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Med (N Y) ; 3(4): 233-248.e6, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882364


Background: Patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop a febrile pro-inflammatory cytokinemia with accelerated progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here we report the results of a phase 2, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous (IV) plasma-purified alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) for moderate to severe ARDS secondary to COVID-19 (EudraCT 2020-001391-15). Methods: Patients (n = 36) were randomized to receive weekly placebo, weekly AAT (Prolastin, Grifols, S.A.; 120 mg/kg), or AAT once followed by weekly placebo. The primary endpoint was the change in plasma interleukin (IL)-6 concentration at 1 week. In addition to assessing safety and tolerability, changes in plasma levels of IL-1ß, IL-8, IL-10, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1) and clinical outcomes were assessed as secondary endpoints. Findings: Treatment with IV AAT resulted in decreased inflammation and was safe and well tolerated. The study met its primary endpoint, with decreased circulating IL-6 concentrations at 1 week in the treatment group. This was in contrast to the placebo group, where IL-6 was increased. Similarly, plasma sTNFR1 was substantially decreased in the treatment group while remaining unchanged in patients receiving placebo. IV AAT did not definitively reduce levels of IL-1ß, IL-8, and IL-10. No difference in mortality or ventilator-free days was observed between groups, although a trend toward decreased time on ventilator was observed in AAT-treated patients. Conclusions: In patients with COVID-19 and moderate to severe ARDS, treatment with IV AAT was safe, feasible, and biochemically efficacious. The data support progression to a phase 3 trial and prompt further investigation of AAT as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic. Funding: ECSA-2020-009; Elaine Galwey Research Bursary.

COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Interleukin-10/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/therapeutic use , Interleukin-8/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/therapeutic use , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/drug therapy
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 9(2): 266-273, 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856402


Patients with severe alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) are at increased risk for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly if they smoke. This, coupled with their predilection for dysregulated inflammation and autoimmunity, makes affected individuals priority candidates for vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To promote vaccine uptake effectively, an understanding of the factors motivating people to proceed with vaccination is essential. The attitudes of patients with AATD towards COVID-19 vaccination have yet to be described. We prospectively studied 170 Pi*ZZ genotype AATD patients, 150 patients with nonhereditary (Pi*MM genotype) COPD and 140 Pi*MM genotype individuals without lung disease receiving first-dose vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca). Patient attitudes towards vaccination and motivations for getting vaccinated were assessed at the time of the vaccine being offered. Following completion of the 2-dose vaccine series, Pi*ZZ patients were then re-assessed regarding their attitudes towards booster vaccination. The most common primary motivation for accepting vaccination in Pi*ZZ participants ≥50 years old was a fear of illness or death from COVID-19. In contrast, Pi*ZZ patients <50 years most often cited a desire to socialize. The motivation pattern of younger Pi*ZZ AATD patients was similar to that of non-deficient individuals of comparable age, whereas older Pi*ZZ individuals were more closely aligned with Pi*MM COPD and differed from age-matched controls without lung disease. When considering booster vaccination, Pi*ZZ patients were increasingly motivated by a desire to reacquire social freedoms. A desire to reduce the risk of transmission was not a prominent consideration in any of the groups studied. The most commonly cited reason for booster hesitancy was a lack of incentive, given that no additional social freedoms were available to triple-vaccinated individuals compared to those who were double-vaccinated at the time. Taken together, these data may inform policymakers attempting to promote vaccine uptake among patients with AATD.