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1.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare the clinical severity in patients who were coinfected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and rhinovirus or monoinfected with a single one of these viruses. METHODS: The study period ranged from 1 March 2020 to 28 February 2021 (one year). SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses were identified by real-time reverse-transcription-PCR as part of the routine work at Marseille University hospitals. Bacterial and fungal infections were detected by standard methods. Clinical data were retrospectively collected from medical files. This study was approved by the ethical committee of our institute. RESULTS: A total of 6034/15,157 (40%) tested patients were positive for at least one respiratory virus. Ninety-three (4.3%) SARS-CoV-2-infected patients were coinfected with another respiratory virus, with rhinovirus being the most frequent (62/93, 67%). Patients coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 and rhinovirus were significantly more likely to report a cough than those with SARS-CoV-2 monoinfection (62% vs. 31%; p = 0.0008). In addition, they were also significantly more likely to report dyspnea than patients with rhinovirus monoinfection (45% vs. 36%; p = 0.02). They were also more likely to be transferred to an intensive care unit and to die than patients with rhinovirus monoinfection (16% vs. 5% and 7% vs. 2%, respectively) but these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: A close surveillance and investigation of the co-incidence and interactions of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses is needed. The possible higher risk of increased clinical severity in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients coinfected with rhinovirus warrants further large scale studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Coinfection/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Rhinovirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
2.
Virus Genes ; 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536341

ABSTRACT

Great concerns have been raised about SARS-CoV-2 variants over the past six months. At the end of 2020, an increasing incidence of spike substitutions Q677H/P was described in the USA, which involved six independent lineages. We searched for changes to this amino acid in the sequence database of SARS-CoV-2 genomes obtained at the IHU Méditerranée Infection (Marseille, France) from 3634 patients sampled between February 2020 and April 2021. In seven genomes (0.2%), we found a deletion of five amino acids at spike positions 675-679 (QTQTN) including Q677, and in 76 genomes (2.3%) we found a Q677H substitution. The 83 genomes were classified in ten different Pangolin lineages. Genomes with a spike Q677 deletion were obtained from respiratory samples collected in six cases between 28 March 2020 and 12 October 2020 and in one case on 1 February 2021. The Q677H substitution was found in genomes all obtained from respiratory samples collected from 19 January 2021 and were classified in seven different lineages. Most of these genomes (41 cases) were of UK variant. Two others were classified in the B.1.160 Pangolin lineage (Marseille-4 variant) which was first detected in July 2020 in our institute but was devoid of this substitution until 19 January 2021. Also, eight genomes were classified in the A.27/Marseille-501 lineage which was first detected in our institute in January 2021 and which either harboured or did not harbour the Q677H substitution. Thus, the spike Q677H substitution should be considered as another example of convergent evolution, as it is the case of spike substitutions L18F, E484K, L452R, and N501Y which also independently appeared in various lineages.

3.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 44: 102183, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473503

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several outbreaks of pneumococcal pneumonia among shipyard workers have been described. In this study, following a previous report of grouped cases, we aimed to elucidate the features of disease onset. METHODS: We compared the population characteristics of shipyard workers with a confirmed diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia (N = 38) to those of workers without pneumonia (N = 53). We compared nine S. pneumoniae strains isolated from patients with pneumonia by capsular serotyping, multi-locus sequence typing, and whole genome sequencing. RESULTS: Shipyard workers with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia were more frequently from Italy (P = 0.016), had at least one underlying condition (P = 0.024), lived on-board the ship (P = 0.009). None of these factors was independent by multivariate analysis. While capsular serotyping enabled us to identify four different serotypes: 4 (n = 5), 8 (n = 2), 9 N (n = 1), and 3 (n = 1), by sequence typing, we distinguished five sequence types (STs): ST801 (n = 4), ST205 (n = 2), ST1220 (n = 1), ST1280 (n = 1), and ST66 (n = 1). Whole genome sequencing confirmed the results obtained by MLST. Genomes of isolates of the same sequence type were similar with ≤80 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that the onset of pneumococcal infection among shipyard workers was attributable to both a person-to-person spread of single strains of S. pneumoniae and a shift of different strains from commensal to pathogen under favourable conditions (professional exposure, viral infections). Control measures should therefore be implemented by taking into account these features.

4.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(3): 1063-1072, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439023

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the age-specific mortality of unselected adult outpatients infected with SARS-CoV-2 treated early in a dedicated COVID-19 day hospital and we assessed whether the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (AZ) was associated with improved survival in this cohort. A retrospective monocentric cohort study was conducted in the day hospital of our center from March to December 2020 in adults with PCR-proven infection who were treated as outpatients with a standardized protocol. The primary endpoint was 6-week mortality, and secondary endpoints were transfer to the intensive care unit and hospitalization rate. Among 10,429 patients (median age, 45 [IQR 32-57] years; 5597 [53.7%] women), 16 died (0.15%). The infection fatality rate was 0.06% among the 8315 patients treated with HCQ+AZ. No deaths occurred among the 8414 patients younger than 60 years. Older age and male sex were associated with a higher risk of death, ICU transfer, and hospitalization. Treatment with HCQ+AZ (0.17 [0.06-0.48]) was associated with a lower risk of death, independently of age, sex and epidemic period. Meta-analysis evidenced consistency with 4 previous outpatient studies (32,124 patients-Odds ratio 0.31 [0.20-0.47], I2 = 0%). Early ambulatory treatment of COVID-19 with HCQ+AZ as a standard of care is associated with very low mortality, and HCQ+AZ improve COVID-19 survival compared to other regimens.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Early Medical Intervention , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , France , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
5.
Infect Genet Evol ; 95: 105092, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the demographics, clinical characteristics and severity of patients infected with nine different SARS-CoV-2 variants, during three phases of the COVID-19 epidemic in Marseille. METHODS: A single centre retrospective cohort study was conducted in 1760 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 of Nextstrain clades 20A, 20B, and 20C (first phase, February-May 2020), Pangolin lineages B.1.177 (we named Marseille-2) and B.1.160 (Marseille-4) variants (second phase, June-December 2020), and B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta), P.1 (gamma) and A.27 (Marseille-501) variants (third phase, January 2021-today). Outcomes were the occurrence of clinical failures, including hospitalisation, transfer to the intensive-care unit, and death. RESULTS: During each phase, no major differences were observed with regards to age and gender distribution, the prevalence of chronic diseases, and clinical symptoms between variants circulating in a given phase. The B.1.177 and B.1.160 variants were associated with more severe outcomes. Infections occurring during the second phase were associated with a higher rate of death as compared to infections during the first and third phases. Patients in the second phase were more likely to be hospitalised than those in the third phase. Patients infected during the third phase were more frequently obese than others. CONCLUSION: A large cohort study is recommended to evaluate the transmissibility and to better characterise the clinical severity of emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Genome, Viral , Hypertension/pathology , Obesity/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Genotype , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/pathology , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/virology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/virology , Phylogeny , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 737602, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430710

ABSTRACT

Since the start of COVID-19 pandemic the Republic of Djibouti, in the horn of Africa, has experienced two epidemic waves of the virus between April and August 2020 and between February and May 2021. By May 2021, COVID-19 had affected 1.18% of the Djiboutian population and caused 152 deaths. Djibouti hosts several foreign military bases which makes it a potential hot-spot for the introduction of different SARS-CoV-2 strains. We genotyped fifty three viruses that have spread during the two epidemic waves. Next, using spike sequencing of twenty-eight strains and whole genome sequencing of thirteen strains, we found that Nexstrain clades 20A and 20B with a typically European D614G substitution in the spike and a frequent P2633L substitution in nsp16 were the dominant viruses during the first epidemic wave, while the clade 20H South African variants spread during the second wave characterized by an increase in the number of severe forms of COVID-19.

8.
J Clin Med ; 10(12)2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273466

ABSTRACT

The Méditerranée Infection University Hospital Institute (IHU) is located in a recent building, which includes experts on a wide range of infectious disease. The IHU strategy is to develop innovative tools, including epidemiological monitoring, point-of-care laboratories, and the ability to mass screen the population. In this study, we review the strategy and guidelines proposed by the IHU and its application to the COVID-19 pandemic and summarise the various challenges it raises. Early diagnosis enables contagious patients to be isolated and treatment to be initiated at an early stage to reduce the microbial load and contagiousness. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we had to deal with a shortage of personal protective equipment and reagents and a massive influx of patients. Between 27 January 2020 and 5 January 2021, 434,925 nasopharyngeal samples were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2. Of them, 12,055 patients with COVID-19 were followed up in our out-patient clinic, and 1888 patients were hospitalised in the Institute. By constantly adapting our strategy to the ongoing situation, the IHU has succeeded in expanding and upgrading its equipment and improving circuits and flows to better manage infected patients.

9.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 664477, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256387

ABSTRACT

In recent years, and more specifically at the beginning of the COVID-19 crisis, wastewater surveillance has been proposed as a tool to monitor the epidemiology of human viral infections. In the present work, from July to December 2020, the number of copies of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in Marseille's wastewater was correlated with the number of new positive cases diagnosed in our Institute of Infectious Disease, which tested about 20% of the city's population. Number of positive cases and number of copies of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater were significantly correlated (p = 0.013). During the great epidemic peak, from October to December 2020, the curves of virus in the sewers and the curves of positive diagnoses were perfectly superposed. During the summer period, the superposition of curves was less evident as subject to many confounding factors that were discussed. We also tried to correlate the effect of viral circulation in wastewater with containment measures, probably the most unbiased correlation on their potential inflection effect of epidemic curves. Not only is this correlation not obvious, but it also clearly appears that the drop in cases as well as the drop in the viral load in the sewers occur before the containment measures. In fact, this suggests that there are factors that initiate the end of the epidemic peak independently of the containment measure. These factors will therefore need to be explored more deeply in the future.

11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(9): 1352.e1-1352.e5, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225181

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomic epidemiology led us to detect several variants since summer 2020. We report the recent spread of a new SARS-CoV-2 spike 501Y variant. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 sequences obtained from human nasopharyngeal samples by Illumina next-generation sequencing were analysed using Nextclade and an in-house Python script and were compared using BLASTn to the GISAID database. Phylogeny was investigated using the IQ-TREE software. RESULTS: We identified that SARS-CoV-2 genomes from four patients diagnosed in our institute harboured a new set of amino acid substitutions including L18F, L452R, N501Y, A653V, H655Y, D796Y, G1219V ± Q677H. These spike N501Y genomes are the first of Nextstrain clade 19B. We obtained partial spike gene sequences of this genotype for an additional 43 patients. All patients infected with this genotype were diagnosed since mid-January 2021. We detected 42 other genomes of this genotype in GISAID, which were obtained from samples collected in December 2020 in four individuals and in 2021 in 38 individuals. The 89 sequences obtained in our institute or other laboratories originated from the Comoros archipelago, western European countries (mostly metropolitan France), Turkey and Nigeria. CONCLUSION: These findings warrant further studies to investigate the spread, epidemiological and clinical features, and sensitivity to immune responses of this variant.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Substitution , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , France , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Models, Molecular , Nasopharynx/virology , Nigeria , Phylogeny , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Turkey
12.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251122, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223799

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the risk of postoperative SARS-CoV-2 infection during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The CONCEPTION study was a cohort, multidisciplinary study conducted at Conception University Hospital, in France, from March 17th to May 11th, 2020. Our study included all adult patients who underwent minor surgery in one of the seven surgical departments of our hospital: urology, digestive, plastic, gynecological, otolaryngology, gynecology or maxillofacial surgery. Preoperative self-isolation, clinical assessment using a standardized questionnaire, physical examination, nasopharyngeal RT-PCR and chest CT scan performed the day before surgery were part of our active prevention strategy. The main outcome was the occurrence of a SARS-CoV-2 infection within 21 days following surgery. The COVID-19 status of patients after discharge was updated during the postoperative consultation and to ensure the accuracy of data, all patients were contacted again by telephone. RESULTS: A total of 551 patients from six different specialized surgical Departments in our tertiary care center were enrolled in our study. More than 99% (546/551) of included patients underwent a complete preoperative Covid-19 screening including RT-PCR testing and chest CT scan upon admission to the Hospital. All RT-PCR tests were negative and in 12 cases (2.2%), preoperative chest CT scans detected pulmonary lesions consistent with the diagnosis criteria for COVID-19. No scheduled surgery was postponed. One patient (0.2%) developed a SARS-CoV-2 infection 20 days after a renal transplantation. No readmission or COVID-19 -related death within 30 days from surgery was recorded. CONCLUSIONS: Minor surgery remained safe in the COVID-19 Era, as long as all appropriate protective measures were implemented. These data could be useful to public Health Authorities in order to improve surgical patient flow during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Preoperative Care , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Minor Surgical Procedures , Nasopharynx/virology , Perioperative Period , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tertiary Care Centers , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 228-236, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207034

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Marseille, France, following a first severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in March-May 2020, a second epidemic phase occurred from June, involving 10 new variants. The Marseille-4 variant caused an epidemic that started in August and is still ongoing. METHODS: The 1038 SARS-CoV-2 whole genome sequences obtained in our laboratory by next-generation sequencing with Illumina technology were analysed using Nextclade and nextstrain/ncov pipelines and IQ-TREE. A Marseille-4-specific qPCR assay was implemented. Demographic and clinical features were compared between patients with the Marseille-4 variant and those with earlier strains. RESULTS: Marseille-4 harbours 13 hallmark mutations. One leads to an S477N substitution in the receptor binding domain of the spike protein targeted by current vaccines. Using a specific qPCR, it was observed that Marseille-4 caused 12-100% of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Marseille from September 2020, being involved in 2106 diagnoses. This variant was more frequently associated with hypoxemia than were clade 20A strains before May 2020. It caused a re-infection in 11 patients diagnosed with different SARS-CoV-2 strains before June 2020, suggesting either short-term protective immunity or a lack of cross-immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Marseille-4 should be considered as a major SARS-CoV-2 variant. Its sudden appearance points towards an animal reservoir, possibly mink. The protective role of past exposure and current vaccines against this variant should be evaluated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genome, Viral , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Epidemics , France/epidemiology , Humans , Mink/virology , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeny , Reinfection/virology
14.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 663815, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191694

ABSTRACT

Mink are small carnivores of the Mustelidae family. The American mink is the most common and was imported to Europe, Asia, and Latin America for breeding, as its fur is very popular. Denmark, the Netherlands, and China are the biggest producers of mink. Mink farms with a high population density in very small areas and a low level of genetic heterogeneity are places conducive to contagion. The mink's receptor for SARS-CoV-2 is very similar to that of humans. Experimental models have shown the susceptibility of the ferret, another mustelid, to become infected with SARS-CoV-2 and to transmit it to other ferrets. On April 23, 2020, for the first time, an outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in a mink farm was reported in the Netherlands. Since then, COVID-19 has reached numerous mink farms in the Netherlands, Denmark, United States, France, Greece, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Poland, Lithuania, and Canada. Not only do mink become infected from each other, but also they are capable of infecting humans, including with virus variants that have mutated in mink. Human infection with variant mink viruses with spike mutations led to the culling in Denmark of all mink in the country. Several animals can be infected with SARS-CoV-2. However, anthropo-zoonotic outbreaks have only been reported in mink farms. The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 in mink farms raises questions regarding their potential role at the onset of the pandemic and the impact of mutants on viral fitness, contagiousness, pathogenicity, re-infections with different mutants, immunotherapy, and vaccine efficacy.

15.
J Clin Virol ; 139: 104814, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174353

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been associated with the occurrence since summer 2020 of several viral variants that overlapped or succeeded each other in time. Those of current concern harbor mutations within the spike receptor binding domain (RBD) that may be associated with viral escape to immune responses. In our geographical area a viral variant we named Marseille-4 harbors a S477 N substitution in this RBD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We aimed to implement an in-house one-step real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qPCR) assay with a hydrolysis probe that specifically detects the SARS-CoV-2 Marseille-4 variant. RESULTS: All 6 cDNA samples from Marseille-4 variant strains identified in our institute by genome next-generation sequencing (NGS) tested positive using our Marseille-4 specific qPCR, whereas all 32 cDNA samples from other variants tested negative. In addition, 39/42 (93 %) respiratory samples identified by NGS as containing a Marseille-4 variant strain and 0/26 samples identified as containing non-Marseille-4 variant strains were positive. Finally, 2018/3960 (51%) patients SARS-CoV-2-diagnosed in our institute, 10/277 (3.6 %) respiratory samples collected in Algeria, and none of 207 respiratory samples collected in Senegal, Morocco, or Lebanon tested positive using our Marseille-4 specific qPCR. DISCUSSION: Our in-house qPCR system was found reliable to detect specifically the Marseille-4 variant and allowed estimating it is involved in about half of our SARS-CoV-2 diagnoses since December 2020. Such approach allows the real-time surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 variants, which is warranted to monitor and assess their epidemiological and clinical characterics based on comprehensive sets of data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(6): 1309-1317, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116613

ABSTRACT

ELISA and chemiluminescence serological assays for COVID-19 are currently incorporating only one or two SARS-CoV-2 antigens. We developed an automated Western immunoblotting as a complementary serologic assay for COVID-19. The JessTM Simple Western system, an automated capillary-based assay, was used, incorporating an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 lineage 20a strain as the source of antigen, and total immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA) detection. In total, 602 sera were tested including 223 from RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients, 76 from patients diagnosed with seasonal HCoVs and 303 from coronavirus-negative control sera. We also compared this assay with the EUROIMMUN® SARS-CoV-2 IgG ELISA kit. Among 223 sera obtained from RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients, 180/223 (81%) exhibited reactivity against the nucleocapsid and 70/223 (31%) against the spike protein. Nucleocapsid reactivity was further detected in 9/76 (14%) samples collected from patients diagnosed with seasonal HCoVs and in 15/303 (5%) coronavirus-negative control samples. In the subset of sera collected more than 2 weeks after the onset of symptoms, the sensitivity was 94% and the specificity 93%, the latter value probably reflecting cross-reactivity of SARS-CoV-2 with other coronaviruses. The automated Western immunoblotting presented a substantial agreement (90%) with the compared ELISA (Cohen's Kappa=0.64). Automated Western immunoblotting may be used as a second line test to monitor exposure of people to HCoVs including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Blotting, Western , COVID-19/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Automation, Laboratory , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
17.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 40: 101980, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Marseille, France, the COVID-19 incidence evolved unusually with several successive epidemic phases. The second outbreak started in July, was associated with North Africa, and involved travelers and an outbreak on passenger ships. This suggested the involvement of a new viral variant. METHODS: We sequenced the genomes from 916 SARS-CoV-2 strains from COVID-19 patients in our institute. The patients' demographic and clinical features were compared according to the infecting viral variant. RESULTS: From June 26th to August 14th, we identified a new viral variant (Marseille-1). Based on genome sequences (n = 89) or specific qPCR (n = 53), 142 patients infected with this variant were detected. It is characterized by a combination of 10 mutations located in the nsp2, nsp3, nsp12, S, ORF3a, ORF8 and N/ORF14 genes. We identified Senegal and Gambia, where the virus had been transferred from China and Europe in February-April as the sources of the Marseille-1 variant, which then most likely reached Marseille through Maghreb when French borders reopened. In France, this variant apparently remained almost limited to Marseille. In addition, it was significantly associated with a milder disease compared to clade 20A ancestor strains, in univariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 can genetically diversify rapidly, its variants can diffuse internationally and cause successive outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Aged , Amino Acid Substitution , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Female , France/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Phylogeny , Travel , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics
18.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(7): 1579-1582, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082689

ABSTRACT

We aimed to compare respiratory pathogen carriage by PCR during three different time periods in 2020 in sheltered homeless people in Marseille, France. The overall prevalence of respiratory pathogen carriage in late March-early April (69.9%) was significantly higher than in late April (42.3%) and mid-July (45.1%). Bacterial carriage significantly decreased between late March-early April and late April. SARS-CoV-2 was detected only in late March-early April samples (20.6%). Measures aiming at mitigating SARS-CoV-2 transmission were effective and also impacted bacterial carriage. Seasonal variations of bacterial carriage between winter and summer in this population were not marked.


Subject(s)
Carrier State/epidemiology , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Carrier State/diagnosis , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons , Viruses/classification , Viruses/isolation & purification , Young Adult
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 1-6, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071462

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among sheltered homeless and other vulnerable people might provide the information needed to prevent its spread within accommodation centres. METHODS: Data were obtained from 698 participants in different accommodation centres (411 homeless individuals, 77 asylum-seekers, 58 other people living in precarious conditions and 152 employees working in these accommodation centres) who completed questionnaires and had nasal samples collected between 26 March and 17 April 2020. SARS-CoV-2 carriage was assessed by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: We found a high acceptance rate (78.9%) for testing. Overall, 49 people (7.0%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, including 37 homeless individuals (of 411, 9.0%) and 12 employees (of 152, 7.9%). SARS-CoV-2 positivity correlated with symptoms, although 51% of patients who tested positive did not report respiratory symptoms or fever. Among homeless people, being young (18-34 years) (odds ratio 3.83, 95% confidence interval 1.47-10.0, p = 0.006) and being housed in one specific shelter (odds ratio 9.13, 95% confidence interval 4.09-20.37, p < 0.001) were independent factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity (rates of 11.4% and 20.6%, respectively). DISCUSSION: Symptom screening alone is insufficient to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission in vulnerable sheltered people. Systematic testing should be promoted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Homeless Persons , Refugees , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
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