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1.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 809997, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952270

ABSTRACT

Background: Studies examining outcomes among individuals with COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have consistently demonstrated that men have worse outcomes than women, with a higher incidence of myocardial injury, respiratory failure, and death. However, mechanisms of higher morbidity and mortality among men remain poorly understood. We aimed to identify mediators of the relationship between sex and COVID-19-associated mortality. Methods: Patients hospitalized at two quaternary care facilities, New York Presbyterian Hospital (CUIMC/NYPH) and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), for SARS-CoV-2 infection between February and May 2020 were included. Five independent biomarkers were identified as mediators of sex effects, including high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTNT), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), ferritin, D-dimer, and creatinine. Results: In the CUIMC/NYPH cohort (n = 2,626, 43% female), male sex was associated with significantly greater mortality (26 vs. 21%, p = 0.0146) and higher peak hs-cTNT, hs-CRP, ferritin, D-dimer, and creatinine (p < 0.001). The effect of male sex on the primary outcome of death was partially mediated by peak values of all five biomarkers, suggesting that each pathophysiological pathway may contribute to increased risk of death in men. Hs-cTnT, creatinine, and hs-CRP were the strongest mediators. Findings were highly consistent in the MGH cohort with the exception of D-dimer. Conclusions: This study suggests that the effect of sex on COVID-19 outcomes is mediated by cardiac and kidney injury, as well as underlying differences in inflammation and iron metabolism. Exploration of these specific pathways may facilitate sex-directed diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for patients with COVID-19 and provides a framework for the study of sex differences in other complex diseases.

2.
Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824169

ABSTRACT

Background Studies examining outcomes among individuals with COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have consistently demonstrated that men have worse outcomes than women, with a higher incidence of myocardial injury, respiratory failure, and death. However, mechanisms of higher morbidity and mortality among men remain poorly understood. We aimed to identify mediators of the relationship between sex and COVID-19-associated mortality. Methods Patients hospitalized at two quaternary care facilities, New York Presbyterian Hospital (CUIMC/NYPH) and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), for SARS-CoV-2 infection between February and May 2020 were included. Five independent biomarkers were identified as mediators of sex effects, including high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTNT), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), ferritin, D-dimer, and creatinine. Results In the CUIMC/NYPH cohort (n = 2,626, 43% female), male sex was associated with significantly greater mortality (26 vs. 21%, p = 0.0146) and higher peak hs-cTNT, hs-CRP, ferritin, D-dimer, and creatinine (p < 0.001). The effect of male sex on the primary outcome of death was partially mediated by peak values of all five biomarkers, suggesting that each pathophysiological pathway may contribute to increased risk of death in men. Hs-cTnT, creatinine, and hs-CRP were the strongest mediators. Findings were highly consistent in the MGH cohort with the exception of D-dimer. Conclusions This study suggests that the effect of sex on COVID-19 outcomes is mediated by cardiac and kidney injury, as well as underlying differences in inflammation and iron metabolism. Exploration of these specific pathways may facilitate sex-directed diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for patients with COVID-19 and provides a framework for the study of sex differences in other complex diseases.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 225(1): 19-29, 2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606548

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Statins may be protective in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of in-hospital statin use on 28-day mortality rates and intensive care unit (ICU) admission among patients with SARS-CoV-2, stratified into 4 groups: those who used statins before hospitalization (treatment continued or discontinued in the hospital) and those who did not (treatment newly initiated in the hospital or never initiated). METHODS: In a cohort study of 1179 patients with SARS-CoV-2, record review was used to assess demographics, laboratory measurements, comorbid conditions, and time from admission to death, ICU admission, or discharge. Using marginal structural Cox models, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for death and ICU admission. RESULTS: Among 1179 patients, 676 (57%) were male, 443 (37%) were >65 years old, and 493 (46%) had a body mass index ≥30 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). Inpatient statin use reduced the hazard of death (HR, 0.566; P=.008). This association held among patients who did and those who did not use statins before hospitalization (HR, 0.270 [P=.003] and 0.493 [P=.04], respectively). Statin use was associated with improved time to death for patients aged >65 years but not for those ≤65 years old. CONCLUSION: Statin use during hospitalization for SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with reduced 28-day mortality rates. Well-designed randomized control trials are needed to better define this relationship.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Dyslipidemias/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Neurology ; 98(3): e315-e325, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), disorders of consciousness (DoC) have emerged as a serious complication. The prognosis and pathophysiology of COVID-DoC remain unclear, complicating decisions about continuing life-sustaining treatment. We describe the natural history of COVID-DoC and investigate its associated brain connectivity profile. METHODS: In a prospective longitudinal study, we screened consecutive patients with COVID-19 at our institution. We enrolled critically ill adult patients with a DoC unexplained by sedation or structural brain injury and who were planned to undergo a brain MRI. We performed resting-state fMRI and diffusion MRI to evaluate functional and structural connectivity compared to healthy controls and patients with DoC resulting from severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We assessed the recovery of consciousness (command following) and functional outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended [GOSE] and the Disability Rating Scale [DRS]) at hospital discharge and 3 and 6 months after discharge. We also explored whether clinical variables were associated with recovery from COVID-DoC. RESULTS: After screening 1,105 patients with COVID-19, we enrolled 12 with COVID-DoC. The median age was 63.5 years (interquartile range 55-76.3 years). After the exclusion of 1 patient who died shortly after enrollment, all of the remaining 11 patients recovered consciousness 0 to 25 days (median 7 [5-14.5] days) after the cessation of continuous IV sedation. At discharge, all surviving patients remained dependent: median GOSE score 3 (1-3) and median DRS score 23 (16-30). Ultimately, however, except for 2 patients with severe polyneuropathy, all returned home with normal cognition and minimal disability: at 3 months, median GOSE score 3 (3-3) and median DRS score 7 (5-13); at 6 months, median GOSE score 4 (4-5), median DRS score 3 (3-5). Ten patients with COVID-DoC underwent advanced neuroimaging; functional and structural brain connectivity in those with COVID-DoC was diminished compared to healthy controls, and structural connectivity was comparable to that in patients with severe TBI. DISCUSSION: Patients who survived invariably recovered consciousness after COVID-DoC. Although disability was common after hospitalization, functional status improved over the ensuing months. While future research is necessary, these prospective findings inform the prognosis and pathophysiology of COVID-DoC. TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04476589.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Consciousness Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Consciousness Disorders/virology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function
6.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504421

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Obstructive lung diseases (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) and smoking are associated with greater risk of respiratory infections and hospitalisations, but conflicting data exist regarding their association with severity of COVID-19, and few studies have evaluated whether these associations differ by age. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between asthma, COPD and smoking on the severity of COVID-19 among a cohort of hospitalised patients, and to test for effect modification by age. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of electronic health record data of patients admitted to Massachusetts General Hospital, assigning the maximal WHO Clinical Progression Scale score for each patient during the first 28 days following hospital admission. Using ordered logistic regression, we measured the association between maximal severity score and asthma, COPD and smoking and their interaction with age. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 1391 patients hospitalised with COVID-19, we found an increased risk of severe disease among patients with COPD and prior smoking, independent of age. We also found evidence of effect modification by age with asthma and current smoking; in particular, asthma was associated with decreased COVID-19 severity among older adults, and current smoking was associated with decreased severity among younger patients. CONCLUSIONS: This cohort study identifies age as a modifying factor for the association between asthma and smoking on severity of COVID-19. Our findings highlight the complexities of determining risk factors for COVID-19 severity, and suggest that the effect of risk factors may vary across the age spectrum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Aged , Cohort Studies , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects
7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(2): e698-e707, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes. The mechanistic underpinnings of this association are not well-understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mediating role of systemic inflammation in obesity-associated COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: This hospital-based, observational study included 3828 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients who were hospitalized February to May 2020 at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) or Columbia University Irving Medical Center/New York Presbyterian Hospital (CUIMC/NYP). We use mediation analysis to evaluate whether peak inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein [CRP], erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], D-dimer, ferritin, white blood cell count and interleukin-6) are in the causal pathway between obesity (BMI ≥ 30) and mechanical ventilation or death within 28 days of presentation to care. RESULTS: In the MGH cohort (n = 1202), obesity was associated with greater likelihood of ventilation or death (OR = 1.73; 95% CI = [1.25, 2.41]; P = 0.001) and higher peak CRP (P < 0.001) compared with nonobese patients. The estimated proportion of the association between obesity and ventilation or death mediated by CRP was 0.49 (P < 0.001). Evidence of mediation was more pronounced in patients < 65 years (proportion mediated = 0.52 [P < 0.001] vs 0.44 [P = 0.180]). Findings were more moderate but consistent for peak ESR. Mediation by other inflammatory markers was not supported. Results were replicated in CUIMC/NYP cohort (n = 2626). CONCLUSION: Findings support systemic inflammatory pathways in obesity-associated severe COVID-19 disease, particularly in patients < 65 years, captured by CRP and ESR. Contextualized in clinical trial findings, these results reveal therapeutic opportunity to target systemic inflammatory pathways and monitor interventions in high-risk subgroups and particularly obese patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Obesity/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/mortality , Risk Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
8.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(10): 2238-2243, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a strong risk factor for adverse outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, however, the distribution of fat and the amount of muscle mass are more accurate risk factors than BMI. The objective of this study was to assess body composition measures obtained on opportunistic abdominal CTs as predictors of outcome in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. We hypothesized that elevated visceral and intermuscular adipose tissue would be associated with adverse outcome. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Our retrospective study was IRB-approved and HIPAA-compliant. The study group comprised 124 patients (median age: 68 years, IQR: 56, 77; 59 weeks, 65 months) who were admitted with COVID-19 to a single hospital and who had undergone abdominal CT for clinical purposes. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), and paraspinal and abdominal muscle cross-sectional areas (CSA) were assessed. Clinical information including prognostic factors, time of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and time of death within 28 days were obtained. Multivariate time-to-event competing risk models were fitted to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for a composite outcome of ICU admission/mortality associated with a one standard deviation increase in each body compositional measure. Each model was adjusted for age, sex, race, BMI, and cardiometabolic comorbidities. RESULTS: There were 50 patients who were admitted to the ICU or deceased over a median time of 1 day [IQR 1, 6] from hospital admission. Higher VAT/SAT ratio (HR of 1.30; 95% CI 1.04-1.62, p = 0.022) and higher IMAT CSA (HR of 1.44; 95% CI 1.10-1.89, p = 0.008) were associated with a reduced time to ICU admission or death in adjusted models. CONCLUSION: VAT/SAT and IMAT are predictors of adverse outcome in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, independent of other established prognostic factors. This suggests that body composition measures may serve as novel biomarkers of outcome in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Body Composition/physiology , COVID-19 , Obesity , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/diagnostic imaging , Obesity/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
9.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250774, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Men are at higher risk for serious complications related to COVID-19 infection than women. More robust immune activation in women has been proposed to contribute to decreased disease severity, although systemic inflammation has been associated with worse outcomes in COVID-19 infection. Whether systemic inflammation contributes to sex differences in COVID-19 infection is not known. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined sex differences in inflammatory markers among 453 men (mean age 61) and 328 women (mean age 62) hospitalized with COVID-19 infection at the Massachusetts General Hospital from March 8 to April 27, 2020. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association of sex with initial and peak inflammatory markers. Exploratory analyses examined the association of sex and inflammatory markers with 28-day clinical outcomes using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Initial and peak CRP were higher in men compared with women after adjustment for baseline differences (initial CRP: ß 0.29, SE 0.07, p = 0.0001; peak CRP: ß 0.31, SE 0.07, p<0.0001) with similar findings for IL-6, PCT, and ferritin (p<0.05 for all). Men had greater than 1.5-greater odds of dying compared with women (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.04-2.80, p = 0.03). Sex modified the association of peak CRP with both death and ICU admission, with stronger associations observed in men compared with women (death: OR 9.19, 95% CI 4.29-19.7, p <0.0001 in men vs OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.52-5.18, p = 0.009 in women, Pinteraction = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In a sample of 781 men and women hospitalized with COVID-19 infection, men exhibited more robust inflammatory activation as evidenced by higher initial and peak inflammatory markers, as well as worse clinical outcomes. Better understanding of sex differences in immune responses to COVID-19 infection may shed light on the pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Sex Factors , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Male , Massachusetts , Middle Aged , Registries , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
10.
N Engl J Med ; 383(24): 2333-2344, 2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of interleukin-6 receptor blockade in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) who are not receiving mechanical ventilation is unclear. METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, hyperinflammatory states, and at least two of the following signs: fever (body temperature >38°C), pulmonary infiltrates, or the need for supplemental oxygen in order to maintain an oxygen saturation greater than 92%. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive standard care plus a single dose of either tocilizumab (8 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo. The primary outcome was intubation or death, assessed in a time-to-event analysis. The secondary efficacy outcomes were clinical worsening and discontinuation of supplemental oxygen among patients who had been receiving it at baseline, both assessed in time-to-event analyses. RESULTS: We enrolled 243 patients; 141 (58%) were men, and 102 (42%) were women. The median age was 59.8 years (range, 21.7 to 85.4), and 45% of the patients were Hispanic or Latino. The hazard ratio for intubation or death in the tocilizumab group as compared with the placebo group was 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 1.81; P = 0.64), and the hazard ratio for disease worsening was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.59 to 2.10; P = 0.73). At 14 days, 18.0% of the patients in the tocilizumab group and 14.9% of the patients in the placebo group had had worsening of disease. The median time to discontinuation of supplemental oxygen was 5.0 days (95% CI, 3.8 to 7.6) in the tocilizumab group and 4.9 days (95% CI, 3.8 to 7.8) in the placebo group (P = 0.69). At 14 days, 24.6% of the patients in the tocilizumab group and 21.2% of the patients in the placebo group were still receiving supplemental oxygen. Patients who received tocilizumab had fewer serious infections than patients who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Tocilizumab was not effective for preventing intubation or death in moderately ill hospitalized patients with Covid-19. Some benefit or harm cannot be ruled out, however, because the confidence intervals for efficacy comparisons were wide. (Funded by Genentech; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04356937.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Boston , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Intubation/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Therapy , Treatment Failure , Young Adult
11.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244270, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992713

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences by race/ethnicity in clinical characteristics and outcomes among hospitalized patients with Covid-19 at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). METHODS: The MGH Covid-19 Registry includes confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected patients hospitalized at MGH and is based on manual chart reviews and data extraction from electronic health records (EHRs). We evaluated differences between White/Non-Hispanic and Hispanic patients in demographics, complications and 14-day outcomes among the N = 866 patients hospitalized with Covid-19 from March 11, 2020-May 4, 2020. RESULTS: Overall, 43% of patients hospitalized with Covid-19 were women, median age was 60.4 [IQR = (48.2, 75)], 11.3% were Black/non-Hispanic and 35.2% were Hispanic. Hispanic patients, representing 35.2% of patients, were younger than White/non-Hispanic patients [median age 51y; IQR = (40.6, 61.6) versus 72y; (58.0, 81.7) (p<0.001)]. Hispanic patients were symptomatic longer before presenting to care (median 5 vs 3d, p = 0.039) but were more likely to be sent home with self-quarantine than be admitted to hospital (29% vs 16%, p<0.001). Hispanic patients had fewer comorbidities yet comparable rates of ICU or death (34% vs 36%). Nonetheless, a greater proportion of Hispanic patients recovered by 14 days after presentation (62% vs 45%, p<0.001; OR = 1.99, p = 0.011 in multivariable adjusted model) and fewer died (2% versus 18%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized Hispanic patients were younger and had fewer comorbidities compared to White/non-Hispanic patients; despite comparable rates of ICU care or death, a greater proportion recovered. These results have implications for public health policy and the design and conduct of clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , African Americans/genetics , Aged , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Electronic Health Records , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, General , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , /genetics
12.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 15(1): 96-99, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988981

ABSTRACT

Obesity has emerged as a significant risk factor for severe COVID-19 worldwide. Given both COVID-19 infection and obesity have been associated with increased systemic inflammation, we evaluated inflammatory markers in obese and non-obese individuals hospitalized for COVID-19 at Massachusetts General Hospital. We hypothesized that obese patients would have a more exuberant inflammatory response as evidenced by higher initial and peak inflammatory markers along with worse clinical outcomes. Of the 781 patients, 349 were obese (45%). Obese individuals had higher initial and peak levels of CRP and ESR as well as higher peak d-dimer (P < 0.01 for all) in comparison to non-obese individuals, while. IL-6 and ferritin were similar. In addition, obese individuals had a higher odds of requiring vasopressor use (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.00-2.38, P = 0.05), developing hypoxemic respiratory failure (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04-2.40, P = 0.03) and death (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.31-3.70, P = 0.003) within 28 days of presentation to care. Finally, higher baseline levels of CRP and D-dimer were associated with worse clinical outcomes even after adjustment for BMI. Our findings suggest greater disease severity in obese individuals is characterized by more exuberant inflammation.


Subject(s)
Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Inflammation/blood , Obesity/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Odds Ratio , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Diabetes Care ; 43(12): 2938-2944, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732933

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes and obesity are highly prevalent among hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but little is known about their contributions to early COVID-19 outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that diabetes is a risk factor for poor early outcomes, after adjustment for obesity, among a cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used data from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) COVID-19 Data Registry of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between 11 March 2020 and 30 April 2020. Primary outcomes were admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), need for mechanical ventilation, and death within 14 days of presentation to care. Logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic characteristics, obesity, and relevant comorbidities. RESULTS: Among 450 patients, 178 (39.6%) had diabetes-mostly type 2 diabetes. Among patients with diabetes versus patients without diabetes, a higher proportion was admitted to the ICU (42.1% vs. 29.8%, respectively, P = 0.007), required mechanical ventilation (37.1% vs. 23.2%, P = 0.001), and died (15.9% vs. 7.9%, P = 0.009). In multivariable logistic regression models, diabetes was associated with greater odds of ICU admission (odds ratio 1.59 [95% CI 1.01-2.52]), mechanical ventilation (1.97 [1.21-3.20]), and death (2.02 [1.01-4.03]) at 14 days. Obesity was associated with greater odds of ICU admission (2.16 [1.20-3.88]) and mechanical ventilation (2.13 [1.14-4.00]) but not with death. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, diabetes was associated with poor early outcomes, after adjustment for obesity. These findings can help inform patient-centered care decision making for people with diabetes at risk for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Intensive Care Units , Obesity/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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