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1.
Public Health Rep ; : 333549231163531, 2023 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266117

ABSTRACT

Early during the COVID-19 pandemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) leveraged an existing surveillance system infrastructure to monitor COVID-19 cases and deaths in the United States. Given the time needed to report individual-level (also called line-level) COVID-19 case and death data containing detailed information from individual case reports, CDC designed and implemented a new aggregate case surveillance system to inform emergency response decisions more efficiently, with timelier indicators of emerging areas of concern. We describe the processes implemented by CDC to operationalize this novel, multifaceted aggregate surveillance system for collecting COVID-19 case and death data to track the spread and impact of the SARS-CoV-2 virus at national, state, and county levels. We also review the processes established to acquire, process, and validate the aggregate number of cases and deaths due to COVID-19 in the United States at the county and jurisdiction levels during the pandemic. These processes include time-saving tools and strategies implemented to collect and validate authoritative COVID-19 case and death data from jurisdictions, such as web scraping to automate data collection and algorithms to identify and correct data anomalies. This topical review highlights the need to prepare for future emergencies, such as novel disease outbreaks, by having an event-agnostic aggregate surveillance system infrastructure in place to supplement line-level case reporting for near-real-time situational awareness and timely data.

2.
Epidemics ; 39: 100580, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907009

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns about hospital capacity in the United States led to a demand for models that forecast COVID-19 hospital admissions. These short-term forecasts were needed to support planning efforts by providing decision-makers with insight about future demands for health care capacity and resources. We present a SARIMA time-series model called Gecko developed for this purpose. We evaluate its historical performance using metrics such as mean absolute error, predictive interval coverage, and weighted interval scores, and compare to alternative hospital admission forecasting models. We find that Gecko outperformed baseline approaches and was among the most accurate models for forecasting hospital admissions at the state and national levels from January-May 2021. This work suggests that simple statistical methods can provide a viable alternative to traditional epidemic models for short-term forecasting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lizards , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Forecasting , Hospitals , Humans , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 770039, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686562

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly stressed healthcare systems. The addition of monoclonal antibody (mAb) infusions, which prevent severe disease and reduce hospitalizations, to the repertoire of COVID-19 countermeasures offers the opportunity to reduce system stress but requires strategic planning and use of novel approaches. Our objective was to develop a web-based decision-support tool to help existing and future mAb infusion facilities make better and more informed staffing and capacity decisions. Materials and Methods: Using real-world observations from three medical centers operating with federal field team support, we developed a discrete-event simulation model and performed simulation experiments to assess performance of mAb infusion sites under different conditions. Results: 162,000 scenarios were evaluated by simulations. Our analyses revealed that it was more effective to add check-in staff than to add additional nurses for middle-to-large size sites with ≥2 infusion nurses; that scheduled appointments performed better than walk-ins when patient load was not high; and that reducing infusion time was particularly impactful when load on resources was only slightly above manageable levels. Discussion: Physical capacity, check-in staff, and infusion time were as important as nurses for mAb sites. Health systems can effectively operate an infusion center under different conditions to provide mAb therapeutics even with relatively low investments in physical resources and staff. Conclusion: Simulations of mAb infusion sites were used to create a capacity planning tool to optimize resource utility and allocation in constrained pandemic conditions, and more efficiently treat COVID-19 patients at existing and future mAb infusion sites.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Humans , Pandemics , Workforce
4.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-32, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625403

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibody therapeutics to treat COVID-19 have been authorized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration under Emergency Use Authorization (EUA). Many barriers exist when deploying a novel therapeutic during an ongoing pandemic, and it is critical to assess the needs of incorporating monoclonal antibody infusions into pandemic response activities. We examined the monoclonal antibody infusion site process during the COVID-19 pandemic and conducted a descriptive analysis using data from three sites at medical centers in the U.S. supported by the National Disaster Medical System. Monoclonal antibody implementation success factors included engagement with local medical providers, therapy batch preparation, placing the infusion center in proximity to emergency services, and creating procedures resilient to EUA changes. Infusion process challenges included confirming patient SARS-CoV-2 positivity, strained staff, scheduling, and pharmacy coordination. Infusion sites are effective when integrated into pre-existing pandemic response ecosystems and can be implemented with limited staff and physical resources.

5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(8): ofab398, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are a promising treatment for limiting the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and decreasing strain on hospitals. Their use, however, remains limited, particularly in disadvantaged populations. METHODS: Electronic health records were reviewed from SARS-CoV-2 patients at a single medical center in the United States that initiated mAb infusions in January 2021 with the support of the US Department of Health and Human Services' National Disaster Medical System. Patients who received mAbs were compared with untreated patients from the time period before mAb availability who met eligibility criteria for mAb treatment. We used logistic regression to measure the effect of mAb treatment on the risk of hospitalization or emergency department (ED) visit within 30 days of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 598 COVID-19 patients, 270 (45%) received bamlanivimab and 328 (55%) were untreated. Two hundred thirty-one patients (39%) were Hispanic. Among treated patients, 5/270 (1.9%) presented to the ED or required hospitalization within 30 days of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, compared with 39/328 (12%) untreated patients (P < .001). After adjusting for age, gender, and comorbidities, the risk of ED visit or hospitalization was 82% lower in mAb-treated patients compared with untreated patients (95% CI, 56%-94%). CONCLUSIONS: In this diverse, real-world COVID-19 patient population, mAb treatment significantly decreased the risk of subsequent ED visit or hospitalization. Broader treatment with mAbs, including in disadvantaged patient populations, can decrease the burden on hospitals and should be facilitated in all populations in the United States to ensure health equity.

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