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2022 IEEE International Symposium on Workload Characterization, IISWC 2022 ; : 185-198, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2191945
IEEEE Southeast Conference (SoutheastCon) ; : 707-711, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1398291
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e23948, 2021 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133811


BACKGROUND: Effectively and efficiently diagnosing patients who have COVID-19 with the accurate clinical type of the disease is essential to achieve optimal outcomes for the patients as well as to reduce the risk of overloading the health care system. Currently, severe and nonsevere COVID-19 types are differentiated by only a few features, which do not comprehensively characterize the complicated pathological, physiological, and immunological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection in the different disease types. In addition, these type-defining features may not be readily testable at the time of diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to use a machine learning approach to understand COVID-19 more comprehensively, accurately differentiate severe and nonsevere COVID-19 clinical types based on multiple medical features, and provide reliable predictions of the clinical type of the disease. METHODS: For this study, we recruited 214 confirmed patients with nonsevere COVID-19 and 148 patients with severe COVID-19. The clinical characteristics (26 features) and laboratory test results (26 features) upon admission were acquired as two input modalities. Exploratory analyses demonstrated that these features differed substantially between two clinical types. Machine learning random forest models based on all the features in each modality as well as on the top 5 features in each modality combined were developed and validated to differentiate COVID-19 clinical types. RESULTS: Using clinical and laboratory results independently as input, the random forest models achieved >90% and >95% predictive accuracy, respectively. The importance scores of the input features were further evaluated, and the top 5 features from each modality were identified (age, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, gender, and diabetes for the clinical features modality, and dimerized plasmin fragment D, high sensitivity troponin I, absolute neutrophil count, interleukin 6, and lactate dehydrogenase for the laboratory testing modality, in descending order). Using these top 10 multimodal features as the only input instead of all 52 features combined, the random forest model was able to achieve 97% predictive accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings shed light on how the human body reacts to SARS-CoV-2 infection as a unit and provide insights on effectively evaluating the disease severity of patients with COVID-19 based on more common medical features when gold standard features are not available. We suggest that clinical information can be used as an initial screening tool for self-evaluation and triage, while laboratory test results should be applied when accuracy is the priority.

COVID-19 , Machine Learning , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Triage , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Reproducibility of Results
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.08.18.20176776


Effectively identifying COVID-19 patients using non-PCR clinical data is critical for the optimal clinical outcomes. Currently, there is a lack of comprehensive understanding of various biomedical features and appropriate technical approaches to accurately detecting COVID-19 patients. In this study, we recruited 214 confirmed COVID-19 patients in non-severe (NS) and 148 in severe (S) clinical type, 198 non-infected healthy (H) participants and 129 non-COVID viral pneumonia (V) patients. The participants' clinical information (23 features), lab testing results (10 features), and thoracic CT scans upon admission were acquired as three input feature modalities. To enable late fusion of multimodality data, we developed a deep learning model to extract a 10-feature high-level representation of the CT scans. Exploratory analyses showed substantial differences of all features among the four classes. Three machine learning models (k-nearest neighbor kNN, random forest RF, and support vector machine SVM) were developed based on the 43 features combined from all three modalities to differentiate four classes (NS, S, V, and H) at once. All three models had high accuracy to differentiate the overall four classes (95.4%-97.7%) and each individual class (90.6%-99.9%). Multimodal features provided substantial performance gain from using any single feature modality. Compared to existing binary classification benchmarks often focusing on single feature modality, this study provided a novel and effective breakthrough for clinical applications. Findings and the analytical workflow can be used as clinical decision support for current COVID-19 and other clinical applications with high-dimensional multimodal biomedical features.

Learning Disabilities , COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral