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1.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1945998221097656, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820025

ABSTRACT

Anecdotal clinical observation suggests that rates of chemosensory dysfunction associated with COVID-19 infection may be decreasing. To investigate, the National COVID Cohort Collaborative database was queried for all patients with and without smell and taste loss within 2 weeks of COVID-19 diagnosis. Six-week periods of peak variant prevalence were selected by using CoVariants.org for analysis. Of 3,678,214 patients with COVID-19 in the database, 616,318 met inclusion criteria during the time intervals of interest, with 3431 having an associated smell or taste disturbance diagnosis. With the initial/untyped variant set as the baseline, the odds ratios for alpha, delta, and omicron (December 27, 2021-February 7, 2022) were 0.50 (95% CI, 0.45-0.55; P < .0001), 0.44 (95% CI, 0.41-0.48; P < .0001), and 0.17 (95% CI, 0.15-0.18; P < .0001), respectively. These data strongly support the clinical observation that patients infected with more recent variants are at a significantly lower risk of developing associated chemosensory loss.

2.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(2): 153-162, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598451

ABSTRACT

Importance: Persons with immune dysfunction have a higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes. However, these patients were largely excluded from SARS-CoV-2 vaccine clinical trials, creating a large evidence gap. Objective: To identify the incidence rate and incidence rate ratio (IRR) for COVID-19 breakthrough infection after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among persons with or without immune dysfunction. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study analyzed data from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C), a partnership that developed a secure, centralized electronic medical record-based repository of COVID-19 clinical data from academic medical centers across the US. Persons who received at least 1 dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine between December 10, 2020, and September 16, 2021, were included in the sample. Main Outcomes and Measures: Vaccination, COVID-19 diagnosis, immune dysfunction diagnoses (ie, HIV infection, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, solid organ transplant, and bone marrow transplantation), other comorbid conditions, and demographic data were accessed through the N3C Data Enclave. Breakthrough infection was defined as a COVID-19 infection that was contracted on or after the 14th day of vaccination, and the risk after full or partial vaccination was assessed for patients with or without immune dysfunction using Poisson regression with robust SEs. Poisson regression models were controlled for a study period (before or after [pre- or post-Delta variant] June 20, 2021), full vaccination status, COVID-19 infection before vaccination, demographic characteristics, geographic location, and comorbidity burden. Results: A total of 664 722 patients in the N3C sample were included. These patients had a median (IQR) age of 51 (34-66) years and were predominantly women (n = 378 307 [56.9%]). Overall, the incidence rate for COVID-19 breakthrough infection was 5.0 per 1000 person-months among fully vaccinated persons but was higher after the Delta variant became the dominant SARS-CoV-2 strain (incidence rate before vs after June 20, 2021, 2.2 [95% CI, 2.2-2.2] vs 7.3 [95% CI, 7.3-7.4] per 1000 person-months). Compared with partial vaccination, full vaccination was associated with a 28% reduced risk for breakthrough infection (adjusted IRR [AIRR], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.68-0.76). People with a breakthrough infection after full vaccination were more likely to be older and women. People with HIV infection (AIRR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.18-1.49), rheumatoid arthritis (AIRR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.32), and solid organ transplant (AIRR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.96-2.38) had a higher rate of breakthrough infection. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that full vaccination was associated with reduced risk of COVID-19 breakthrough infection, regardless of the immune status of patients. Despite full vaccination, persons with immune dysfunction had substantially higher risk for COVID-19 breakthrough infection than those without such a condition. For persons with immune dysfunction, continued use of nonpharmaceutical interventions (eg, mask wearing) and alternative vaccine strategies (eg, additional doses or immunogenicity testing) are recommended even after full vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Distribution
3.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 116:S505-S506, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1478580
4.
Transplant Direct ; 7(11): e775, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467456

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. The National COVID Cohort Collaborative was developed to facilitate analysis of patient-level data for those tested for COVID-19 across the United States. METHODS: In this study, we identified a cohort of SOT recipients testing positive or negative for COVID-19 (COVID+ and COVID-, respectively) between January 1, 2020, and November 20, 2020. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to determine predictors of a positive result among those tested. Outcomes following COVID-19 diagnosis were also explored. RESULTS: Of 18 121 SOT patients tested, 1925 were positive (10.6%). COVID+ SOT patients were more likely to have a kidney transplant and be non-White race. Comorbidities were common in all SOT patients but significantly more common in those who were COVID+. Of COVID+ SOT, 42.9% required hospital admission. COVID+ status was the strongest predictor of acute kidney injury (AKI), rejection, and graft failure in the 90 d after testing. A total of 40.9% of COVID+ SOT experienced a major adverse renal or cardiac event, 16.3% experienced a major adverse cardiac event, 35.3% experienced AKI, and 1.5% experienced graft loss. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest US cohort of COVID+ SOT recipients to date, we identified patient factors associated with the diagnosis of COVID-19 and outcomes following infection, including a high incidence of major adverse renal or cardiac event and AKI.

5.
Am J Transplant ; 22(1): 245-259, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462722

ABSTRACT

While older males are at the highest risk for poor coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes, it is not known if this applies to the immunosuppressed recipient of a solid organ transplant (SOT), nor how the type of allograft transplanted may impact outcomes. In a cohort study of adult (>18 years) patients testing positive for COVID-19 (January 1, 2020-June 21, 2021) from 56 sites across the United States identified using the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) Enclave, we used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to assess time to MARCE after COVID-19 diagnosis in those with and without SOT. We examined the exposure of age-stratified recipient sex overall and separately in kidney, liver, lung, and heart transplant recipients. 3996 (36.4%) SOT and 91 646 (4.8%) non-SOT patients developed MARCE. Risk of post-COVID outcomes differed by transplant allograft type with heart and kidney recipients at highest risk. Males with SOT were at increased risk of MARCE, but to a lesser degree than the non-SOT cohort (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.98 for SOT and HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.60-0.62 for non-SOT [females vs. males]). This represents the largest COVID-19 SOT cohort to date and the first-time sex-age-stratified and allograft-specific COVID-19 outcomes have been explored in those with SOT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Kidney , Male , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , United States
6.
Hepatol Commun ; 5(9): 1605-1615, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400821

ABSTRACT

Simple tests of routine data are needed for those with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which causes corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), to help identify those who may need mechanical ventilation (MV). In this study, we aimed to determine if fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) is associated with the need for MV in patients with COVID-19 and if there is an association to determine the optimal FIB-4 cutoff. This was a retrospective, national, multiethnic cohort study of adults seen in an ambulatory or emergency department setting who were diagnosed with COVID-19. We used the TriNetX platform for analysis. Measures included demographics, comorbid diseases, and routine laboratory tests. A total of 4,901 patients with COVID-19 were included. Patients had a mean age of 56, 48% were women, 42% were obese, 38% were white, 40% were black, 15% had cardiac disease, 39% had diabetes mellitus, 20% had liver disease, and 50% had respiratory disease. The need for MV was 6%. The optimal FIB-4 cutoff for the need for MV was 3.04 (area under the curve, 0.735), which had sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 42%, 77%, 11%, and 95%, respectively, with 93% accuracy. When stratified by race, increased FIB-4 remained associated with the need for MV in both white and black patients. Conclusion: FIB-4 can be used by frontline providers to identify patients that may require MV.

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