCWs. Frontline HCWs had a significantly increased risk of seropositivity compared to non-frontline HCWs, with risk ratios (RRs) at the three rounds of 1.49 (95%CI 1.34-1.65, p < 0.001), 1.52 (1.39-1.68, p < 0.001) and 1.50 (1.38-1.64, p < 0.001). The seroprevalence was 1.42- to 2.25-fold higher (p < 0.001) in HCWs from dedicated COVID-19 wards than in other frontline HCWs. Seropositive HCWs had an RR of 0.35 (0.15-0.85, p 0.012) of reinfection during the following 6 months, and 2115 out of 2248 (95%) of those who were seropositive during rounds one or two remained seropositive after 4-6 months. The 133 of 2248 participants (5.0%) who seroreverted were slightly older and reported fewer symptoms than other seropositive participants. CONCLUSIONS: HCWs remained at increased risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 during the 6-month period. Seropositivity against SARS-CoV-2 persisted for at least 6 months in the vast majority of HCWs and was associated with a significantly lower risk of reinfection.

10.
Acta Psychiatr Scand ; 144(6): 553-562, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408246

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the patterns in psychiatric admissions, referrals, and suicidal behavior before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study utilized health records from hospitals and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) covering 46% of the Danish population (n = 2,693,924). In a time-trend study, we compared the number of psychiatric in-patients, referrals to mental health services and suicidal behavior in years prior to the COVID-19 pandemic to levels during the first lockdown (March 11 - May 17, 2020), inter-lockdown period (May 18 - December 15, 2020), and second lockdown (December 16, 2020 - February 28, 2021). RESULTS: During the pandemic, the rate of psychiatric in-patients declined compared to pre-pandemic levels (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.94 - 0.96, p < 0.01), with the largest decrease of 19% observed three weeks into the first lockdown. Referrals to mental health services were not significantly different (RR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.92 - 1.10, p = 0.91) during the pandemic; neither was suicidal behavior among hospital contacts (RR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.94 - 1.14, p = 0.48) nor EMS contacts (RR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00 - 1.18, p = 0.06). Similar trends were observed across nearly all age groups, sexes, and types of mental disorders examined. In the age group <18, an increase in the rate of psychiatric in-patients (RR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.07 - 1.15, p < 0.01) was observed during the pandemic; however, this did not exceed the pre-pandemic, upwards trend in psychiatric hospitalizations in the age group <18 (p = 0.78). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with a decrease in psychiatric hospitalizations, while no significant change was observed in referrals to mental health services and suicidal behavior. Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and adolescents increased during the pandemic; however, this appears to be a continuation of a pre-pandemic trend.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicidal Ideation
11.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 27(3): 209-215, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294818

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss different approaches to citizen responder activation and possible future solutions for improved citizen engagement in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) resuscitation. RECENT FINDINGS: Activating volunteer citizens to OHCA has the potential to improve OHCA survival by increasing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and early defibrillation. Accordingly, citizen responder systems have become widespread in numerous countries despite very limited evidence of their effect on survival or cost-effectiveness. To date, only one randomized trial has investigated the effect of citizen responder activation for which the outcome was bystander CPR. Recent publications are of observational nature with high risk of bias. A scoping review published in 2020 provided an overview of available citizen responder systems and their differences in who, when, and how to activate volunteer citizens. These differences are further discussed in this review. SUMMARY: Implementation of citizen responder programs holds the potential to improve bystander intervention in OHCA, with advancing technology offering new improvement possibilities. Information on how to best activate citizen responders as well as the effect on survival following OHCA is warranted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of citizen responder programs.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Electric Countershock , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy
12.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(12): 1401-1408, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health-care workers are thought to be highly exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in health-care workers and the proportion of seroconverted health-care workers with previous symptoms of COVID-19. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, screening was offered to health-care workers in the Capital Region of Denmark, including medical, nursing, and other students who were associated with hospitals in the region. Screening included point-of-care tests for IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Test results and participant characteristics were recorded. Results were compared with findings in blood donors in the Capital Region in the study period. FINDINGS: Between April 15 and April 23, 2020, we screened 29 295 health-care workers, of whom 28 792 (98·28%) provided their test results. We identified 1163 (4·04% [95% CI 3·82-4·27]) seropositive health-care workers. Seroprevalence was higher in health-care workers than in blood donors (142 [3·04%] of 4672; risk ratio [RR] 1·33 [95% CI 1·12-1·58]; p<0·001). Seroprevalence was higher in male health-care workers (331 [5·45%] of 6077) than in female health-care workers (832 [3·66%] of 22 715; RR 1·49 [1·31-1·68]; p<0·001). Frontline health-care workers working in hospitals had a significantly higher seroprevalence (779 [4·55%] of 16 356) than health-care workers in other settings (384 [3·29%] of 11 657; RR 1·38 [1·22-1·56]; p<0·001). Health-care workers working on dedicated COVID-19 wards (95 [7·19%] of 1321) had a significantly higher seroprevalence than other frontline health-care workers working in hospitals (696 [4·35%] of 15 983; RR 1·65 [1·34-2·03]; p<0·001). 622 [53·5%] of 1163 seropositive participants reported symptoms attributable to SARS-CoV-2. Loss of taste or smell was the symptom that was most strongly associated with seropositivity (377 [32·39%] of 1164 participants with this symptom were seropositive vs 786 [2·84%] of 27 628 without this symptom; RR 11·38 [10·22-12·68]). The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04346186. INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of health-care workers with antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was low but higher than in blood donors. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in health-care workers was related to exposure to infected patients. More than half of seropositive health-care workers reported symptoms attributable to COVID-19. FUNDING: Lundbeck Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/classification , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroconversion , Seroepidemiologic Studies
13.
Resusc Plus ; 5: 100075, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003023

ABSTRACT

AIM: First responder (FR) programmes dispatch professional FRs (police and/or firefighters) or citizen responders to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and use automated external defibrillators (AED) in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We aimed to describe management of FR-programmes across Europe in response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: In June 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional survey sent to OHCA registry representatives in 18 European countries with active FR-programmes. The survey was administered by e-mail and included questions regarding management of both citizen responder and FR-programmes. A follow-up question was conducted in October 2020 assessing management during a potential "second wave" of COVID-19. RESULTS: All representatives responded (response rate = 100%). Fourteen regions dispatched citizen responders and 17 regions dispatched professional FRs (9 regions dispatched both). Responses were post-hoc divided into three categories: FR activation continued unchanged, FR activation continued with restrictions, or FR activation temporarily paused. For citizen responders, regions either temporarily paused activation (n = 7, 50.0%) or continued activation with restrictions (n = 7, 50.0%). The most common restriction was to omit rescue breaths and perform compression-only CPR. For professional FRs, nine regions continued activation with restrictions (52.9%) and five regions (29.4%) continued activation unchanged, but with personal protective equipment available for the professional FRs. In three regions (17.6%), activation of professional FRs temporarily paused. CONCLUSION: Most regions changed management of FR-programmes in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Studies are needed to investigate the consequences of pausing or restricting FR-programmes for bystander CPR and AED use, and how this may impact patient outcome.

14.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; 25(1): 28-38, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, there is an increased need for contact with emergency medical services (EMS), and call volume might surpass capacity. The Copenhagen EMS operates two telephone line the 1-1-2 emergency number and the 1813 medical helpline. A separate coronavirus support track was implemented on the 1813 medical helpline and a web-based self-triage (web triage) system was created to reduce non-emergency call volume. The aim of this paper is to present call volume and the two measures implemented to handle the increased call volume to the Copenhagen EMS. METHODS: This is a cross sectional observational study. Call volume and queue time is presented in the first month of the COVID-19 pandemic (27th of February 2020 to 27th of march) and compared to the equivalent month from the year before (2019). Descriptive statistics are conducted on call volumes and queue times and spearman's rank correlation test are performed to test correlation between web triage and call volume. RESULTS: Total EMS call volume increase by 23.3% between 2019 and 2020 (92.670 vs. 114,250). The 1-1-2 emergency line total call volume increase by 4.4% (8,4942 vs. 8,870) and the 1813 medical helpline increased by 25.1% (84.176 vs. 105.380). The coronavirus support track handled 21,063 calls. The 1813 medical helpline queue time was a mean of 02 minutes and 23 seconds (CI: 2.22-2.25) in 2019 and 12 minutes and 2 seconds (CI 11:55-12:09) in 2020 (P < 0.001). The web triage was used 10,894 times. No correlation between call volume and web triage usage was seen. CONCLUSIONS: In the first month of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic a significant increase in call volume was observed in the 1813 medical helpline compared to 2019. A large number of calls were handled by the additional coronavirus track and diverted away from the regular tracks of the 1813 medical helpline. This likely contributed to mitigating increased call volumes and queue times. The web triage was widely used but no significant correlation was seen with 1813 medical helpline call volume. Other EMS organizations can learn from this to enhance capacity in a future epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Triage , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone , Triage/statistics & numerical data
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