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1.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection ; 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2177755

ABSTRACT

Objectives Evidence on the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant on vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant women is sparse. This study aimed to compare maternal and perinatal outcomes of women infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the Omicron wave in Italy, according to their vaccine protection. Methods This national prospective cohort study enrolled pregnant women with a positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab within seven days of hospital admission between January 1 and May 31, 2022. Women who received at least one dose of vaccine during pregnancy and those who completed the vaccine cycle with the first booster were considered protected against moderate/severe COVID-19 disease (MSCD). A multivariable logistic regression model evaluated the association between vaccine protection and disease severity. Maternal age, educational level, citizenship, area of birth, previous comorbidities, and obesity were analysed as potential risk factors. Results MSCD was rare (41/2147, 1.9%;95% CI 1.4-2.6), and the odds of developing it was significantly higher among unprotected women (OR 2.78;95% CI 1.39-5.57). Compared to protected women (n=1,069), the unprotected (n=1,078) were more often younger, with lower educational degree, and foreigners. A higher probability of MSCD was found among women with previous comorbidities (OR 2.86;95% CI 1.34-6.12) and those born in Asian countries (OR 3.05;95% CI 1.23-7.56). The percentage of preterm birth was higher among women with MSCD compared to milder cases (32.0% (8/25) versus 8.4% (161/1917), p<0.001) as well as the percentage of caesarean section (52.0% (13/25) versus 31.6% (606/1919), p=0.029). Conclusion Although severe maternal and perinatal outcomes were rare, their prevalence was significantly higher among women without vaccine protection. Vaccination during pregnancy has the potential to protect both the mother and the baby, and it is therefore strongly recommended.

2.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol ; 2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061571

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a laparoscopic technique to remove a scar pregnancy. DESIGN: Stepwise demonstration of the surgical technique. SETTING: Santa Croce and Carle Hospital, Cuneo. INTERVENTION: Patient B.B. is a woman referred to our center for a suspected cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) at 9 weeks gestation. CSP occurs approximately in 6% of all ectopic pregnancies. The estimated incidence is reported to be 1:1800 to 1:2500 in cesarean deliveries. Depending on its location, CSP can be categorized as either type 1, if the growth is in the uterine cavity, or type 2, if it expands toward the bladder and the abdominal cavity. If inadequately managed, it can lead to severe complications; most of them are hemorrhagic and can threaten the woman's life. There are several therapeutic approaches: local excision seems to be the most effective choice in type 2 CSP. In expert hands, the laparoscopic approach is perhaps the best surgical choice as tissue dissection, electrosurgical hemostasis, and vascular control can be effectively managed with minimal invasive access. Because severe intraoperative bleeding can occur, retroperitoneal vascular control is mandatory in this surgery. In type 1 CSP curettage, aspiration or hysteroscopic approach can be considered if the CSP is of small dimensions. A hysteroscopic approach can also be helpful in type 2 CSP during the laparoscopic removal, as intrauterine guidance. A potassium chloride local injection can be considered in a preoperative stage in the presence of a fetal heart rate. The systemic administration of methotrexate is usually ineffective as single agent, but it can be useful if administered as adjuvant therapy. Uterine artery embolization can be useful in an emergency setting to manage severe bleeding, but it can lead to complications in subsequent pregnancies and, more rarely, to premature ovarian failure. Considering poor bleeding at presentation, feasible dimensions, and the woman's desire for future pregnancy, ultrasound-guided aspiration and curettage was attempted. Because endouterine removal was incomplete, methotrexate injection was proposed as adjuvant therapy, but the administration was postponed as the patient tested positive for coronavirus disease 2019. A month later, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin level dropped from over 16 000 to 271 mU/mL, so an ultrasound and biochemical follow-up was performed. A month later, despite a low beta-human chorionic gonadotropin value, an increase in dimensions was observed at ultrasound, so surgical laparoscopic removal was offered. In this video article, laparoscopic removal of scar pregnancy is discussed in the following surgical steps: (1) Temporary closure of uterine arteries at the origin, using removable clips. (2) Retroperitoneal dissection to safely manage the scar pregnancy. (3) Dissection of the myometrial-pregnancy interface. (4) Double layer suture on the anterior uterine wall. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic surgical management is a very effective surgical approach to remove CSP. Knowledge of retroperitoneal dissection and vascular control is necessary to carry out this surgical intervention safely and effectively.

3.
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita ; 57(4):272-285, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1733123

ABSTRACT

Introduction. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pregnant women during the first pandemic wave in Italy, and to describe COVID-19 disease characteristics and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Materials and methods. National population-based prospective cohort study collecting information on women with SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, confirmed within 7 days from hospital admission. Results. The national SARS-CoV-2 rate was 6.04 per 1,000 births (95% CI 5.62-6.49) among pregnant women and 7.54 (95% CI 7.47-7.61) among women in reproductive age. 72.1% of the cohort developed mild COVID-19 disease without pneumonia nor need for ventilatory support. Severe disease was significantly associated with women’s previous comorbidities (OR 2.55;95% CI 0.98-6.90), obesity (OR 4.76;95% CI 1.79-12.66) and citizenship from High Migration Pressure Countries (OR 3.43;95% CI 1.27-9.25). Conclusions. During the first pandemic wave in Italy, the SARS-CoV-2 rate among pregnant women was lower compared to that detected among women of reproductive age, and risks of severe COVID-19 disease and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes were rare.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194629

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus emergency spread to Italy when little was known about the infection's impact on mothers and newborns. This study aims to describe the extent to which clinical practice has protected childbirth physiology and preserved the mother-child bond during the first wave of the pandemic in Italy. A national population-based prospective cohort study was performed enrolling women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted for childbirth to any Italian hospital from 25 February to 31 July 2020. All cases were prospectively notified, and information on peripartum care (mother-newborn separation, skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding, and rooming-in) and maternal and perinatal outcomes were collected in a structured form and entered in a web-based secure system. The paper describes a cohort of 525 SARS-CoV-2 positive women who gave birth. At hospital admission, 44.8% of the cohort was asymptomatic. At delivery, 51.9% of the mothers had a birth support person in the delivery room; the average caesarean section rate of 33.7% remained stable compared to the national figure. On average, 39.0% of mothers were separated from their newborns at birth, 26.6% practised skin-to-skin, 72.1% roomed in with their babies, and 79.6% of the infants received their mother's milk. The infants separated and not separated from their SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers both had good outcomes. At the beginning of the pandemic, childbirth raised awareness and concern due to limited available evidence and led to "better safe than sorry" care choices. An improvement of the peripartum care indicators was observed over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Cesarean Section , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Italy/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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