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2.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with SARS-CoV-2 who present with gastrointestinal symptoms have a milder clinical course than those who do not. Risk factors for severe COVID-19 disease include increased adiposity and sarcopenia. AIMS: To determine whether body composition risk factors are associated with worse outcomes among patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who underwent abdominal CT scan for clinical indications. Abdominal body composition measures including skeletal muscle index (SMI), intramuscular adipose tissue index (IMATI), visceral adipose tissue index (VATI), subcutaneous adipose tissue index (SATI), visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VAT/SAT ratio), and liver and spleen attenuation were collected. The association between body composition measurements and 30-day mortality was evaluated in patients with and without gastrointestinal symptoms at the time of positive SARS-CoV-2 test. RESULTS: Abdominal CT scans of 190 patients with COVID-19 were evaluated. Gastrointestinal symptoms including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain were present in 117 (62%). Among patients without gastrointestinal symptoms, those who died had greater IMATI (p = 0.049), less SMI (p = 0.010), and a trend toward a greater VAT/SAT ratio. Among patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, those who died had significantly greater IMATI (p = 0.025) but no differences in other measures. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with COVID-19, those without gastrointestinal symptoms showed the expected associations between mortality and low SMI, high IMATI, and trend toward higher VAT/SAT ratio, but those with gastrointestinal symptoms did not. Future studies should explore the mechanisms for the altered disease course in patients with COVID-19 who present with gastrointestinal symptoms.

3.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 601-615, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517636

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has resulted in global healthcare crises and strained health resources. As the population of patients recovering from COVID-19 grows, it is paramount to establish an understanding of the healthcare issues surrounding them. COVID-19 is now recognized as a multi-organ disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Similarly to post-acute viral syndromes described in survivors of other virulent coronavirus epidemics, there are increasing reports of persistent and prolonged effects after acute COVID-19. Patient advocacy groups, many members of which identify themselves as long haulers, have helped contribute to the recognition of post-acute COVID-19, a syndrome characterized by persistent symptoms and/or delayed or long-term complications beyond 4 weeks from the onset of symptoms. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on post-acute COVID-19, its pathophysiology and its organ-specific sequelae. Finally, we discuss relevant considerations for the multidisciplinary care of COVID-19 survivors and propose a framework for the identification of those at high risk for post-acute COVID-19 and their coordinated management through dedicated COVID-19 clinics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Patient Advocacy , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
4.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0005521, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467670

ABSTRACT

Bacterial-viral interactions in saliva have been associated with morbidity and mortality for respiratory viruses such as influenza and SARS-CoV. However, such transkingdom relationships during SARS-CoV-2 infection are currently unknown. Here, we aimed to elucidate the relationship between saliva microbiota and SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of newly hospitalized COVID-19 patients and controls. We used 16S rRNA sequencing to compare microbiome diversity and taxonomic composition between COVID-19 patients (n = 53) and controls (n = 59) and based on saliva SARS-CoV-2 viral load as measured using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The saliva microbiome did not differ markedly between COVID-19 patients and controls. However, we identified significant differential abundance of numerous taxa based on saliva SARS-CoV-2 viral load, including multiple species within Streptococcus and Prevotella. IMPORTANCE Alterations to the saliva microbiome based on SARS-CoV-2 viral load indicate potential biologically relevant bacterial-viral relationships which may affect clinical outcomes in COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/classification , COVID-19/pathology , Microbial Interactions/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/microbiology , Bacteria/genetics , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Microbiota/genetics , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Viral Load
5.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 34(3): e14251, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 frequently presents with acute gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, but it is unclear how common these symptoms are after recovery. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of GI symptoms after COVID-19. METHODS: The medical records of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between March 1 and June 30, 2020, were reviewed for the presence of GI symptoms at primary care follow-up 1 to 6 months later. The prevalence of new GI symptoms was estimated, and risk factors were assessed. Additionally, an anonymous survey was used to determine the prevalence of new GI symptoms among online support groups for COVID-19 survivors. KEY RESULTS: Among 147 patients without pre-existing GI conditions, the most common GI symptoms at the time of hospitalization for COVID-19 were diarrhea (23%), nausea/vomiting (21%), and abdominal pain (6.1%), and at a median follow-up time of 106 days, the most common GI symptoms were abdominal pain (7.5%), constipation (6.8%), diarrhea (4.1%), and vomiting (4.1%), with 16% reporting at least one GI symptom at follow-up (95% confidence interval 11 to 23%). Among 285 respondents to an online survey for self-identified COVID-19 survivors without pre-existing GI symptoms, 113 (40%) reported new GI symptoms after COVID-19 (95% CI 33.9 to 45.6%). CONCLUSION AND INFERENCES: At a median of 106 days after discharge following hospitalization for COVID-19, 16% of unselected patients reported new GI symptoms at follow-up. 40% of patients from COVID survivor groups reported new GI symptoms. The ongoing GI effects of COVID-19 after recovery require further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Prevalence , Primary Health Care , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Survivors , Young Adult
6.
Gastroenterology ; 161(1): 360-361, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331406
7.
Gastroenterology ; 160(4): 1430-1431, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-859830
8.
Gastroenterology ; 161(1): 360-361, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294518
9.
Gastroenterology ; 161(1): 360-361, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246434
10.
Gastroenterology ; 160(5): 1900-1901, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189303
11.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 601-615, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147038

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has resulted in global healthcare crises and strained health resources. As the population of patients recovering from COVID-19 grows, it is paramount to establish an understanding of the healthcare issues surrounding them. COVID-19 is now recognized as a multi-organ disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Similarly to post-acute viral syndromes described in survivors of other virulent coronavirus epidemics, there are increasing reports of persistent and prolonged effects after acute COVID-19. Patient advocacy groups, many members of which identify themselves as long haulers, have helped contribute to the recognition of post-acute COVID-19, a syndrome characterized by persistent symptoms and/or delayed or long-term complications beyond 4 weeks from the onset of symptoms. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on post-acute COVID-19, its pathophysiology and its organ-specific sequelae. Finally, we discuss relevant considerations for the multidisciplinary care of COVID-19 survivors and propose a framework for the identification of those at high risk for post-acute COVID-19 and their coordinated management through dedicated COVID-19 clinics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Patient Advocacy , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
12.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(12): 4398-4405, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042837

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in patients with COVID-19, but prevalence of co-infection with enteric pathogens is unknown. AIMS: This study assessed the prevalence of enteric infections among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We evaluated 4973 hospitalized patients ≥ 18 years of age tested for COVID-19 from March 11 through April 28, 2020, at two academic hospitals. The primary exposure was a positive COVID-19 test. The primary outcome was detection of a gastrointestinal pathogen by PCR stool testing. RESULTS: Among 4973 hospitalized individuals, 311 were tested for gastrointestinal infections (204 COVID-19 positive, 107 COVID-19 negative). Patients with COVID-19 were less likely to test positive compared to patients without COVID-19 (10% vs 22%, p < 0.01). This trend was driven by lower rates of non-C.difficile infections (11% vs 22% in COVID-19 positive vs. negative, respectively, p = 0.04), but not C. difficile infection (5.1% vs. 8.2%, p = 0.33). On multivariable analysis, infection with COVID-19 remained significantly associated with lower odds of concurrent GI infection (aOR 0.49, 95% CI 0.24-0.97), again driven by reduced non-C.difficile infection. Testing for both C.difficile and non-C.difficile enteric infection decreased dramatically during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Pathogens aside from C.difficile do not appear to be a significant contributor to diarrhea in COVID-19 positive patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Clostridium Infections/microbiology , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Young Adult
13.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(7): 1402-1409.e1, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807692

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Our understanding of outcomes and disease time course of COVID-19 in patients with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms remains limited. In this study we characterize the disease course and severity of COVID-19 among hospitalized patients with gastrointestinal manifestations in a large, diverse cohort from the Unites States. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated hospitalized individuals with COVID-19 between March 11 and April 28, 2020 at two affiliated hospitals in New York City. We evaluated the association between GI symptoms and death, and also explored disease duration, from symptom onset to death or discharge. RESULTS: Of 2804 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, the 1,084 (38.7%) patients with GI symptoms were younger (aOR for age ≥75, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.45-0.77) and had more co-morbidities (aOR for modified Charlson comorbidity score ≥2, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.48) compared to those without GI symptoms. Individuals with GI symptoms had better outcomes, with a lower likelihood of intubation (aHR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.55-0.79) and death (aHR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59-0.87), after adjusting for clinical factors. These patients had a longer median disease course from symptom onset to discharge (13.8 vs 10.8 days, log-rank p = .048; among 769 survivors with available symptom onset time), which was driven by longer time from symptom onset to hospitalization (7.4 vs 5.4 days, log-rank P < .01). CONCLUSION: Hospitalized patients with GI manifestations of COVID-19 have a reduced risk of intubation and death, but may have a longer overall disease course driven by duration of symptoms prior to hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , New York City , Retrospective Studies
14.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(8): 2545-2554, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-758086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted the practice of endoscopy, but characteristics of COVID patients undergoing endoscopy have not been adequately described. AIMS: To compare findings, clinical outcomes, and patient characteristics of endoscopies performed during the pandemic in patients with and without COVID-19. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter study of adult endoscopies at six academic hospitals in New York between March 16 and April 30, 2020. Patient and procedure characteristics including age, sex, indication, findings, interventions, and outcomes were compared in patients testing positive, negative, or untested for COVID-19. RESULTS: Six hundred and five endoscopies were performed on 545 patients during the study period. There were 84 (13.9%), 255 (42.2%), and 266 (44.0%) procedures on COVID-positive, negative, and untested patients, respectively. COVID patients were more likely to undergo endoscopy for gastrointestinal bleeding or gastrostomy tube placement, and COVID patients with gastrointestinal bleeding more often required hemostatic interventions on multivariable logistic regression. COVID patients had increased length of stay, intensive care unit admission, and intubation rate. Twenty-seven of 521 patients (5.2%) with no or negative COVID testing prior to endoscopy later tested positive, a median of 13.5 days post-procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopies in COVID patients were more likely to require interventions, due either to more severe illness or a higher threshold to perform endoscopy. A significant number of patients endoscoped without testing were subsequently found to be COVID-positive. Gastroenterologists in areas affected by the pandemic must adapt to changing patterns of endoscopy practice and ensure pre-endoscopy COVID testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Endoscopy/trends , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Endoscopy/standards , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
15.
Nat Med ; 26(7): 1017-1032, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639177

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 is most well known for causing substantial respiratory pathology, it can also result in several extrapulmonary manifestations. These conditions include thrombotic complications, myocardial dysfunction and arrhythmia, acute coronary syndromes, acute kidney injury, gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatocellular injury, hyperglycemia and ketosis, neurologic illnesses, ocular symptoms, and dermatologic complications. Given that ACE2, the entry receptor for the causative coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is expressed in multiple extrapulmonary tissues, direct viral tissue damage is a plausible mechanism of injury. In addition, endothelial damage and thromboinflammation, dysregulation of immune responses, and maladaptation of ACE2-related pathways might all contribute to these extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. Here we review the extrapulmonary organ-specific pathophysiology, presentations and management considerations for patients with COVID-19 to aid clinicians and scientists in recognizing and monitoring the spectrum of manifestations, and in developing research priorities and therapeutic strategies for all organ systems involved.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Organ Specificity , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adaptive Immunity/physiology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Progression , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology , Virus Internalization
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