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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319983

ABSTRACT

Background: On December 12, 2019 a new coronavirus (SARS-Cov2) emerged in Wuhan, China, sparking a pandemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans (COVID-19). At 24th of April 2020, the number of COVID-19 deaths in the world, according to the COVID-Case Tracker by Johns Hopkins University, was 195,313 and the number of Covid-19 confirmed cases was 2,783,512. The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive impact on human health, causing sudden lifestyle changes, through social distancing and isolation at home, with social and economic consequences. Optimizing public health during this pandemic requires not only knowledge from the medical and biological sciences, but also of all human sciences related to lifestyle, social and behavioural studies, including dietary habits and lifestyle. Methods: : Our study aimed to investigate the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and lifestyle changes among Italian population aged ≥12 years. The study instrument comprised a structured questionnaire packet that inquired demographic information (age, gender, place of residence, current employment);anthropometrics data (reported weight and height);dietary habits information (Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, daily intake of certain foods, food frequency, number of meals/day);lifestyle habits information (grocery shopping, smoke habit, sleep quality and physical activity). The survey was conducted from 5 th to 24 th of April 2020. Results: : the perception of weight gain was observed in 48.6% of the population;3.3% of smokers decided to quit smoking;a slight increased physical activity has been reported, especially for bodyweight training, in 38.3% of respondents;the population group aged 18-30 years resulted to have a higher adherence to the Mediterranean Diet when compared to the youngers and the olders (p=0.000;p=0.000);15% of respondents turned to farmers or organic purchasing groups for fruit and vegetables, especially in North and Center Italy, where BMI values were lower. Conclusions: : In the present study, we provided for the first time data on the Italian population lifestyle, eating habits and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet pattern during the COVID-19 lockdown. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, our data need to be confirmed and investigated in future larger population studies.

2.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21266927

ABSTRACT

IntroductionAs COVID-19 roared through the world, governments worldwide enforced containment measures that affected various treatment pathways, including those for hip fracture (HF). This study aimed to measure process and outcome indicators related to the quality of care provided to non-COVID-19 elderly patients affected by HF in Emilia-Romagna, a region of Italy severely hit by the pandemic. MethodsWe collected the hospital discharge records of all patients admitted to the hospitals of Emilia-Romagna with a diagnosis of HF from January to May in the years 2019/2020. We analyzed surgery rate, surgery timeliness, length of hospital stay, timely rehabilitation, and 30-day mortality for each HF patient. We evaluated monthly data (2020 vs. 2019) with the chi-square and t-test, where appropriate. Logistic regression was used to investigate the differences in 30-day mortality. ResultsOur study included 5379 patients with HF. In April and May 2020, there was a significant increase in the proportion of HF patients that did not undergo timely surgery. In March 2020, we found a significant increase in mortality (OR = 2.22). Female sex (OR = 0.52), age [≥]90 years (OR = 4.33), surgery after 48 hours (OR = 3.08) and not receiving surgery (OR = 6.19) were significantly associated with increased mortality. After adjusting for the aforementioned factors, patients hospitalized in March 2020 still suffered higher mortality (OR = 2.21). ConclusionsOur results show a reduction in the overall quality of care provided to non-COVID-19 elderly patients affected by HF. The mortality rate of patients with HF increased significantly in March 2020. Patients characteristics and variations in processes of care partially explained this increase. Our analysis reveals the importance of including process and outcomes indicators, for both acute and post-acute care management issues, in emergency preparedness plans, to monitor healthcare systems capacities and capabilities.

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