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PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267725, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869199


BACKGROUND: We aimed to study whether social patterns of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection changed in France throughout the year 2020, in light to the easing of social contact restrictions. METHODS: A population-based cohort of individuals aged 15 years or over was randomly selected from the national tax register to collect socio-economic data, migration history, and living conditions in May and November 2020. Home self-sampling on dried blood was proposed to a 10% random subsample in May and to all in November. A positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA IgG result against the virus spike protein (ELISA-S) was the primary outcome. The design, including sampling and post-stratification weights, was taken into account in univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Of the 134,391 participants in May, 107,759 completed the second questionnaire in November, and respectively 12,114 and 63,524 were tested. The national ELISA-S seroprevalence was 4.5% [95%CI: 4.0%-5.1%] in May and 6.2% [5.9%-6.6%] in November. It increased markedly in 18-24-year-old population from 4.8% to 10.0%, and among second-generation immigrants from outside Europe from 5.9% to 14.4%. This group remained strongly associated with seropositivity in November, after controlling for any contextual or individual variables, with an adjusted OR of 2.1 [1.7-2.7], compared to the majority population. In both periods, seroprevalence remained higher in healthcare professions than in other occupations. CONCLUSION: The risk of Covid-19 infection increased among young people and second-generation migrants between the first and second epidemic waves, in a context of less strict social restrictions, which seems to have reinforced territorialized socialization among peers.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , France/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e052888, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515302


OBJECTIVE: Although social inequalities in COVID-19 mortality by race, gender and socioeconomic status are well documented, less is known about social disparities in infection rates and their shift over time. We aim to study the evolution of social disparities in infection at the early stage of the epidemic in France with regard to the policies implemented. DESIGN: Random population-based prospective cohort. SETTING: From May to June 2020 in France. PARTICIPANTS: Adults included in the Epidémiologie et Conditions de Vie cohort (n=77 588). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported anosmia and/or ageusia in three categories: no symptom, during the first epidemic peak (in March 2020) or thereafter (during lockdown). RESULTS: In all, 2052 participants (1.53%) reported anosmia/ageusia. The social distribution of exposure factors (density of place of residence, overcrowded housing and working outside the home) was described. Multinomial regressions were used to identify changes in social variables (gender, class and race) associated with symptoms of anosmia/ageusia. Women were more likely to report symptoms during the peak and after. Racialised minorities accumulated more exposure risk factors than the mainstream population and were at higher risk of anosmia/ageusia during the peak and after. By contrast, senior executive professionals were the least exposed to the virus with the lower rate of working outside the home during lockdown. They were more affected than lower social classes at the peak of the epidemic, but this effect disappeared after the peak. CONCLUSION: The shift in the social profile of the epidemic was related to a shift in exposure factors under the implementation of a stringent stay-at-home order. Our study shows the importance to consider in a dynamic way the gender, socioeconomic and race direct and indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, notably to implement policies that do not widen health inequalities.

COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 705, 2021 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181098


BACKGROUND: Significant differences in COVID-19 incidence by gender, class and race/ethnicity are recorded in many countries in the world. Lockdown measures, shown to be effective in reducing the number of new cases, may not have been effective in the same way for all, failing to protect the most vulnerable populations. This survey aims to assess social inequalities in the trends in COVID-19 infections following lockdown. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey conducted among the general population in France in April 2020, during COVID-19 lockdown. Ten thousand one hundred one participants aged 18-64, from a national cohort who lived in the three metropolitan French regions most affected by the first wave of COVID-19. The main outcome was occurrence of possible COVID-19 symptoms, defined as the occurrence of sudden onset of cough, fever, dyspnea, ageusia and/or anosmia, that lasted more than 3 days in the 15 days before the survey. We used multinomial regression models to identify social and health factors related to possible COVID-19 before and during the lockdown. RESULTS: In all, 1304 (13.0%; 95% CI: 12.0-14.0%) reported cases of possible COVID-19. The effect of lockdown on the occurrence of possible COVID-19 was different across social hierarchies. The most privileged class individuals saw a significant decline in possible COVID-19 infections between the period prior to lockdown and during the lockdown (from 8.8 to 4.3%, P = 0.0001) while the decline was less pronounced among working class individuals (6.9% before lockdown and 5.5% during lockdown, P = 0.03). This differential effect of lockdown remained significant after adjusting for other factors including history of chronic disease. The odds of being infected during lockdown as opposed to the prior period increased by 57% among working class individuals (OR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.00-2.48). The same was true for those engaged in in-person professional activities during lockdown (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.03-2.29). CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown was associated with social inequalities in the decline in COVID-19 infections, calling for the adoption of preventive policies to account for living and working conditions. Such adoptions are critical to reduce social inequalities related to COVID-19, as working-class individuals also have the highest COVID-19 related mortality, due to higher prevalence of comorbidities.

COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Public Policy , Quarantine , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , France/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult