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1.
Braz J Microbiol ; 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859206

ABSTRACT

The number of SARS-CoV-2 detection tests requested to the laboratories has dramatically increased together with an urgent need to release reliable responses in a very short time. The two options taken into consideration and analyzed in the current study were the point-of-care test (POCT) based on the nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and the Antigen (Ag) rapid test. The POCT-NAAT-based assay was compared with a rapid antigen test of nasopharyngeal swab samples. If the specimen tested positive, it was followed by viral load quantification and by the functional assessment of the residual infectivity. When the initial cycle threshold (Ct) was below 20 (100%), and in the range of 20-25 (92%) and of 25-30 (88%), a great concordance between the POCT-NAAT and the Ag test was observed. Moreover, the positivity of the antigen test was well correlated to a successful infection in vitro (78%), with greater concordance when the initial Ct below 20 or above 35 (100%) and in the range 20-25 (83%). Our findings showed that most of the swabs which tested positive using the antigen test were able to infect the cells in vitro, suggesting that probably only these samples hold residual infectivity and therefore an increased risk of virus transmission at the moment of being tested.

2.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820405

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) clinical manifestations include the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, affecting around 10% of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected children. In the present work, the consequence of a short time of viral absorption (5, 15, 30 and 60 min) was tested on the Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell line. Our findings show that Caco-2 cells are highly permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection, even after 5 min of viral inoculation at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1. No cytopathic effect was evident during the subsequent 7 days of monitoring; nevertheless, the immunofluorescence staining for the viral nucleocapsid confirmed the presence of intracellular SARS-CoV-2. Our findings highlight the very short time during which SARS-CoV-2 is able to infect these cells in vitro.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caco-2 Cells , Child , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
G Ital Nefrol ; 39(2)2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801193

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Some hemodialysis patients are reluctant to undergo COVID-19 vaccination for the fear of developing adverse events (AEs). The aim of this study was to verify the safety of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in hemodialysis patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of in-center hemodialysis patients who underwent mRNA-1273 vaccine from March 1st to April 30th, 2021. All AEs occurring after the first and the second doses were collected and classified as local or systemic. Results: Overall, 126 patients on chronic maintenance dialysis without a prior COVID-19 diagnosis were vaccinated with two doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine. Mean age was 68 (IQR, 54,7-76) years and 53.6% of patients were aged ≥65 years. During the observational period of 68 (IQR, 66-70) days, AEs occurred in 57.9% and 61.9% of patients after the first dose and second dose, respectively. The most common AEs were: injection-site pain (61.9%), erythema (4.8%), itching (4.8%), swelling (16.7%), axillary swelling/tenderness (2.4%), fever (17.5%) headache (7.9%), fatigue (23.8%), myalgia (17.5%), arthralgia (12.7%), dyspnoea (2.4%), nausea/vomiting (7.1%), diarrhoea (5.6%), shivers (4%) and vertigo (1.6%). The rates of local AEs were similar after the first and second doses (P=0.8), whereas systemic AEs occurred more frequently after the second dose (P=0.001). Fever (P=0.03), fatigue (P=0.02) and nausea/vomiting (P=0.03) were significantly more frequent after the second dose of the vaccine. There were no age-related differences in the rate of AEs. Overall, vaccine-related AEs in hemodialysis patients seem to be lower than in the general population. Conclusion: The RNA-1273 vaccine was associated with the development of transient AEs after the first and second doses in patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis. They were mostly local, whereas systemic AEs were more prevalent after the second dose. Overall, all AEs lasted for a few days, without any apparent sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Nausea , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting
4.
Infez Med ; 30(1): 11-21, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772285

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an unpredictable infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. The development of effective anti-COVID-19 vaccines has enormously minimized the risk of severe illness in most immunocompetent patients. However, unvaccinated patients and non-responders to the COVID-19 vaccine are at risk of shortand long-term consequences. In these patients, the outcome of COVID-19 relies on an interplay of multiple factors including age, immunocompetence, comorbidities, inflammatory response triggered by the virus as well as the virulence of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Generally, COVID-19 is asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic in young people, but it may manifest with respiratory insufficiency requiring mechanical ventilation in certain susceptible groups of patients. Furthermore, severe SARS-CoV-2 infection induces multiorgan failure syndrome by affecting liver, kidney heart and nervous system. Since December 2019, multiple drugs have been tested to treat COVID-19, but only a few have been proven effective to mitigate the course of the disease that continues to cause death and comorbidity worldwide. Current treatment of COVID-19 patients is essentially based on the administration of supportive oxygen therapy and the use of specific drugs such as steroids, anticoagulants, antivirals, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and immunomodulators. However, the rapid spread of new variants and the release of new data coming from the numerous ongoing clinical trials have created the conditions for maintaining a continuous updating of the therapeutic management of COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, we believe that a well-established therapeutic strategy along with the continuum of medical care for all patients with COVID-19 is pivotal to improving disease outcomes and restoring healthcare care fragmentation caused by the pandemic. This narrative review, focusing on the therapeutic management of COVID-19 patients, aimed to provide an overview of current therapies for (i) asymptomatic or mildly/moderate symptomatic patients, (ii) hospitalized patients requiring low-flow oxygen, (iii) high-flow oxygen and (iv) mechanical ventilation.

5.
Viruses ; 14(4):704, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762765

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) clinical manifestations include the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, affecting around 10% of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected children. In the present work, the consequence of a short time of viral absorption (5, 15, 30 and 60 min) was tested on the Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell line. Our findings show that Caco-2 cells are highly permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection, even after 5 min of viral inoculation at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1. No cytopathic effect was evident during the subsequent 7 days of monitoring;nevertheless, the immunofluorescence staining for the viral nucleocapsid confirmed the presence of intracellular SARS-CoV-2. Our findings highlight the very short time during which SARS-CoV-2 is able to infect these cells in vitro.

6.
Clin Kidney J ; 15(4): 615-617, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740836

ABSTRACT

Insufficient vaccine coverage and dominance of the more transmissible severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants are the leading causes of the continued spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide. To curb the surge in infections, COVID-19 vaccination has been advocated as a priority measure, especially for frail populations and people at high risk of exposure. Patients on in-centre maintenance haemodialysis (HD) embody both conditions. They are at high risk of severe COVID-19 consequences due to their advanced age and weakened immune system and carry an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission within shared dialysis rooms and public vehicles. Vaccination of the entire HD population is therefore the most effective strategy to protect patients from the dire consequences of COVID-19. Unfortunately, a minority of patients still express COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. The management of this group of patients, who have the full right to HD treatment, poses demanding problems from a patient safety perspective. The placement of unvaccinated patients within the dialysis room and the protection of all vaccinated patients are some of the most urgent problems the nephrologist faces during the COVID-19 pandemic. In light of these COVID-19-driven changes, an ethical reflection on the management of unvaccinated patients appears crucial to act responsibly and contribute to the health promotion of dialysis patients.

7.
Atmosphere ; 13(2):340, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1704303

ABSTRACT

The airborne route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was confirmed by the World Health Organization in April 2021. There is an urge to establish standardized protocols for assessing the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in air samples to support risk assessment, especially in indoor environments. Debates on the airborne transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 have been complicated because, among the studies testing the presence of the virus in the air, the percentage of positive samples has often been very low. In the present study, we report preliminary results on a study for the evaluation of parameters that can influence SARS-CoV-2 RNA recovery from quartz fiber filters spotted either by standard single-stranded SARS-CoV-2 RNA or by inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virions. The analytes were spiked on filters and underwent an active or passive sampling;then, they were preserved at −80 °C for different numbers of days (0 to 54) before extraction and analysis. We found a mean recovery of 2.43%, except for the sample not preserved (0 days) that showed a recovery of 13.51%. We found a relationship between the number of days and the recovery percentage. The results presented show a possible issue that relates to the quartz matrix and SARS-CoV-2 RNA recovery. The results are in accordance with the already published studies that described similar methods for SARS-CoV-2 RNA field sampling and that reported non-detectable concentrations of RNA. These outcomes could be false negatives due to sample preservation conditions. Thus, until further investigation, we suggest, as possible alternatives, to keep the filters: (i) in a sealed container for preservation at 4 °C;and (ii) in a viral transport medium for preservation at a temperature below 0 °C.

8.
J Biophotonics ; 15(6): e202100375, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669491

ABSTRACT

Blue light has been already reported as able to counteract different types of microorganisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and viruses, especially the enveloped ones. It has been reported that both blue and visible light can efficiently impact SARS-CoV-2 by affecting its ability to replicate in in vitro cellular models of infection. In this study, blue light at 450, 454 and 470 nm was tested on SARS-CoV-2 to evaluate the residual viral infectious potential on Vero E6, Caco-2 and Calu-3 cells, after the irradiation of viral particles. Following 12' of irradiation at 40 mW/cm2 , a drastic block of viral amplification was observed. Indeed, at 7 days post-irradiation/infection the viral load was the same as the one measured 1 day post-irradiation/infection, and cellular viability was maintained showing similar levels to the noninfected control cells. Taken together our results indicate that blue LED lamps can be considered as a cheap and convenient tool for SARS-CoV-2 disinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Caco-2 Cells , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Humans
10.
Clin Kidney J ; 14(3): 1036, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526154

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ckj/sfaa084.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ckj/sfaa084.].

11.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21266561

ABSTRACT

IntroductionSome hemodialysis patients are reluctant to COVID-19 for the development of adverse events (AEs). The aim of this study was to verify the safety of mRNA-1273 vaccine in hemodialysis patients. MethodsWe conducted a retrospective analysis of in-center hemodialysis patients who underwent mRNA-1273 vaccine from March 1st to April 30th, 2021. All AEs occurring after the first and the second doses were collected and classified as local or systemic. ResultsOverall, 126 patients on chronic maintenance dialysis without a prior COVID-19 diagnosis were vaccinated with two doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine. Mean age was 68 (IQR, 54,7-76) years and 53.6% of patients were aged [≥] 65 years. During the observational period of 68 (IQR, 66-70) days, AEs occurred in 57.9% and 61.9% of patients after the first dose and second dose, respectively. The most common AEs were: injection-site pain (61.9%), erythema (4.8%), itching (4.8%), swelling (16.7%), axillary swelling/tenderness (2.4%), fever (17.5%) headache (7.9%), fatigue (23.8%), myalgia (17.5%), arthralgia (12.7%), dyspnoea (2.4%), nausea/vomiting (7.1%), diarrhoea (5.6%), shivers (4%) and vertigo (1.6%). The rates of local AEs were similar after the first and second doses (P=0.8), whereas systemic AEs occurred more frequently after the second dose (P=0.001). Fever (P=0.03), fatigue (P=0.02) and nausea/vomiting (P=0.03) were significantly more frequent after the second dose of the vaccine. There were no age-related differences in the rate of AEs. Overall, vaccine-related AEs in hemodialysis patients seem to be lower than in the general population. ConclusionRNA-1273 vaccine was associated with the development of transient AEs after the first (57.9%) and second doses (61.9%) in patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis. Systemic AEs were more common after the second dose. Overall, all AEs lasted for a few days, without any apparent sequelae.

12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480773

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets, aerosols, or direct contact with fomites from an infected subject. It has been reported that SARS-CoV-2 is stable and viable in aerosol up to 16 h in controlled laboratory conditions. However, the aerosolization conditions varied a lot between the studies. In this work, an experimental laboratory model of SARS-CoV-2 aerosolization was established, employing an impinger nebulizer, a cylindrical chamber for aerosol travel, and a SKC biosampler for the collection of particles. The efficiency of the system was assessed based on the molecular determination of the viral load in the nebulizer after the aerosolization and in the aerosol collected at the end of the travel. Moreover, the residual infectivity was tested in vitro on the Vero E6 cell line, through the observation of the cytopathic effect (CPE), and the quantification of the viral load in the supernatants at 7 days post inoculation (dpi). A high RNA viral load was found in the SKC biosampler after aerosolization, indicating that it was possible to transport a high virus titer through the 30-cm chamber with all the dilutions (initial 105, 104, 103 plaque forming unit-PFU/mL). At the 7 dpi, an increment of the RNA viral load was determined for the dilutions 105 and 104 PFU/mL tested, while only the initial 105 PFU/mL resulted in visible CPE. Our findings allowed us to achieve the resilience of SARS-CoV-2 in aerosol form, at a concentration comparable to those reported for clinical samples. This mode of transmission should be considered for the mitigation and preventive measures to counteract SARS-CoV-2 spreading.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , Fomites , Humans , Laboratories
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374399

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets from positive subjects to susceptible hosts or by direct contact with an infected individual. Our study focuses on the in vitro minimal time of viral absorption as well as the minimal quantity of virus able to establish a persistent infection in Vero E6 cells. We observed that 1 min of in vitro virus exposure is sufficient to generate a cytopathic effect in cells after 7 days of infection, even at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) value of 0.01. Being aware that our findings have been obtained using an in vitro cellular model, we demonstrated that short-time exposures and low viral concentrations are able to cause infection, thus opening questions about the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility even following short contact times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Humans , Vero Cells
14.
J Nephrol ; 34(5): 1387-1403, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing in-centre haemodialysis (HD) are particularly exposed to the dire consequences of COVID-19. The present systematic scoping review aims to identify the extent, range, and nature of articles related to COVID-19 and maintenance HD: it reports specifically the prevalence of the COVID-19 pandemic in the HD population, implementation of strategies for the prevention, mitigation and containment of the COVID-19 pandemic in HD centres, demographic and clinical characteristics, and outcomes of the pediatric and adult HD patients. METHODS: A multi-step systematic search of the literature in Pubmed, Scopus, Ovid Medline, Embase and Web of Science, published between December 1, 2019, and January 30, 2021 was performed. Two authors separately screened the titles and abstracts of the documents and ruled out irrelevant articles. A report of the papers that met inclusion criteria was performed; then, a descriptive analysis of the characteristics of the included articles and a narrative synthesis of the results were performed. RESULTS: The review process ended with the inclusion of 145 articles. Most of them were based on single-centre experiences, which spontaneously developed best practices. Most studies were conducted in high-income countries (69.7%) and a part of them (9.6%) were not in English. Prevalence of COVID-19 among dialysis patients accounted for 0%-37.6%. Preventive measures were reported in 54% of the included articles, with particular emphasis on education, triage, hygiene, and containment measures. Patients experienced a heterogeneous spectrum of symptoms that led 35%-88.2% of them to hospital admission. Median and mean hospital length of stay ranged from 8 to 28.5 and 16.2 to 22 days, respectively. Admission to intensive care units varied widely across studies (from 2.6% to 70.5%) and was associated with high mortality (42.8%-100%). Overall, prognosis was poor in 0%-47% of the hospitalized patients. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic scoping review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the impact of COVID-19 on the frail world of HD patients. Furthermore, it may help to implement the existing strategies of COVID-19 prevention and provide a list of unmet needs (safe transport, testing, shelter). Finally, it may be a stimulus for performing systematic reviews and meta-analyses which will form the basis for evidence-based guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Child , Frail Elderly , Humans , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Hemodial Int ; 25(4): E53-E56, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299140

ABSTRACT

The immunological mechanisms that modulate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection remain elusive. Little is known on the magnitude and the durability of antibody response against COVID-19. There is consensus that patients with immune dysfunction, such as dialysis patients, may be unable to mount a robust and durable humoral immunity after infections. Recent studies showed that dialysis patients seroconverted after COVID-19, but data on the durability of the immune response are missing. We reported the data of a durable anti-spike protein seroconversion after natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in three patients on hemodialysis with a mean age of 67.2 ± 13.8 years. A mean antibody titer of 212.6 ± 174.9 UA/ml (Liaison®, DiaSorin) was found after one year (range, 366-374 days) from the diagnosis of COVID-19. In conclusion, this case series provided evidence that patients receiving hemodialysis who recovered from severe COVID-19 were able to mount a long-lasting immune response against SARS-CoV-2. Although the protective capacity of this long-term immunity remains to be determined, these patients did not report signs of reinfection after recovery from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Kidney Res Clin Pract ; 40(2): 231-240, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of within-day sCr variation serum creatinine variation is unknown in the setting of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated the prognostic significance of 24-hour serum creatinine variation in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A monocentric retrospective analysis was conducted in COVID-19 patients not admitted to the intensive care unit. Three groups were subdivided based on 24 hours serum creatinine variation from admission. In the stable kidney function group, 24-hour serum creatinine variation ranged from +0.05 to -0.05 mg/dL; in the decreased kidney function group, 24-hour serum creatinine variation was >0.05 mg/dL; in the improved kidney function group, 24-hour serum creatinine variation was <-0.05 mg/dL. RESULTS: The study population included 224 patients with a median age of 66.5 years and a predominance of males (72.3%). Within 24 hours of admission, renal function remained stable in 37.1% of the subjects, whereas it displayed improved and deteriorated patterns in 45.5% and 17.4%, respectively. Patients with decreased kidney function were older and had more severe COVID-19 symptoms than patients with stable or improved kidney function. About half of patients with decreased kidney function developed an episode of acute kidney injury (AKI) during hospitalization. Decreased kidney function was significantly associated with AKI during hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR], 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-10.8; p < 0.001) and was an independent risk factor for 30-day in-hospital mortality (HR, 5.5; 95% CI, 1.1-28; p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with decreased kidney function within 24 hours of admission were at high risk of AKI and 30-day in-hospital mortality.

19.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 25(11): 1203-1214, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a severe complication of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This study aims to evaluate incidence, risk factors and case-fatality rate of AKI in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We reviewed the health medical records of 307 consecutive patients with COVID-19 hospitalized at the University Hospital of Modena, Italy. RESULTS: AKI was diagnosed in 69 out of 307 (22.4%) COVID-19 patients. Stages 1, 2, or 3 AKI accounted for 57.9%, 24.6% and 17.3%, respectively. AKI patients had a mean age of 74.7 ± 9.9 years. These patients showed higher serum levels of the main markers of inflammation and higher rate of severe pneumonia than non-AKI patients. Kidney injury was associated with a higher rate of urinary abnormalities including proteinuria (0.44 ± 0.85 vs 0.18 ± 0.29 mg/mg; P = < 0.0001) and microscopic hematuria (P = 0.032) compared to non-AKI patients. Hemodialysis was performed in 7.2% of the subjects and 33.3% of the survivors did not recover kidney function after AKI. Risk factors for kidney injury were age, male sex, CKD and higher non-renal SOFA score. Patients with AKI had a mortality rate of 56.5%. Adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed that COVID-19-associated AKI was independently associated with in-hospital death (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.82; CI 95%, 1.36-17.08) compared to non-AKI patients. CONCLUSION: AKI was a common and harmful consequence of COVID-19. It manifested with urinary abnormalities (proteinuria, microscopic hematuria) and conferred an increased risk for death. Given the well-known short-term sequelae of AKI, prevention of kidney injury is imperative in this vulnerable cohort of patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hematuria/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proteinuria/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
20.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 54(2): 405-410, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265550

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acid-base derangement has been poorly described in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Considering the high prevalence of pneumonia and kidneys injury in COVID-19, frequent acid-base alterations are expected in patients admitted with SARS-Cov-2 infection. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of acid-base disorders in symptomatic patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19. METHODS: The retrospective study enrolled COVID-19 patients hospitalized at the University Hospital of Modena from 4 March to 20 June 2020. Baseline arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis was collected in 211 patients. In subjects with multiple ABG analysis, we selected only the first measurement. A pH of less than 7.37 was categorized as acidemia and a pH of more than 7.43 was categorized as alkalemia. RESULTS: ABG analyses revealed a low arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PO2, 70.2 ± 25.1 mmHg), oxygen saturation (SO2, 92%) and a mild reduction of PO2/FiO2 ratio (231 ± 129). Acid-base alterations were found in 79.7% of the patient. Metabolic alkalosis (33.6%) was the main alteration followed by respiratory alkalosis (30.3%), combined alkalosis (9.4%), respiratory acidosis (3.3%), metabolic acidosis (2.8%) and other compensated acid-base disturbances (3.6%). All six patients with metabolic acidosis died at the end of the follow-up. CONCLUSION: Variations of pH occurred in the majority (79.7%) of patients admitted with COVID-19. The patients experienced all the type of acid-base disorders, notably metabolic and respiratory alkalosis were the most common alterations in this group of patients.


Subject(s)
Acid-Base Imbalance/epidemiology , Acid-Base Imbalance/virology , COVID-19/complications , Acid-Base Imbalance/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
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