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1.
Encephale ; 47(6): 564-588, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385533

ABSTRACT

The use of psychotropics during the COVID-19 pandemic has raised two questions, in order of importance: first, what changes should be made to pharmacological treatments prescribed to mental health patients? Secondly, are there any positive side effects of these substances against SARS-CoV-2? Our aim was to analyze usage safety of psychotropics during COVID-19; therefore, herein, we have studied: (i) the risk of symptomatic complications of COVID-19 associated with the use of these drugs, notably central nervous system activity depression, QTc interval enlargement and infectious and thromboembolic complications; (ii) the risk of mistaking the iatrogenic impact of psychotropics with COVID-19 symptoms, causing diagnostic error. Moreover, we provided a summary of the different information available today for these risks, categorized by mental health disorder, for the following: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, ADHD, sleep disorders and suicidal risk. The matter of psychoactive substance use during the pandemic is also analyzed in this paper, and guideline websites and publications for psychotropic treatments in the context of COVID-19 are referenced during the text, so that changes on those guidelines and eventual interaction between psychotropics and COVID-19 treatment medication can be reported and studied. Finally, we also provide a literature review of the latest known antiviral properties of psychotropics against SARS-CoV-2 as complementary information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Psychotropic Drugs/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S107-S113, 2020 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065060

ABSTRACT

Emerging infectious diseases like Covid-19 cause a major threat to global health. When confronted with new pathogens, individuals generate several beliefs about the epidemic phenomenon. Many studies have shown that individual protective behaviors largely depend on these beliefs. Due to the absence of treatment and vaccine against these emerging pathogens, the relation between these beliefs and these behaviors represents a crucial issue for public health policies. In the premises of the Covid-19 pandemic, several preliminary studies have highlighted a delay in the perception of risk by individuals, which potentially holds back the implementing of the necessary precautionary measures: people underestimated the risks associated with the virus, and therefore also the importance of complying with sanitary guidelines. During the peak of the pandemic, the salience of the threat and of the risk of mortality could then have transformed the way people generate their beliefs. This potentially leads to upheavals in the way they understand the world. Here, we propose to explore the evolution of beliefs and behaviors during the Covid-19 crisis, using the theory of predictive coding and the theory of terror management, two influential frameworks in cognitive science and in social psychology.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Brain/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Culture , Fear/psychology , Health Behavior , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Denial, Psychological , Guideline Adherence , Guidelines as Topic , Health Risk Behaviors , Humans , Hygiene , Models, Psychological , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Protective Devices , Risk Management , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2 , Universal Precautions
3.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S116-S118, 2020 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065050

ABSTRACT

French recommendations have been proposed for psychotropics use and possible adaptations during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. Between uncertainties linked to the lack of data and speculations about possible benefits of psychotropics against the coronavirus, we propose here elements allowing to base the pharmacotherapeutic decisions potentially useful in Covid+ patients with psychiatric disorders.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Anti-Anxiety Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dyspnea/chemically induced , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/adverse effects , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychotropic Drugs/adverse effects , Psychotropic Drugs/pharmacology , Respiration/drug effects , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S14-S34, 2020 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065047

ABSTRACT

The 2019-20 coronavirus pandemic (SARS-CoV-2; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) has dramatic consequences on populations in terms of morbidity and mortality and in social terms, the general confinement of almost half of the world's population being a situation unprecedented in history, which is difficult today to measure the impact at the individual and collective levels. More specifically, it affects people with various risk factors, which are more frequent in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. Psychiatrists need to know: (i) how to identify, the risks associated with the prescription of psychotropic drugs and which can prove to be counterproductive in their association with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), (ii) how to assess in terms of benefit/risk ratio, the implication of any hasty and brutal modification on psychotropic drugs that can induce confusion for a differential diagnosis with the evolution of COVID-19. We carried out a review of the literature aimed at assessing the specific benefit/risk ratio of psychotropic treatments in patients suffering from COVID-19. Clinically, symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 (fever, cough, dyspnea, digestive signs) can be caused by various psychotropic drugs and require vigilance to avoid false negatives and false positives. In infected patients, psychotropic drugs should be used with caution, especially in the elderly, considering the pulmonary risk. Lithium and Clozapine, which are the reference drugs in bipolar disorder and resistant schizophrenia, warrant specific attention. For these two treatments the possibility of a reduction in the dosage - in case of minimal infectious signs and in a situation, which does not allow rapid control - should ideally be considered taking into account the clinical response (even biological; plasma concentrations) observed in the face of previous dose reductions. Tobacco is well identified for its effects as an inducer of CYP1A2 enzyme. In a COVID+ patient, the consequences of an abrupt cessation of smoking, particularly related with the appearance of respiratory symptoms (cough, dyspnea), must therefore be anticipated for patients receiving psychotropics metabolized by CYP1A2. Plasma concentrations of these drugs are expected to decrease and can be related to an increase risk of relapse. The symptomatic treatments used in COVID-19 have frequent interactions with the most used psychotropics. If there is no curative treatment for infection to SARS-CoV-2, the interactions of the various molecules currently tested with several classes of psychotropic drugs (antidepressants, antipsychotics) are important to consider because of the risk of changes in cardiac conduction. Specific knowledge on COVID-19 remains poor today, but we must recommend rigor in this context in the use of psychotropic drugs, to avoid adding, in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, potentially vulnerable in the epidemic context, an iatrogenic risk or loss of efficiency.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Age Factors , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biotransformation , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Comorbidity , Continuity of Patient Care , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2/metabolism , Drug Interactions , Fever/chemically induced , France/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/chemically induced , Humans , Mental Disorders/chemically induced , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pharmaceutical Preparations/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychotropic Drugs/administration & dosage , Psychotropic Drugs/adverse effects , Psychotropic Drugs/pharmacokinetics , Respiration Disorders/chemically induced , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking Cessation , Symptom Assessment
5.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S3-S13, 2020 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065044

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The lack of ressources and coordination to face the epidemic of coronavirus raises concerns for the health of patients with mental disorders in a country where we keep in memory the dramatic experience of famine in psychiatric hospitals during the Second World War. This article aims at proposing guidance to ensure mental health care during the SARS-CoV epidemy in France. METHODS: Authors performed a narrative review identifying relevant results in the scientific and medical literature and local initiatives in France. RESULTS: We identified four types of major vulnerabilities in patients suffering from mental disorders during this pandemic: (1) medical comorbidities that are more frequently found in patients suffering from mental disorders (cardiovascular and pulmonary pathologies, diabetes, obesity, etc.) which represent risk factors for severe infections with Covid-19; (2) age (the elderly constituting the population most vulnerable to coronavirus); (3) cognitive and behavioral troubles which can hamper compliance with confinement and hygiene measures and finally and (4) psychosocial vulnerability due to stigmatization and/or socio-economic difficulties. Furthermore, the mental health healthcare system is more vulnerable than other healthcare systems. Current government plans are poorly adapted to psychiatric establishments in a context of major shortage of organizational, material and human resources. In addition, a certain number of structural aspects make the psychiatric institution particularly vulnerable: many beds are closed, wards have a high density of patients, mental health community facilities are closed, medical teams are understaffed and poorly trained to face infectious diseases. We could also face major issues in referring patients with acute mental disorders to intensive care units. To maintain continuity of psychiatric care in this pandemic situation, several directions can be considered, in particular with the creation of Covid+ units. These units are under the dual supervision of a psychiatrist and of an internist/infectious disease specialist; all new entrants should be placed in quarantine for 14 days; the nurse staff should benefit from specific training, from daily medical check-ups and from close psychological support. Family visits would be prohibited and replaced by videoconference. At the end of hospitalization, in particular for the population of patients in compulsory ambulatory care situations, specific case-management should be organized with the possibility of home visits, in order to support them when they get back home and to help them to cope with the experience of confinement, which is at risk to induce recurrences of mental disorders. The total or partial closure of mental health community facilities is particularly disturbing for patients but a regular follow-up is possible with telemedicine and should include the monitoring of the suicide risk and psychoeducation strategies; developing support platforms could also be very helpful in this context. Private psychiatrists have also a crucial role of information with their patients on confinement and barrier measures, but also on measures to prevent the psychological risks inherent to confinement: maintenance of sleep regularity, physical exercise, social interactions, stress management and coping strategies, prevention of addictions, etc. They should also be trained to prevent, detect and treat early warning symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, because their prevalence was high in the regions of China most affected by the pandemic. DISCUSSION: French mental healthcare is now in a great and urgent need for reorganization and must also prepare in the coming days and weeks to face an epidemic of emotional disorders due to the containment of the general population.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Continuity of Patient Care/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aftercare , Age Factors , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Child , Cognition Disorders/epidemiology , Cognition Disorders/therapy , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Drug Interactions , France/epidemiology , Hospital Units/organization & administration , Hospitals, Psychiatric/organization & administration , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Health Services/supply & distribution , Patient Care Team , Patient Compliance , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prisoners/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Suicide/prevention & control , Vulnerable Populations
6.
Revue Medicale de Liege ; 75(S1):159-160, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-931991

ABSTRACT

The construction of pharmacological guidelines is a complex endeavor, and this is all the truer amidst a health crisis such as the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In psychiatric settings, guidelines have to consider the handling of other drugs (i.e., psychotropic medications), that have been suggested as potentially prophylactic for COVID-19. These dialectics are discussed here, and the methodological foundations used for the elaboration of guidelines are put forward.

7.
Encephale ; 46(3): 193-201, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888503

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The lack of resources and coordination to face the coronavirus epidemic raises concerns for the health of patients with mental disorders in a country where we still have memories of the dramatic experience of famine in psychiatric hospitals during the Second World War. This article aims to propose guidance to ensure mental health care during the SARS-CoV epidemic in France. METHODS: The authors performed a narrative review identifying relevant results in the scientific and medical literature and in local initiatives in France. RESULTS: We identified four types of major vulnerabilities among patients with mental disorders during this pandemic: (1) medical comorbidities that are more frequently found among patients with mental disorders (cardiovascular and pulmonary pathologies, diabetes, obesity, etc.) which are risk factors for severe covid-19 infection; (2) age (the elderly form the population most vulnerable to the coronavirus); (3) cognitive and behavioural disorders, which can hamper compliance with confinement and hygiene measures and finally and (4) psychosocial vulnerability as a result of stigmatization and/or socio-economic difficulties. Furthermore, the mental health healthcare system is more vulnerable than other healthcare systems. Current government plans are poorly suited to psychiatric establishments in a context of major shortages of organizational, material and human resources. In addition, a certain number of structural aspects make the psychiatric institution particularly vulnerable: many beds have been closed, wards have high densities of patients, mental health community facilities are closed, and medical teams are understaffed and poorly trained to face infectious diseases. There are also major issues when referring patients with acute mental disorders to intensive care units. To maintain the continuity of psychiatric care in this pandemic situation, several directions can be considered, in particular with the creation of "COVID+ units". These units are under the dual supervision of a psychiatrist and an internist/infectious disease specialist; all new entrants are placed in quarantine for 14 days; the nursing staff receives specific training, daily medical check-ups and close psychological support. Family visits are prohibited and replaced by videoconference. At the end of hospitalization, in particular for the population of patients in compulsory ambulatory care situations, specific case-management are organized with the possibility of home visits, in order to support patients when they get back home and to help them cope with the experience of confinement, which is liable to induce recurrences of mental disorders. The total or partial closure of community mental health facilities is particularly disturbing for patients, but a regular follow-up is possible with telemedicine and should include the monitoring of suicide risk and psycho-education strategies; developing support platforms could also be very helpful in this context. Private practice psychiatrists also have a crucial role of information towards their patients on confinement and barrier measures, and also on measures to prevent the psychological risks inherent in confinement: maintenance of regular sleep r, physical exercise, social interactions, stress management and coping strategies, prevention of addictions, etc. They should also be trained to prevent, detect and treat early warning symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, because their prevalence was high in the regions of China most affected by the pandemic. DISCUSSION: French mental healthcare is now facing a great and urgent need for reorganization and must also prepare in the coming days and weeks to face an epidemic of emotional disorders due to the confinement of the general population.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Epidemics , France/epidemiology , Hospitals, Psychiatric/organization & administration , Hospitals, Psychiatric/standards , Hospitals, Psychiatric/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Pandemics , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/therapy , Quarantine/psychology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/statistics & numerical data
8.
Eur J Neurol ; 27(12): 2651-2657, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799153

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this paper is to describe the clinical features of COVID-19-related encephalopathy and their metabolic correlates using brain 2-desoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A variety of neurological manifestations have been reported in association with COVID-19. COVID-19-related encephalopathy has seldom been reported and studied. METHODS: We report four cases of COVID-19-related encephalopathy. The diagnosis was made in patients with confirmed COVID-19 who presented with new-onset cognitive disturbances, central focal neurological signs, or seizures. All patients underwent cognitive screening, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), lumbar puncture, and brain 2-desoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) (FDG-PET/CT). RESULTS: The four patients were aged 60 years or older, and presented with various degrees of cognitive impairment, with predominant frontal lobe impairment. Two patients presented with cerebellar syndrome, one patient had myoclonus, one had psychiatric manifestations, and one had status epilepticus. The delay between first COVID-19 symptoms and onset of neurological symptoms was between 0 and 12 days. None of the patients had MRI features of encephalitis nor significant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in the CSF was negative for all patients. All patients presented with a consistent brain FDG-PET/CT pattern of abnormalities, namely frontal hypometabolism and cerebellar hypermetabolism. All patients improved after immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Despite varied clinical presentations, all patients presented with a consistent FDG-PET pattern, which may reflect an immune mechanism.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Brain Diseases/psychology , Brain Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebellar Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cerebellar Diseases/etiology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Frontal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Immunotherapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Middle Aged , Myoclonus/diagnostic imaging , Myoclonus/etiology , Neuropsychological Tests , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals , Status Epilepticus/etiology , Treatment Outcome
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