Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 56
Filter
1.
Applied Sciences ; 13(1):44, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166202

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Viral respiratory infections are common triggers for asthma exacerbation, often leading patients to the emergency department (ED). COVID-19, the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, typically presents with respiratory symptoms, from minor symptoms, up to and including severe acute respiratory failure. Data on the association between asthma and COVID-19 are conflicting, and those from an ED setting are scarce. Our aims were to assess the prevalence and outcome of patients with asthma admitted to the ED for COVID-19. (2) Methods: We performed a case-control study, extracting data from a registry of adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 consecutively admitted to the ED of our hospital between March 2020 and January 2021. (3) Results: We identified 83 patients with asthma out of 935 individuals (prevalence 8.9%). There were no significant differences between cases and controls regarding both the proportion of hospital admissions and patients with critical COVID-19. (OR 1.37;95% CI 0.52-3.56;and (OR 0.74;95% CI 0.31-1.78 respectively). (4) Conclusions: In patients admitted to the ED for COVID-19, the prevalence of asthma was not higher than expected, and asthma was not associated with a worse outcome, in terms of the rate of hospitalization and critical COVID-19 disease.

2.
Life ; 12(12):2031, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2143352

ABSTRACT

Excessive sedation is associated with poor outcome in critically ill acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. Whether this prognostic effect varies among ARDS patients with and without COVID-19 has yet to be determined. We compared the prognostic value of excessive sedation-in terms of delirium, length of stay in intensive care unit (ICU-LOS) and ICU mortality-between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 critically ill ARDS patients. This was a second analysis of prospectively collected data in four European academic centers pertaining to 101 adult critically ill ARDS patients with and without COVID-19 disease. Depth of sedation (DOS) and delirium were monitored through processed electroencephalogram (EEG) and the Confusion Assessment Method for ICU (CAM-ICU). Our main exposure was excessive sedation and how it relates to the presence of delirium, ICU-LOS and ICU mortality. The criterion for excessive sedation was met in 73 (72.3%) patients;of these, 15 (82.2%) and 58 (69.1%) were in non-COVID-19 and COVID-19 ARDS groups, respectively. The criteria of delirium were met in 44 patients (60.3%). Moreover, excessive sedation was present in 38 (86.4%) patients with delirium (p < 0.001). ICU death was ascertained in 41 out of 101 (41.0%) patients;of these, 37 (90.2%) had excessive sedation (p < 0.001). The distribution of ICU-LOS among excessive-sedated and non-sedated patients was 22 (16-27) vs. 14 (10.5-19.5) days (p < 0.001), respectively. In a multivariable framework, excessive sedation was independently associated with the development of delirium (p = 0.001), increased ICU mortality (p = 0.009) and longer ICU-LOS (p = 0.000), but only in COVID-19 ARDS patients. Independent of age and gender, excessive sedation might represent a risk factor for delirium in COVID-19 ARDS patients. Similarly, excessive sedation shows to be an independent predictor of ICU-LOS and ICU mortality. The use of continuous EEG-based depth of sedation (DOS) monitoring and delirium assessment in critically ill COVID-19 patients is warranted.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099897

ABSTRACT

At the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, individual and social measures were strengthened through restrictive non-pharmaceutical interventions, labelled with the term "lockdown". In Italy, there were two lockdowns (9 March 2020-3 May 2020 and 3 November 2020-27 March 2021). As part of preventive measures, healthcare workers and the administrative staff population of Policlinico A. Gemelli underwent nasopharyngeal swab tests from 1 March 2020 to 9 February 2022, a long time interval that includes the two aforementioned lockdowns. The population included 8958 people from 1 March 2020 to 31 December 2020; 8981 people from 1 January 2021 to 31 December 2021; and 8981 people from 1 January 2022 to 9 February 2022. We then analysed pseudo-anonymized data, using a retrospective observational approach to evaluate the impact of the lockdown on the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections within the population. Given the 14 day contagious period, the swab positivity rate (SPR) among the staff decreased significantly at the end of the first lockdown, every day prior to 18 May 2020, by 0.093 (p < 0.0001, CI = (-0.138--0.047)). After the fourteenth day post the end of the first lockdown (18 May 2020), the SPR increased daily at a rate of 0.024 (p < 0.0001, 95% CI = (0.013-0.034)). In addition, the SPR appeared to increase significantly every day prior to 17 November 2020 by 0.024 (p < 0.0001, CI = (0.013-0.034)). After the fourteenth day post the start of the second lockdown (17 November 2020), the SPR decreased daily at a rate of 0.039 (p < 0.0001, 95% CI = (-0.050--0.027)). These data demonstrate that, in our Institution, the lockdowns helped to both protect healthcare workers and maintain adequate standards of care for COVID and non-COVID patients for the duration of the state of emergency in Italy.

4.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099325

ABSTRACT

Innate and adaptive immune system cells play a critical role in the host response to sepsis. Sepsis is a life-threatening disease characterized by apoptosis-induced depletion of immune cells and immunodepression, which contribute to morbidity and mortality. Many alterations in the expression of surface markers of neutrophils and monocytes have been described in septic patients. The aim of this study was to inspect the recently published literature to inform the clinician about the most up-to-date techniques for the study of circulating leukocytes. The impact on cell phenotypes and on the function of leukocytes of extracorporeal and non-blood purification treatments proposed for sepsis were also analyzed. We conducted a systematic review using Pubmed/Medline, Ovid/Willey, the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and EMBASE, combining key terms related to immunological function in sepsis and selected the most relevant clinical trials and review articles (excluding case reports) published in the last 50 years. The most important alteration in neutrophils during sepsis is that they activate an anti-apoptotic survival program. In septic monocytes, a reduced characteristic expression of HLA-DR is observed, but their role does not seem to be significantly altered in sepsis. As regards adaptive immunity, sepsis leads to lymphopenia and immunosuppression in patients with septic shock; this process involves all types of T cells (CD4, CD8 and Natural Killer), except for regulatory T cells, which retain their function. Several promising therapies that target the host immune response are currently under evaluation. During the worldwide pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, it was useful to study the "cytokine storm" to find additional treatments, such as the oXiris® filter. This therapy can decrease the concentration of inflammatory markers that affect the severity of the disease.

5.
J Clin Med ; 11(19)2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066189

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effects of frailty and the perceived quality of life (QOL) on the long-term survival (at least 1 year) of patients ≥ 80 years hospitalized for COVID-19 and the predictors of frailty and QOL deterioration in survivors. Design: This is a single-center, prospective observational cohort study. Setting and Participants: The study was conducted in a teaching hospital and enrolled all COVID-19 patients ≥80 years old consecutively hospitalized between April 2020 and March 2021. Methods: Clinical variables assessed in the Emergency Department (ED), and during hospitalization, were evaluated for association with all-cause death at a follow-up. Frailty was assessed by the clinical frailty scale (CFS), and the QOL was assessed by the five-level EuroQol EQ-5d tool. Multivariate Cox regression analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent factors for poor outcomes. Results: A total of 368 patients aged ≥80 years survived the index hospitalization (age 85 years [interquartile range 82-89]; males 163 (44.3%)). Compared to non-frail patients (CFS 1-3), patients with CFS 4-6 and patients with CFS 7-9 had an increased risk of death (hazard ratio 6.75 [1.51, 30.2] and HR 3.55 [2.20, 5.78], respectively). In patients alive at the 1-year follow-up, the baseline QOL was an independent predictor of an increase in frailty (OR 1.12 [1.01, 1.24]). Male sex was associated with lower odds of QOL worsening (OR 0.61 [0.35, 1.07]). Conclusions and Implications: In older adults ≥80 years hospitalized for COVID-19, the frailty assessment by the CFS could effectively stratify the risk of long-term death after discharge. In survivors, the hospitalization could produce a long-term worsening in frailty, particularly in patients with a pre-existing reduced baseline QOL. A long-term reduction in the perceived QOL is frequent in ≥80 survivors, and the effect appears more pronounced in female patients.

6.
Applied Sciences ; 12(19):9460, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2043556

ABSTRACT

Adult patients with asthma often access the emergency department (ED) for the management of exacerbations or uncontrolled symptoms. Sometimes the first diagnosis of asthma occurs right in the ED. In the last couple of years, the COVID-19 pandemic spread around the world, causing an acute respiratory syndrome named SARS-CoV-2, characterized mainly by respiratory symptoms, such as cough and shortness of breath, in addition to fever. This clinical pattern partially overlaps with that caused by asthma, thus generating confusion in terms of diagnosis and management. It is also unclear whether asthma may be associated with a worse prognosis in COVID-19 infection. This expert opinion paper provides specific recommendations to ease the challenges related to adult patients with asthma admitted to the ED during the COVID-19 pandemic, with particular reference to diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, it provides well-defined indications to guide decisions on discharge, hospital admission, as well as follow-up. A panel of experts composed of emergency medicine physicians, pulmonologists and allergologists discussed, voted and approved all the recommendations.

7.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928516

ABSTRACT

Chest pain and dyspnea are common symptoms in patients presenting to the emergency room (ER); oftentimes it is not possible to clearly identify the underlying cause, which may cause the patient to have to return to the ER. In other cases, while it is possible to identify the underlying cause, it is necessary to perform a large number of tests before being able to make a diagnosis. Over the last twenty years, emergency medicine physicians have had the possibility of using ultrasound to help them make and rule out diagnoses. Specific ultrasound tests have been designed to evaluate patients presenting with specific symptoms to ensure a fast, yet complete, evaluation. In this paper, we examine the role of ultrasound in helping physicians understand the etiology behind chest pain and dyspnea. We analyze the different diseases and disorders which may cause chest pain and dyspnea as symptoms and discuss the corresponding ultrasound findings.

8.
J Clin Med ; 11(13)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911432

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 disease, which typically presents with respiratory symptoms, can trigger intestinal inflammation through SARS-CoV-2 replication in the gastrointestinal tract. Supplementation with probiotics may have beneficial effects on gut inflammation due to their analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The primary objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of a mix of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium lactis LA 304, Lactobacillus salivarius LA 302, and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA 201; Lactibiane Iki®) in the reduction in fecal calprotectin in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, compared to a control group. The secondary aim was to evaluate the reduction in oxygen support and length of hospital stay in patients taking the probiotic mix. Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial at Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli, Rome. We enrolled patients with COVID-19 interstitial pneumonia. One group received the probiotic mix twice a day for 10 days in addition to the standard COVID-19 therapy, and a second group received standard COVID-19 therapy without probiotics. We administered oxygen support (through Ventimask or Optiflow®) on days (D) 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, and the level of fecal calprotectin between D3-D5 and D7-D10. Results: A total of 80 patients (44 M/36 F; mean age: 59.8 ± 17.3) were enrolled with a mean value of calprotectin at enrollment of 140 mg/dl. At D7-10, the probiotic group showed a 35% decrease in fecal calprotectin compared to 16% in the control group, a decrease in C-reactive protein (CRP) of 72.7% compared to 62%, and a slight but not significant decrease in oxygen support compared to the control group. Conclusion: Supplementation with a mix of probiotics for 10 days in patients with COVID-19 interstitial pneumonia significantly reduces inflammatory markers.

9.
Curr Med Chem ; 29(18): 3179-3188, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862442

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The digestive tract represents an interface between the external environment and the body where the interaction of a complex polymicrobial ecology has an important influence on health and disease. The physiological mechanisms that are altered during hospitalization and in the intensive care unit (ICU) contribute to the pathobiota's growth. Intestinal dysbiosis occurs within hours of being admitted to ICU. This may be due to different factors, such as alterations of normal intestinal transit, administration of various medications, or alterations in the intestinal wall, which causes a cascade of events that will lead to the increase of nitrates and decrease of oxygen concentration, and the liberation of free radicals. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to report the latest updates on the microbiota's contribution to developing sepsis in patients in the ICU department. In this short review, the latest scientific findings on the mechanisms of intestinal immune defenses performed both locally and systemically have been reviewed. Additionally, we considered it necessary to review the literature on the basis of the many studies carried out on the microbiota in the critically ill as a prevention to the spread of the infection in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review has been written to answer four main questions: 1- What are the main intestinal flora's defense mechanisms that help us to prevent the risk of developing systemic diseases? 2- What are the main Systemic Abnormalities of Dysbiosis? 3- What are the Modern Strategies Used in ICU to Prevent the Infection Spreading? 4- What is the Relationship between COVID-19 and Microbiota? We reviewed 72 articles using the combination of following keywords: "microbiota" and "microbiota" and "intensive care", "intensive care" and "gut", "critical illness", "microbiota" and "critical care", "microbiota" and "sepsis", "microbiota" and "infection", and "gastrointestinal immunity" in: Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Library, Medline and Pubmed, Google Scholar, Ovid/Wiley. Moreover, we also consulted the site ClinicalTrials.com to find out studies that have been recently conducted or are currently ongoing. RESULTS: The critical illness can alter intestinal bacterial flora leading to homeostasis disequilibrium. Despite numerous mechanisms, such as epithelial cells with calciform cells that together build a mechanical barrier for pathogenic bacteria, the presence of mucous associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) which stimulates an immune response through the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-y) and THN-a or or from the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines produced by lymphocytes Thelper 2. But these defenses can be altered following hospitalization in ICU and lead to serious complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), health care associated pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), systemic infection and multiple organ failure (MOF), but also to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). In addition, the microbiota has a significant impact on the development of intestinal complications and the severity of the SARS-COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: The microbiota is recognized as one of the important factors that can worsen the clinical conditions of patients who are already very frail in the intensive care unit. At the same time, the microbiota also plays a crucial role in the prevention of ICU-associated complications. By using the resources that are available, such as probiotics, synbiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), we can preserve the integrity of the microbiota and the GUT, which will later help maintain homeostasis in ICU patients.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Microbiota , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Dysbiosis , Humans
11.
Curr Med Chem ; 29(33): 5370-5396, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834103

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is a physiological, beneficial, and auto-limiting response of the host to alarming stimuli. Conversely, a chronic systemic low-grade inflammation (CSLGI), known as a long-time persisting condition, causes damage to the organs and host tissues, representing a major risk for chronic diseases. Currently, a high global incidence of chronic inflammatory diseases is observed, often linked to the lifestyle-related changes that occurred in the last decade. The main lifestyle-related factors are proinflammatory diet, psychological stress, tobacco smoking, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity, and indoor living and working with its related consequences such as indoor pollution, artificial light exposure, and low vitamin D production. Recent scientific evidence found that gut microbiota (GM) has a main role in shaping the host's health, particularly as CSLGI mediator. Based on the lastest discoveries regarding the remarkable GM activity, in this manuscript we focus on the elements of actual lifestyle that influence the composition and function of the intestinal microbial community in order to elicit the CSLGI and its correlated pathologies. In this scenario, we provide a broad review of the interplay between modern lifestyle, GM, and CSLGI with a special focus on the COVID symptoms and emerging long-COVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Humans , Inflammation , Life Style , Pandemics
12.
Gerontol Geriatr Med ; 8: 23337214221079956, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794045

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The SARS CoV-2 pandemic still generates a very high number of affected patients and a significant mortality rate. It is essential to establish objective criteria to stratify COVID-19 death risk. Frailty has been identified as a potential determinant of increased vulnerability in older adults affected by COVID-19, because it may suggest alterations of physical performance and functional autonomy. Methods: We have conducted a narrative review of the literature on the evidences regarding COVID-19 and the frailty condition. Thirteen observational studies were included. Conclusion: Data emerging from the studies indicate that older COVID-19 patients with a frailty condition have an increased risk of mortality compared with non-frail patients, and this association is independent of other clinical and demographic factors. A frailty evaluation is required to help clinicians to better stratify the overall risk of death for older patients with COVID-19.

13.
J Clin Med ; 11(8)2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785784

ABSTRACT

2020 will be remembered worldwide as the year of COVID-19 outbreak. The onset of this pandemic abruptly changed everybody's life and, in a particular manner, doctors' lives. Our hand surgery department became rapidly one of the first COVID-19-specialized wards in Italy, impacting considerably the authors' routines and activities. In this paper, the authors focus on how the demographics of patients with hand trauma changed and how they had to modify their activity. The authors retrospectively took into consideration all patients reaching their emergency department (ED) with hand trauma between 9 March 2020 (the day of the beginning of the first lockdown in Italy) and 8 March 2021 and compared them to those who reached the ED in the three previous years. Authors have analyzed the number of patients, their gender and age, the severity of their trauma, where the trauma occurred, the type of lesion, the percentage of patients who underwent surgery, and the percentage of patients who had an emergency admission. In the last year, the number of patients reaching the ED for a hand trauma has been reduced by two thirds (975 patients during the past year), the mean age of those patients has slightly increased, the severity of cases has increased, places of trauma and type of lesions have changed, and, lastly, the percentage of patients needing surgery who were admitted immediately has increased. This paper shows how the type of patients reaching the ED changed and discusses how surgeons evolved and modified their habits in treating those patients during the first lockdown and the year that followed.

14.
Gerontology & geriatric medicine ; 8, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733377

ABSTRACT

Introduction The SARS CoV-2 pandemic still generates a very high number of affected patients and a significant mortality rate. It is essential to establish objective criteria to stratify COVID-19 death risk. Frailty has been identified as a potential determinant of increased vulnerability in older adults affected by COVID-19, because it may suggest alterations of physical performance and functional autonomy. Methods We have conducted a narrative review of the literature on the evidences regarding COVID-19 and the frailty condition. Thirteen observational studies were included. Conclusion Data emerging from the studies indicate that older COVID-19 patients with a frailty condition have an increased risk of mortality compared with non-frail patients, and this association is independent of other clinical and demographic factors. A frailty evaluation is required to help clinicians to better stratify the overall risk of death for older patients with COVID-19.

15.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 217: 106655, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic affected healthcare systems worldwide. Predictive models developed by Artificial Intelligence (AI) and based on timely, centralized and standardized real world patient data could improve management of COVID-19 to achieve better clinical outcomes. The objectives of this manuscript are to describe the structure and technologies used to construct a COVID-19 Data Mart architecture and to present how a large hospital has tackled the challenge of supporting daily management of COVID-19 pandemic emergency, by creating a strong retrospective knowledge base, a real time environment and integrated information dashboard for daily practice and early identification of critical condition at patient level. This framework is also used as an informative, continuously enriched data lake, which is a base for several on-going predictive studies. METHODS: The information technology framework for clinical practice and research was described. It was developed using SAS Institute software analytics tool and SAS® Vyia® environment and Open-Source environment R ® and Python ® for fast prototyping and modeling. The included variables and the source extraction procedures were presented. RESULTS: The Data Mart covers a retrospective cohort of 5528 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. People who died were older, had more comorbidities, reported more frequently dyspnea at onset, had higher d-dimer, C-reactive protein and urea nitrogen. The dashboard was developed to support the management of COVID-19 patients at three levels: hospital, single ward and individual care level. INTERPRETATION: The COVID-19 Data Mart based on integration of a large collection of clinical data and an AI-based integrated framework has been developed, based on a set of automated procedures for data mining and retrieval, transformation and integration, and has been embedded in the clinical practice to help managing daily care. Benefits from the availability of a Data Mart include the opportunity to build predictive models with a machine learning approach to identify undescribed clinical phenotypes and to foster hospital networks. A real-time updated dashboard built from the Data Mart may represent a valid tool for a better knowledge of epidemiological and clinical features of COVID-19, especially when multiple waves are observed, as well as for epidemic and pandemic events of the same nature (e. g. with critical clinical conditions leading to severe pulmonary inflammation). Therefore, we believe the approach presented in this paper may find several applications in comparable situations even at region or state levels. Finally, models predicting the course of future waves or new pandemics could largely benefit from network of DataMarts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Decision-Making , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649786

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 show a high prevalence of liver injury. The pattern of this liver damage is still not fully understood. Different etiopathogenetic factors may concur; from a direct cytopathic effect, once the virus binds to the ACE-2 receptors, to the immune-mediated collateral damage, due to cytokine storm. The presence of pre-existing chronic liver disease is a contributing factor for acute organ damage during SARS-CoV2 infection. Last but not least, treatments probably play a role, also, in determining hepatotoxicity: many of the drugs we have used or are still using to treat COVID-19, combined with non-invasive ventilation, are known to sometimes determine acute liver injury. Although liver damage associated with COVID-19 is often transient and can resolve without any special treatment, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms, particularly to better treat its more severe forms.

17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(2)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625942

ABSTRACT

A cytokine storm is a hyperinflammatory state secondary to the excessive production of cytokines by a deregulated immune system. It manifests clinically as an influenza-like syndrome, which can be complicated by multi-organ failure and coagulopathy, leading, in the most severe cases, even to death. The term cytokine storm was first used in 1993 to describe the graft-versus-host disease following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It was then reused to define the adverse syndromes secondary to the administration of immunostimulating agents, such as anti-CD28 antibodies or bioengineered immune cells, i.e., CAR T-cell therapy. Currently, the concept of cytokine storm has been better elucidated and extended to the pathogenesis of many other conditions, such as sepsis, autoinflammatory disease, primary and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and multicentric Castleman disease. Moreover, cytokine storm has recently emerged as a key aspect in the novel Coronavirus disease 2019, as affected patients show high levels of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IP-10, GM-CSF, MCP-1, and IL-10, some of which also correlate with disease severity. Therefore, since the onset of the pandemic, numerous agents have been tested in the effort to mitigate the cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients, some of which are effective in reducing mortality, especially in critically ill patients, and are now becoming standards of care, such as glucocorticoids or some cytokine inhibitors. However, the challenge is still far from being met, and other therapeutic strategies are being tested in the hope that we can eventually overcome the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Clin Med ; 11(1)2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580635

ABSTRACT

The use of non-invasive respiratory strategies (NIRS) is crucial to improve oxygenation in COVID-19 patients with hypoxemia refractory to conventional oxygen therapy. However, the absence of respiratory symptoms may delay the start of NIRS. The aim of this study was to determine whether a simple bedside test such as single-breath counting test (SBCT) can predict the need for NIRS in the 24 h following the access to Emergency Department (ED). We performed a prospective observational study on 120 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. ROC curves were used to analyze factors which might predict NIRS requirement. We found that 36% of patients had normal respiratory rate and did not experience dyspnea at rest. 65% of study population required NIRS in the 24 h following the access to ED. NIRS-requiring group presented lower PaO2/FiO2 (235.09 vs. 299.02), SpO2/FiO2 ratio (357.83 vs. 431.07), PaCO2 (35.12 vs. 40.08), and SBCT (24.46 vs. 30.36) and showed higher incidence of dyspnea at rest (57.7% vs. 28.6%). Furthermore, SBCT predicted NIRS requirement even in the subgroup of patients without respiratory symptoms (AUC = 0.882, cut-off = 30). SBCT might be a valuable tool for bedside assessment of respiratory function in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and might be considered as an early clinical sign of impending respiratory deterioration.

19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(12)2021 Dec 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572559

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has been shaking lives around the world for nearly two years. The discovery of highly effective vaccines has not been able to stop the transmission of the virus. SARS-CoV-2 shows completely different clinical manifestations. A large percentage (about 40%) of admitted patients require treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU). This study investigates the factors associated with admission of COVID-19 patients to the ICU and whether it is possible to obtain a score that can help the emergency physician to select the hospital ward. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively recorded 313 consecutive patients who were presented to the emergency department (ED) of our hospital and had a diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on an oropharyngeal swab. We used multiple logistic regression to evaluate demographic, clinical, and laboratory data statistically associated with ICU admission. These variables were used to create a prognostic score for ICU admission. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) of the score for predicting ICU admission during hospitalization were calculated. Results: Of the variables evaluated, only blood type A (p = 0.003), PaO2/FiO2 (p = 0.002), LDH (p = 0.004), lactate (p = 0.03), dyspnea (p = 0.03) and SpO2 (p = 0.0228) were significantly associated with ICU admission after adjusting for sex, age and comorbidity using multiple logistic regression analysis. We used these variables to create a prognostic score called GOL2DS (group A, PaO2/FiO2, LDH, lactate and dyspnea, and SpO2), which had high accuracy in predicting ICU admission (AUROC 0.830 [95% CI, 0.791-0.892). Conclusions: In our single-center experience, the GOL2DS score could be useful in identifying patients at high risk for ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21136, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493228

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is impressively challenging the healthcare system. Several prognostic models have been validated but few of them are implemented in daily practice. The objective of the study was to validate a machine-learning risk prediction model using easy-to-obtain parameters to help to identify patients with COVID-19 who are at higher risk of death. The training cohort included all patients admitted to Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli with COVID-19 from March 5, 2020, to November 5, 2020. Afterward, the model was tested on all patients admitted to the same hospital with COVID-19 from November 6, 2020, to February 5, 2021. The primary outcome was in-hospital case-fatality risk. The out-of-sample performance of the model was estimated from the training set in terms of Area under the Receiving Operator Curve (AUROC) and classification matrix statistics by averaging the results of fivefold cross validation repeated 3-times and comparing the results with those obtained on the test set. An explanation analysis of the model, based on the SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP), is also presented. To assess the subsequent time evolution, the change in paO2/FiO2 (P/F) at 48 h after the baseline measurement was plotted against its baseline value. Among the 921 patients included in the training cohort, 120 died (13%). Variables selected for the model were age, platelet count, SpO2, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, neutrophil count, and sodium. The results of the fivefold cross-validation repeated 3-times gave AUROC of 0.87, and statistics of the classification matrix to the Youden index as follows: sensitivity 0.840, specificity 0.774, negative predictive value 0.971. Then, the model was tested on a new population (n = 1463) in which the case-fatality rate was 22.6%. The test model showed AUROC 0.818, sensitivity 0.813, specificity 0.650, negative predictive value 0.922. Considering the first quartile of the predicted risk score (low-risk score group), the case-fatality rate was 1.6%, 17.8% in the second and third quartile (high-risk score group) and 53.5% in the fourth quartile (very high-risk score group). The three risk score groups showed good discrimination for the P/F value at admission, and a positive correlation was found for the low-risk class to P/F at 48 h after admission (adjusted R-squared = 0.48). We developed a predictive model of death for people with SARS-CoV-2 infection by including only easy-to-obtain variables (abnormal blood count, BUN, C-reactive protein, sodium and lower SpO2). It demonstrated good accuracy and high power of discrimination. The simplicity of the model makes the risk prediction applicable for patients in the Emergency Department, or during hospitalization. Although it is reasonable to assume that the model is also applicable in not-hospitalized persons, only appropriate studies can assess the accuracy of the model also for persons at home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Machine Learning , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cell Count , Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Multivariate Analysis , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , Rome/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL