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1.
Radiology ; : 220069, 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861680

ABSTRACT

Background Post-Covid-19 condition describes symptoms following COVID-19 infection after four weeks. Symptoms are wide-ranging but breathlessness is common. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether the previously described lung abnormalities on Hp-XeMRI in post-hospitalised COVID-19 participants are also present in non-hospitalised participants with Post-Covid-19 condition. Methods In this prospective study, non-hospitalised Post-Covid-19 condition (NHLC) and post-hospitalised COVID-19 (PHC) participants were enrolled from 06/2020 to 08/2021. Participants had chest CT, hyperpolarized pulmonary 129Xenon MRI (Hp-XeMRI), pulmonary function tests, 1-minute sit-to-stand test and breathlessness questionnaires. Control subjects underwent HP-XeMRI only. CT scans were analysed for post COVID interstitial lung disease severity using a previously published scoring system, and Full-scale Airway Network (FAN) modelling. Analysis used group and pair-wise comparisons between participants and controls, and correlations between participant clinical and imaging data. Results A total of 11 NHLC (4:7 Male: Female, 44 ± 11 years, [37-50], (mean ± SD, [95% CI]) and 12 PHC (10:2, Male: Female, 58 ± 10 years, [52-64]) participants were included, with a significant difference in age between groups, p = 0.05. NHLC participants were 287 ± 79, [240-334] and PHC 143 ± 72, [105-190] days from infection, respectively. NHLC and PHC participants had normal or near normal CT scans (0.3/25 ± 0.6, [0-0.63] and 7/25 ± 5, [4-10], respectively). Gas transfer (DLco (%)) was different between NHLC and PHC participants (76 ± 8%, [73-83] vs 86 ± 8%, [80-91] respectively, p = 0.04) but there was no evidence of other differences in lung function. Red Blood Cell:Tissue Plasma (RBC:TP) mean was different between volunteers vs PHC (0.45 ± 0.07, [0.43-0.47] vs (0.31 ± 0.10, [0.24-0.37], respectively, p = 0.02) and volunteers vs NHLC (0.37 ± 0.10, [0.31-0.44], p = 0.03) participants, but not between NHLC and PHC participants (p = 0.26). FAN results did not correlate with DLco or Hp- XeMRI. Conclusion NHLC and PHC subjects showed Hp-XeMRI RBC:TP abnormalities, with NHLC participants demonstrating lower DLco than PHC participants despite having normal CT scans. See also the editorial by Parraga and Matheson.

2.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327338

ABSTRACT

Background: Long-COVID is an umbrella term used to describe ongoing symptoms following COVID-19 infection after four weeks. Symptoms are wide-ranging but breathlessness is one of the most common and can persist for months after the initial infection. Investigations including Computed Tomography (CT), and physiological measurements (lung function tests) are usually unremarkable. The mechanisms driving breathlessness remain unclear, and this may be hindering the development of effective treatments. Methods Eleven non-hospitalised Long-COVID (NHLC, 4 male), 12 post-hospitalised COVID-19 (PHC, 10 male) patients were recruited from a Post-COVID Assessment clinic, and thirteen healthy controls (6 female) were recruited to undergo Hyperpolarized Xenon Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Hp-XeMRI). NHLC and PHC participants underwent contemporaneous CT, Hp-XeMRI, lung function tests, 1-minute sit-to-stand test and breathlessness questionnaires. Statistical analysis included group and pair-wise comparisons between patients and controls, and correlations between patient clinical and imaging data. Results NHLC and PHC patients were 287 ± 79 [range 190-437] and 149 ± 68 [range 68-269] days from infection, respectively. All NHLC patients had normal CT scans, and the PHC had normal or near normal CT scans (0.3/25 ± 0.6 [range 0-2] and 7/25 ± 5 [range 4-8], respectively). There was a significant difference in TLco (%) between NHLC and PHC patients (76 ± 8 % vs 86 ± 8%, respectively, p = 0.04) but no differences in other measurements of lung function. There were significant differences in RBC:TP mean between volunteers (0.45 ± 0.07, range [0.33-0.55]) and PHC (0.31 ± 0.11, [range 0.16-0.37]) and NHLC (0.35 ± 0.09, [range 0.26-0.58]) patients, but not between NHLC and PHC (p = 0.26). Conclusion There are RBC:TP abnormalities in NHLC and PHC patients, with NHLC patients also demonstrating lower TLco than PHC patients despite their having normal CT scans. These abnormalities are present many months after the initial infection. Summary statement Hyperpolarized Xenon MRI and TLco demonstrate significantly impaired gas transfer in non-hospitalised long-COVID patients when all other investigations are normal.

3.
Radiology ; 301(1): E353-E360, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430241

ABSTRACT

Background SARS-CoV-2 targets angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-expressing cells in the respiratory tract. There are reports of breathlessness in patients many months after infection. Purpose To determine whether hyperpolarized xenon 129 MRI (XeMRI) imaging could be used to identify the possible cause of breathlessness in patients at 3 months after hospital discharge following COVID-19 infection. Materials and Methods This prospective study was undertaken between August and December of 2020, with patients and healthy control volunteers being enrolled. All patients underwent lung function tests; ventilation and dissolved-phase XeMRI, with the mean red blood cell (RBC) to tissue or plasma (TP) ratio being calculated; and a low-dose chest CT, with scans being scored for the degree of abnormalities after COVID-19. Healthy control volunteers underwent XeMRI. The intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated for volunteer and patient scans to assess repeatability. A Wilcoxon rank sum test and Cohen effect size calculation were performed to assess differences in the RBC/TP ratio between patients and control volunteers. Results Nine patients (mean age, 57 years ± 7 [standard deviation]; six male patients) and five volunteers (mean age, 29 years ± 3; five female volunteers) were enrolled. The mean time from hospital discharge for patients was 169 days (range, 116-254 days). There was a difference in the RBC/TP ratio between patients and control volunteers (0.3 ± 0.1 vs 0.5 ± 0.1, respectively; P = .001; effect size, 1.36). There was significant difference between the RBC and gas phase spectral full width at half maximum between volunteers and patients (median ± range, 567 ± 1 vs 507 ± 81 [P = .002] and 104 ± 2 vs 122 ± 17 [P = .004], respectively). Results were reproducible, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.82 and 0.88 being demonstrated for patients and volunteers, respectively. Participants had normal or nearly normal CT scans (mean, seven of 25; range, zero of 25 to 10 of 25). Conclusion Hyperpolarized xenon 129 MRI results showed alveolar capillary diffusion limitation in all nine patients after COVID-19 pneumonia, despite normal or nearly normal results at CT. © RSNA, 2021 See also the editorial by Dietrich in this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Xenon Isotopes , Adult , Aged , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767949

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 can lead to severe illness with COVID-19. Outcomes of patients requiring mechanical ventilation are poor. Awake proning in COVID-19 improves oxygenation, but on data clinical outcomes is limited. This single-centre retrospective study aimed to assess whether successful awake proning of patients with COVID-19, requiring respiratory support (continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) or high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO)) on a respiratory high-dependency unit (HDU), is associated with improved outcomes. HDU care included awake proning by respiratory physiotherapists. Of 565 patients admitted with COVID-19, 71 (12.6%) were managed on the respiratory HDU, with 48 of these (67.6%) requiring respiratory support. Patients managed with CPAP alone 22/48 (45.8%) were significantly less likely to die than patients who required transfer onto HFNO 26/48 (54.2%): CPAP mortality 36.4%; HFNO mortality 69.2%, (p=0.023); however, multivariate analysis demonstrated that increasing age and the inability to awake prone were the only independent predictors of COVID-19 mortality. The mortality of patients with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support is considerable. Data from our cohort managed on HDU show that CPAP and awake proning are possible in a selected population of COVID-19, and may be useful. Further prospective studies are required.


Subject(s)
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Patient Positioning/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prone Position , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom , Wakefulness
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