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1.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(23):15823, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2123687

ABSTRACT

Certain members of the Coronaviridae family have emerged as zoonotic agents and have recently caused severe respiratory diseases in humans and animals, such as SARS, MERS, and, more recently, COVID-19. Antivirals (drugs and antiseptics) capable of controlling viruses at the site of infection are scarce. Microalgae from the Chlorellaceae family are sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant, antiviral, and antitumor activity. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate various extracts from Planktochlorella nurekis in vitro against murine coronavirus-3 (MHV-3), which is an essential human coronavirus surrogate for laboratory assays. Methanol, hexane, and dichloromethane extracts of P. nurekis were tested in cells infected with MHV-3, and characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), and the application of chemometrics through principal component analysis (PCA). All the extracts were highly efficient against MHV-3 (more than a 6 Log unit reduction), regardless of the solvent used or the concentration of the extract, but the dichloromethane extract was the most effective. Chemical characterization by spectrophotometry and NMR, with the aid of statistical analysis, showed that polyphenols, carbohydrates, and isoprene derivatives, such as terpenes and carotenoids have a more significant impact on the virucidal potential. Compounds identified by UPLC-MS were mainly lipids and only found in the dichloromethane extract. These results open new biotechnological possibilities to explore the biomass of P. nurekis;it is a natural extract and shows low cytotoxicity and an excellent antiviral effect, with low production costs, highlighting a promising potential for development and implementation of therapies against coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834922

ABSTRACT

The western mesoregion of the state of Santa Catarina (SC), Southern Brazil, was heavily affected as a whole by the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2021. This study aimed to evaluate the dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus spreading patterns in the SC state from March 2020 to April 2021 using genomic surveillance. During this period, there were 23 distinct variants, including Beta and Gamma, among which the Gamma and related lineages were predominant in the second pandemic wave within SC. A regionalization of P.1-like-II in the Western SC region was observed, concomitant to the increase in cases, mortality, and the case fatality rate (CFR) index. This is the first evidence of the regionalization of the SARS-CoV-2 transmission in SC and it highlights the importance of tracking the variants, dispersion, and impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the public health systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
3.
Viruses ; 14(4):695, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762546

ABSTRACT

The western mesoregion of the state of Santa Catarina (SC), Southern Brazil, was heavily affected as a whole by the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2021. This study aimed to evaluate the dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus spreading patterns in the SC state from March 2020 to April 2021 using genomic surveillance. During this period, there were 23 distinct variants, including Beta and Gamma, among which the Gamma and related lineages were predominant in the second pandemic wave within SC. A regionalization of P.1-like-II in the Western SC region was observed, concomitant to the increase in cases, mortality, and the case fatality rate (CFR) index. This is the first evidence of the regionalization of the SARS-CoV-2 transmission in SC and it highlights the importance of tracking the variants, dispersion, and impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the public health systems.

5.
Food Environ Virol ; 2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300533

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was monitored in environmental samples from rural and vulnerable areas (a presidio, worker accommodation units, and river waters upstream and downstream of a rural community) from Minas Gerais State region, Southern Brazil, in August 2020. The sampling was performed prior to official declaration of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases in those sites. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the presidio and workers accommodation units (3.0 × 104 virus genome copies (GC)/mL and 4.3 × 104 GC/mL of sewage, respectively). While SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in the river water upstream of the rural community, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in downstream river waters (1.1 × 102 SARS-CoV-2 GC/mL). The results obtained in this study highlight the utility of SARS-CoV-2 monitoring in wastewater and human sewage as a non-invasive early warning tool to support health surveillance in vulnerable and remote areas, particularly in development countries.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 778: 146198, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121857

ABSTRACT

Human sewage from Florianopolis (Santa Catarina, Brazil) was analyzed for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) from October 2019 until March 2020. Twenty five ml of sewage samples were clarified and viruses concentrated using a glycine buffer method coupled with polyethylene glycol precipitation, and viral RNA extracted using a commercial kit. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected by RT-qPCR using oligonucleotides targeting N1, S and two RdRp regions. The results of all positive samples were further confirmed by a different RT-qPCR system in an independent laboratory. S and RdRp amplicons were sequenced to confirm identity with SARS-CoV-2. Genome sequencing was performed using two strategies; a sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA) approach, and by direct metagenomics using Illumina's NGS. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected on 27th November 2019 (5.49 ± 0.02 log10 SARS-CoV-2 genome copies (GC) L-1), detection being confirmed by an independent laboratory and genome sequencing analysis. The samples in the subsequent three events were positive by all RT-qPCR assays; these positive results were also confirmed by an independent laboratory. The average load was 5.83 ± 0.12 log10 SARS-CoV-2 GC L-1, ranging from 5.49 ± 0.02 log10 GC L-1 (27th November 2019) to 6.68 ± 0.02 log10 GC L-1 (4th March 2020). Our findings demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 was likely circulating undetected in the community in Brazil since November 2019, earlier than the first reported case in the Americas (21st January 2020).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Brazil , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sewage
7.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246544, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063222

ABSTRACT

To minimize sample dilution effect on SARS-CoV-2 pool testing, we assessed analytical and diagnostic performance of a new methodology, namely swab pooling. In this method, swabs are pooled at the time of collection, as opposed to pooling of equal volumes from individually collected samples. Paired analysis of pooled and individual samples from 613 patients revealed 94 positive individuals. Having individual testing as reference, no false-positives or false-negatives were observed for swab pooling. In additional 18,922 patients screened with swab pooling (1,344 pools), mean Cq differences between individual and pool samples ranged from 0.1 (Cr.I. -0.98 to 1.17) to 2.09 (Cr.I. 1.24 to 2.94). Overall, 19,535 asymptomatic patients were screened using 4,400 RT-qPCR assays. This corresponds to an increase of 4.4 times in laboratory capacity and a reduction of 77% in required tests. Therefore, swab pooling represents a major alternative for reliable and large-scale screening of SARS-CoV-2 in low prevalence populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Specimen Handling/methods , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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