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1.
Learn Health Syst ; 6(4): e10342, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299148

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The learning health system (LHS) aligns science, informatics, incentives, stakeholders, and culture for continuous improvement and innovation. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute designed a K12 initiative to grow the number of LHS scientists. We describe approaches developed by 11 funded centers of excellence (COEs) to promote partnerships between scholars and health system leaders and to provide mentored research training. Methods: Since 2018, the COEs have enlisted faculty, secured institutional resources, partnered with health systems, developed and implemented curricula, recruited scholars, and provided mentored training. Program directors for each COE provided descriptive data on program context, scholar characteristics, stakeholder engagement, scholar experiences with health system partnerships, roles following program completion, and key training challenges. Results: To date, the 11 COEs have partnered with health systems to train 110 scholars. Nine (82%) programs partner with a Veterans Affairs health system and 9 (82%) partner with safety net providers. Clinically trained scholars (n = 87; 79%) include 70 physicians and 17 scholars in other clinical disciplines. Non-clinicians (n = 29; 26%) represent diverse fields, dominated by population health sciences. Stakeholder engagement helps scholars understand health system and patient/family needs and priorities, enabling opportunities to conduct embedded research, improve outcomes, and grow skills in translating research methods and findings into practice. Challenges include supporting scholars through roadblocks that threaten to derail projects during their limited program time, ranging from delays in access to data to COVID-19-related impediments and shifts in organizational priorities. Conclusions: Four years into this novel training program, there is evidence of scholars' accomplishments, both in traditional academic terms and in terms of moving along career trajectories that hold the potential to lead and accelerate transformational health system change. Future LHS training efforts should focus on sustainability, including organizational support for scholar activities.

2.
J Pediatr ; 257: 113358, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271796

ABSTRACT

Using an electronic health record-based algorithm, we identified children with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) based exclusively on serologic testing between March 2020 and April 2022. Compared with the 131 537 polymerase chain reaction-positive children, the 2714 serology-positive children were more likely to be inpatients (24% vs 2%), to have a chronic condition (37% vs 24%), and to have a diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (23% vs <1%). Identification of children who could have been asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic and not tested is critical to define the burden of post-acute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Electronic Health Records , Antibodies, Viral , Disease Progression , COVID-19 Testing
3.
JAMIA Open ; 6(1): ooad016, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269703

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Post-acute sequalae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) is not well defined in pediatrics given its heterogeneity of presentation and severity in this population. The aim of this study is to use novel methods that rely on data mining approaches rather than clinical experience to detect conditions and symptoms associated with pediatric PASC. Materials and Methods: We used a propensity-matched cohort design comparing children identified using the new PASC ICD10CM diagnosis code (U09.9) (N = 1309) to children with (N = 6545) and without (N = 6545) SARS-CoV-2 infection. We used a tree-based scan statistic to identify potential condition clusters co-occurring more frequently in cases than controls. Results: We found significant enrichment among children with PASC in cardiac, respiratory, neurologic, psychological, endocrine, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal systems, the most significant related to circulatory and respiratory such as dyspnea, difficulty breathing, and fatigue and malaise. Discussion: Our study addresses methodological limitations of prior studies that rely on prespecified clusters of potential PASC-associated diagnoses driven by clinician experience. Future studies are needed to identify patterns of diagnoses and their associations to derive clinical phenotypes. Conclusion: We identified multiple conditions and body systems associated with pediatric PASC. Because we rely on a data-driven approach, several new or under-reported conditions and symptoms were detected that warrant further investigation.

4.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 12(3): 159-162, 2023 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241829

ABSTRACT

Using electronic health record data combined with primary chart review, we identified seven children across nine participant pediatric medical centers with a diagnosis of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) managed exclusively as outpatients. These findings should raise awareness of mild presentations of MIS-C and the option of outpatient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Outpatients , Humans , Child , Cohort Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
5.
Nurs Res ; 71(6): 421-431, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nursing professional organizations and media sources indicated early in the pandemic that the physical and psychological effects of COVID-19 might be distinct and possibly greater in nurses than in other types of healthcare workers (HCWs). OBJECTIVES: Based on survey data collected in Healthcare Worker Exposure Response and Outcomes (HERO), a national registry of U.S. HCWs, this study compared the self-reported experiences of nurses with other HCWs during the first 13 months of the pandemic. METHODS: Nurse responses were compared to responses of nonnurse HCWs in terms of viral exposure, testing and infection, access to personal protective equipment (PPE), burnout, and well-being. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between nurse and nonnurse roles for the binary end points of viral testing and test positivity for COVID-19. We also examined differences by race/ethnicity and high-risk versus low-risk practice settings. RESULTS: Of 24,343 HCWs in the registry, one third self-identified as nurses. Nurses were more likely than other HCWs to report exposure to SARS-CoV-2, problems accessing PPE, and decreased personal well-being, including burnout, feeling tired, stress, trouble sleeping, and worry. In adjusted models, nurses were more likely than nonnurse HCWs to report viral testing and test positivity for COVID-19 infection. Nurses in high-risk settings were more likely to report viral exposure and symptoms related to well-being; nurses in low-risk settings were more likely to report viral testing and test positivity. Black or Hispanic nurses were most likely to report test positivity. DISCUSSION: Differences were identified between nurses and nonnurse HCWs in access to PPE, physical and mental well-being measures, and likelihood of reporting exposure and infection. Among nurses, testing and infection differed based on race and ethnicity, and type of work setting. Our findings suggest further research and policy are needed to elucidate and address social and occupational disparities.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Health Personnel/psychology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Registries
6.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1626, 2022 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038697

ABSTRACT

Many factors influence the health and well-being of children and the adults they will become. Yet there are significant gaps in how trajectories of healthy development are measured, how the potential for leading a healthy life is evaluated, and how that information can guide upstream policies and investments. The Gross Developmental Potential (GDP2) is proposed as a new capabilities-based framework for assessing threats to thriving and understanding progress in achieving lifelong health and wellbeing. Moving beyond the Gross Domestic Product's (GDP) focus on economic productivity as a measure of progress, the GDP2 focuses on seven essential developmental capabilities for lifelong health and wellbeing. The GDP2 capability domains include Health -living a healthy life; Needs-satisfying basic human requirements; Communication-expressing and understanding thoughts and feelings; Learning-lifelong learning; Adaption -adapting to change; Connections -connecting with others; and Community -engaging in the community. The project team utilized literature reviews and meetings with the subject and technical experts to develop the framework. The framework was then vetted in focus groups of community leaders from three diverse settings. The community leaders' input refined the domains and their applications. This prototype GDP2 framework will next be used to develop specific measures and indices and guide the development of community-level GDP2 dashboards for local sense-making, learning, and application.


Subject(s)
Health Status , Learning , Adult , Child , Emotions , Humans
7.
JAMA Pediatr ; 176(10): 1000-1009, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1999806

ABSTRACT

Importance: The postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) has emerged as a long-term complication in adults, but current understanding of the clinical presentation of PASC in children is limited. Objective: To identify diagnosed symptoms, diagnosed health conditions, and medications associated with PASC in children. Design, Setting and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used electronic health records from 9 US children's hospitals for individuals younger than 21 years who underwent antigen or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing for SARS-CoV-2 between March 1, 2020, and October 31, 2021, and had at least 1 encounter in the 3 years before testing. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 positivity by viral test (antigen or RT-PCR). Main Outcomes and Measures: Syndromic (symptoms), systemic (conditions), and medication PASC features were identified in the 28 to 179 days following the initial test date. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were obtained for 151 clinically predicted PASC features by contrasting viral test-positive groups with viral test-negative groups using proportional hazards models, adjusting for site, age, sex, testing location, race and ethnicity, and time period of cohort entrance. The incidence proportion for any syndromic, systemic, or medication PASC feature was estimated in the 2 groups to obtain a burden of PASC estimate. Results: Among 659 286 children in the study sample, 348 091 (52.8%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 8.1 (5.7) years. A total of 59 893 (9.1%) tested positive by viral test for SARS-CoV-2, and 599 393 (90.9%) tested negative. Most were tested in outpatient testing facility settings (322 813 [50.3%]) or office settings (162 138 [24.6%]). The most common syndromic, systemic, and medication features were loss of taste or smell (aHR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.16-3.32), myocarditis (aHR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.94-4.96), and cough and cold preparations (aHR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.18-1.96), respectively. The incidence of at least 1 systemic, syndromic, or medication feature of PASC was 41.9% (95% CI, 41.4-42.4) among viral test-positive children vs 38.2% (95% CI, 38.1-38.4) among viral test-negative children, with an incidence proportion difference of 3.7% (95% CI, 3.2-4.2). A higher strength of association for PASC was identified in those cared for in the intensive care unit during the acute illness phase, children younger than 5 years, and individuals with complex chronic conditions. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large-scale, exploratory study, the burden of pediatric PASC that presented to health systems was low. Myocarditis was the most commonly diagnosed PASC-associated condition. Acute illness severity, young age, and comorbid complex chronic disease increased the risk of PASC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
EClinicalMedicine ; 45: 101314, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828404

ABSTRACT

Background: The extent to which healthcare worker (HCWs) experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic vary by race or ethnicity after adjustment for confounding factors is not currently known. Methods: We performed an observational prospective cohort study of 24,769 healthcare workers from 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, enrolled between April 10, 2020 and June 30, 2021, and evaluated participant experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic, including testing, diagnosis with COVID-19, emotional experiences, burnout, and interest in vaccines and vaccine clinical trials. Findings: After adjustment for professional role, medical history, and community characteristics, Black and Asian participants were less likely to receive SARS-CoV-2 viral testing (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0·82 [0·70, 0·96], p=0·012 and aOR 0·77 [0·67, 0·89], p<0·001 respectively) than White participants. Hispanic participants were more likely to have evidence of COVID-19 infection (aOR 1·23 (1·00, 1·50, p=0·048). Black and Asian participants were less likely to report interest in a COVID-19 vaccine (aOR 0·11 [0·05, 0·25], p<0·001 and aOR 0·48 [0·27, 0·85] p=0·012). Black participants were less likely to report interest in participating in a COVID-19 vaccine trial (aOR = 0·39 [0·28, 0·54], p<0·001). Black participants were also less likely to report 3 or more daily emotional impacts of COVID-19 (aOR = 0·66 [0·53, 0·82], p=<0·001). Black participants were additionally less likely to report burnout (aOR = 0·66 ([0·49, 0·95], p=0·025). Interpretation: In a large, national study of healthcare workers, after adjustment for individual and community characteristics, race/ethnicity disparities in COVID-19 outcomes persist. Future work is urgently needed to understand precise mechanisms behind these disparities and to develop and implement targeted interventions to improve health equity for healthcare workers. Funding: This work was funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), Contract # COVID-19-2020-001.

9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(14): 517-523, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780340

ABSTRACT

Cardiac complications, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis, have been associated with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) infection (1-3) and mRNA COVID-19 vaccination (2-5). Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) is a rare but serious complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection with frequent cardiac involvement (6). Using electronic health record (EHR) data from 40 U.S. health care systems during January 1, 2021-January 31, 2022, investigators calculated incidences of cardiac outcomes (myocarditis; myocarditis or pericarditis; and myocarditis, pericarditis, or MIS) among persons aged ≥5 years who had SARS-CoV-2 infection, stratified by sex (male or female) and age group (5-11, 12-17, 18-29, and ≥30 years). Incidences of myocarditis and myocarditis or pericarditis were calculated after first, second, unspecified, or any (first, second, or unspecified) dose of mRNA COVID-19 (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] or mRNA-1273 [Moderna]) vaccines, stratified by sex and age group. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated to compare risk for cardiac outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection to that after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. The incidence of cardiac outcomes after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was highest for males aged 12-17 years after the second vaccine dose; however, within this demographic group, the risk for cardiac outcomes was 1.8-5.6 times as high after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after the second vaccine dose. The risk for cardiac outcomes was likewise significantly higher after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after first, second, or unspecified dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccination for all other groups by sex and age (RR 2.2-115.2). These findings support continued use of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines among all eligible persons aged ≥5 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
10.
Pediatrics ; 149(4)2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760012

ABSTRACT

This national study evaluated trends in illness severity among 82 798 children with coronavirus disease 2019 from March 1, 2020, to December 30, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Patient Acuity , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 109: 106525, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS CoV-2 virus has caused one of the deadliest pandemics in recent history, resulting in over 170 million deaths and global economic disruption. There remains an urgent need for clinical trials to test therapies for treatment and prevention. DESIGN: An online research platform was created to support a registry community of healthcare workers (HCWs) to understand their experiences and conduct clinical studies to address their concerns. The first study, HERO-HCQ, was a double-blind, multicenter, randomized, pragmatic trial to evaluate the superiority of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) vs placebo for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of COVID-19 clinical infection in HCWs. Secondary objectives were to assess the efficacy of HCQ in preventing viral shedding of COVID-19 among HCWs and to assess the safety and tolerability of HCQ. METHODS: HCWs joined the Registry and were pre-screened for trial interest and eligibility. Trial participants were randomized 1:1 to receive HCQ or placebo. On-site baseline assessment included a COVID-19 nasopharyngeal PCR and blood serology test. Weekly follow-up was done via an online portal and included screening for symptoms of COVID-19, self-reported testing, adverse events, and quality of life assessments. The on-site visit was repeated at Day 30. DISCUSSION: The HERO research platform offers an approach to rapidly engage, screen, invite and enroll into clinical studies using a novel participant-facing online portal interface and remote data collection, enabling limited onsite procedures for conduct of a pragmatic clinical trial. This platform may be an example for future clinical trials of common conditions to enable more rapid evidence generation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(5): 1319-1326, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The HERO registry was established to support research on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on US healthcare workers. OBJECTIVE: Describe the COVID-19 pandemic experiences of and effects on individuals participating in the HERO registry. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, self-administered registry enrollment survey conducted from April 10 to July 31, 2020. SETTING: Participants worked in hospitals (74.4%), outpatient clinics (7.4%), and other settings (18.2%) located throughout the nation. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 14,600 healthcare workers. MAIN MEASURES: COVID-19 exposure, viral and antibody testing, diagnosis of COVID-19, job burnout, and physical and emotional distress. KEY RESULTS: Mean age was 42.0 years, 76.4% were female, 78.9% were White, 33.2% were nurses, 18.4% were physicians, and 30.3% worked in settings at high risk for COVID-19 exposure (e.g., ICUs, EDs, COVID-19 units). Overall, 43.7% reported a COVID-19 exposure and 91.3% were exposed at work. Just 3.8% in both high- and low-risk settings experienced COVID-19 illness. In regression analyses controlling for demographics, professional role, and work setting, the risk of COVID-19 illness was higher for Black/African-Americans (aOR 2.32, 99% CI 1.45, 3.70, p < 0.01) and Hispanic/Latinos (aOR 2.19, 99% CI 1.55, 3.08, p < 0.01) compared with Whites. Overall, 41% responded that they were experiencing job burnout. Responding about the day before they completed the survey, 53% of participants reported feeling tired a lot of the day, 51% stress, 41% trouble sleeping, 38% worry, 21% sadness, 19% physical pain, and 15% anger. On average, healthcare workers reported experiencing 2.4 of these 7 distress feelings a lot of the day. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare workers are at high risk for COVID-19 exposure, but rates of COVID-19 illness were low. The greater risk of COVID-19 infection among race/ethnicity minorities reported in the general population is also seen in healthcare workers. The HERO registry will continue to monitor changes in healthcare worker well-being during the pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT04342806.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
13.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(2): 176-184, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068645

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is limited information on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing and infection among pediatric patients across the United States. Objective: To describe testing for SARS-CoV-2 and the epidemiology of infected patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using electronic health record data from 135 794 patients younger than 25 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 from January 1 through September 8, 2020. Data were from PEDSnet, a network of 7 US pediatric health systems, comprising 6.5 million patients primarily from 11 states. Data analysis was performed from September 8 to 24, 2020. Exposure: Testing for SARS-CoV-2. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness. Results: A total of 135 794 pediatric patients (53% male; mean [SD] age, 8.8 [6.7] years; 3% Asian patients, 15% Black patients, 11% Hispanic patients, and 59% White patients; 290 per 10 000 population [range, 155-395 per 10 000 population across health systems]) were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and 5374 (4%) were infected with the virus (12 per 10 000 population [range, 7-16 per 10 000 population]). Compared with White patients, those of Black, Hispanic, and Asian race/ethnicity had lower rates of testing (Black: odds ratio [OR], 0.70 [95% CI, 0.68-0.72]; Hispanic: OR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.63-0.67]; Asian: OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.57-0.63]); however, they were significantly more likely to have positive test results (Black: OR, 2.66 [95% CI, 2.43-2.90]; Hispanic: OR, 3.75 [95% CI, 3.39-4.15]; Asian: OR, 2.04 [95% CI, 1.69-2.48]). Older age (5-11 years: OR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.13-1.38]; 12-17 years: OR, 1.92 [95% CI, 1.73-2.12]; 18-24 years: OR, 3.51 [95% CI, 3.11-3.97]), public payer (OR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.31-1.57]), outpatient testing (OR, 2.13 [1.86-2.44]), and emergency department testing (OR, 3.16 [95% CI, 2.72-3.67]) were also associated with increased risk of infection. In univariate analyses, nonmalignant chronic disease was associated with lower likelihood of testing, and preexisting respiratory conditions were associated with lower risk of positive test results (standardized ratio [SR], 0.78 [95% CI, 0.73-0.84]). However, several other diagnosis groups were associated with a higher risk of positive test results: malignant disorders (SR, 1.54 [95% CI, 1.19-1.93]), cardiac disorders (SR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.05-1.32]), endocrinologic disorders (SR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.31-1.75]), gastrointestinal disorders (SR, 2.00 [95% CI, 1.04-1.38]), genetic disorders (SR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.00-1.40]), hematologic disorders (SR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.06-1.47]), musculoskeletal disorders (SR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.07-1.30]), mental health disorders (SR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.10-1.30]), and metabolic disorders (SR, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.24-1.61]). Among the 5374 patients with positive test results, 359 (7%) were hospitalized for respiratory, hypotensive, or COVID-19-specific illness. Of these, 99 (28%) required intensive care unit services, and 33 (9%) required mechanical ventilation. The case fatality rate was 0.2% (8 of 5374). The number of patients with a diagnosis of Kawasaki disease in early 2020 was 40% lower (259 vs 433 and 430) than in 2018 or 2019. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large cohort study of US pediatric patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection rates were low, and clinical manifestations were typically mild. Black, Hispanic, and Asian race/ethnicity; adolescence and young adulthood; and nonrespiratory chronic medical conditions were associated with identified infection. Kawasaki disease diagnosis is not an effective proxy for multisystem inflammatory syndrome of childhood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Socioeconomic Factors , United States , Young Adult
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