Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 11 de 11
Filter
2.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 9: 90-98, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259572

ABSTRACT

No specific drugs have been approved for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to date as the development of antivirals usually requires time. Therefore, assessment and use of currently available antiviral drugs is critical for a timely response to the current pandemic. Here, we have reviewed anti-SARS-CoV-2 potencies of available antiviral drug groups such as fusion inhibitors, protease inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors, and M2 ion-channel protein blockers. Although clinical trials to assess the efficacy of these antivirals are ongoing, this review highlights important information including docking and modeling analyses, in vitro studies, as well as results from clinical uses of these antivirals against COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(1): 4-14, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240251

ABSTRACT

Newly emerging variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are continuously posing high global public health concerns and panic resulting in waves of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Depending on the extent of genomic variations, mutations and adaptation, few of the variants gain the ability to spread quickly across many countries, acquire higher virulency and ability to cause severe disease, morbidity and mortality. These variants have been implicated in lessening the efficacy of the current COVID-19 vaccines and immunotherapies resulting in break-through viral infections in vaccinated individuals and recovered patients. Altogether, these could hinder the protective herd immunity to be achieved through the ongoing progressive COVID-19 vaccination. Currently, the only variant of interest of SARS-CoV-2 is Omicron that was first identified in South Africa. In this review, we present the overview on the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants with a special focus on the Omicron variant, its lineages and hybrid variants. We discuss the hypotheses of the origin, genetic change and underlying molecular mechanism behind higher transmissibility and immune escape of Omicron variant. Major concerns related to Omicron including the efficacy of the current available immunotherapeutics and vaccines, transmissibility, disease severity, and mortality are discussed. In the last part, challenges and strategies to counter Omicron variant, its lineages and hybrid variants amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic are presented.

4.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066549

ABSTRACT

The 2022 multi-country monkeypox outbreak in humans has brought new public health adversity on top of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The disease has spread to 104 countries throughout six continents of the world, with the highest burden in North America and Europe. The etiologic agent, monkeypox virus (MPXV), has been known since 1959 after isolation from infected monkeys, and virulence among humans has been reported since the 1970s, mainly in endemic countries in West and Central Africa. However, the disease has re-emerged in 2022 at an unprecedented pace, with particular concern on its human-to-human transmissibility and community spread in non-endemic regions. As a mitigation effort, healthcare workers, public health policymakers, and the general public worldwide need to be well-informed on this relatively neglected viral disease. Here, we provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of monkeypox, including the following aspects: epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. In addition, the current review discusses the preventive and control measures, the latest vaccine developments, and the future research areas in this re-emerging viral disease that was declared as a public health emergency of international concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Vaccines , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , Disease Outbreaks
5.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917639

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus, which caused the COVID-19 infection, was discovered two and a half years ago. It caused a global pandemic, resulting in millions of deaths and substantial damage to the worldwide economy. Currently, only a few vaccines and antiviral drugs are available to combat SARS-CoV-2. However, there has been an increase in virus-related research, including exploring new drugs and their repurposing. Since discovering penicillin, natural products, particularly those derived from microbes, have been viewed as an abundant source of lead compounds for drug discovery. These compounds treat bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral infections. This review incorporates evidence from the available research publications on isolated and identified natural products derived from microbes with anti-hepatitis, anti-herpes simplex, anti-HIV, anti-influenza, anti-respiratory syncytial virus, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 properties. About 131 compounds with in vitro antiviral activity and 1 compound with both in vitro and in vivo activity have been isolated from microorganisms, and the mechanism of action for some of these compounds has been described. Recent reports have shown that natural products produced by the microbes, such as aurasperone A, neochinulin A and B, and aspulvinone D, M, and R, have potent in vitro anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, targeting the main protease (Mpro). In the near and distant future, these molecules could be used to develop antiviral drugs for treating infections and preventing the spread of disease.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/pharmacology , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 3006-3016, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844114

ABSTRACT

Broad-spectrum antiviral agents targeting viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) are expected to be a key therapeutic strategy in the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its future variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19. Molnupiravir is a nucleoside analog that in vivo experiments have been reported to inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Clinical trials of molnupiravir as a therapy for patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 also suggest its significant therapeutic efficacy in comparison to placebo. Molnupiravir is lethally mutagenic against viral RNA, but its effect on host cell DNA is being questioned. Herein, the safety concerns of molnupiravir are discussed with recent findings from published reports and clinical trials. The unchanged efficacy of molnupiravir against mutated SARS-CoV-2 variants is also highlighted. With its administration via the oral route, molnupiravir is expected to turn the tide of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Mutagens/pharmacology , Pandemics , Pharmaceutical Preparations
7.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12: 100826, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293636

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There is no specific antiviral treatment available for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Among the possible natural constituents is carrageenan, a polymer derived from marine algae that possesses a variety of antiviral properties. The purpose of this review was to summarize the evidence supporting carrageenan subtypes' antiviral activity against the emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar searches were conducted for publications using the terms 'carrageenan', 'iota carrageenan', 'kappa carrageenan', lambda-carrageenan', 'coronavirus', 'common cold', 'rhinovirus', and 'SARS-CoV-2' search was also done in grey literature to increase our understanding. A search for the word "carrageenan" was also carried out. Most of the publications were discussed in narrative. RESULTS: Carrageenan has been shown to have potent antiviral activity against both coronaviruses (coronavirus NL63, SARS-CoV-2) and non-coronaviruses such as dengue virus, herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, sindbis virus, human immunodeficiency virus, influenza virus, human papillomavirus, rabies virus, junin virus, tacaribe virus, African swine fever, bovine herpes virus, suid herpes virus, and rhinovirus. No in vivo study has been conducted using carrageenan as an anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent. The majority of the in vivo research was done on influenza, a respiratory virus that causes common cold together with coronavirus. Thus, various clinical trials were conducted to determine the transferability of these in vitro data to clinical effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2. When combined with oral ivermectin, nasally administered iota-carrageenan improved outcome in COVID-19 patients. It is still being tested in clinics for single-dose administration. CONCLUSION: Though the carrageenan exhibited potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 and was used to treat COVID-19 under emergency protocol in conjunction with oral medications such as ivermectin, there is no solid evidence from clinical trials to support its efficacy. Thus, clinical trials are required to assess its efficacy for COVID-19 treatment prior to broad application.

8.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 16(12): 3061-3073, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006022

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to constitute a public health emergency of international concern. Multiple vaccine candidates for COVID-19, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), have entered clinical trials. However, some evidence suggests that patients who have recovered from COVID-19 can be reinfected. For example, in China, two discharged COVID-19 patients who had recovered and fulfilled the discharge criteria for COVID-19 were retested positive to a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the virus. This finding is critical and could hamper COVID-19 vaccine development. This review offers literature-based evidence of reinfection with SARS-CoV-2, provides explanation for the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection both from the agent and host points of view, and discusses its implication for COVID-19 vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Development/trends , Reinfection/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Drug Development/methods , Humans , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
9.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 9: 123-127, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to summarize the antiviral activities of remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. METHODS: Available publications were systematically explored on some databases and gray literature was examined. Publications were discussed narratively. RESULTS: Remdesivir inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication, reduces viral load, and exerts protective effects in SARS-CoV-2 infected animals. Remdesivir also reduces the pathological process, alleviates mild symptoms, and improves pulmonary lesions in SARS-CoV-2-infecetd animals. Remdesivir has been used as a compassionate drug for treating COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Although remdesivir has shown potent antiviral activities, more efficacy assessments are urgently warranted in clinical trials.

10.
Clin. Epidemiol. Global Health ; 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-679731

ABSTRACT

No specific drugs have been approved for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to date as the development of antivirals usually requires time. Therefore, assessment and use of currently available antiviral drugs is critical for a timely response to the current pandemic. Here, we have reviewed anti-SARS-CoV-2 potencies of available antiviral drug groups such as fusion inhibitors, protease inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors, and M2 ion-channel protein blockers. Although clinical trials to assess the efficacy of these antivirals are ongoing, this review highlights important information including docking and modeling analyses, in vitro studies, as well as results from clinical uses of these antivirals against COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Non-conventional | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-717754

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major global threat. With no effective antiviral drugs, the repurposing of many currently available drugs has been considered. One such drug is ivermectin, an FDA-approved antiparasitic agent that has been shown to exhibit antiviral activity against a broad range of viruses. Recent studies have suggested that ivermectin inhibits the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), thus suggesting its potential for use against COVID-19. This review has summarized the evidence derived from docking and modeling analysis, in vitro and in vivo studies, and results from new investigational drug protocols, as well as clinical trials, if available, which will be effective in supporting the prospective use of ivermectin as an alternative treatment for COVID-19.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL