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1.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 258, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635568

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Hungarian primary care system faces a severe shortage of family physicians. Medical students' perceptions of family medicine need to be known and medical students need to be given appropriate and comprehensible information about this speciality. The expected future salary is an important factor in career choice. Most of the family doctors are self-employed and the practices have a corrected capitation-type financing. Although the majority of health care services are covered by social health insurance and are provided for the insured patients free of charge, informal payment is an existing phenomenon with different motivations and consequences. This study aimed to investigate medical students' knowledge about their future earning opportunities and their attitudes towards informal payment. METHODS: A cross sectional survey with a self-administered questionnaire was conducted. Each of the four Hungarian medical universities were represented by their medical students who attended family medicine lectures in person from December 2019 to April 2020. The students were asked about their career plans, about their estimations of current and ideal expected salaries and about the effect of expected income for the choice of specialisation. Their attitudes towards informal payment were assessed. RESULTS: Response rate was 67.3% (N = 465/691). Almost two-thirds of the participants were women. Only 5% of the respondents (N = 23/462) plan to work as a family doctor in the future. The vast majority (91.9%) of the students had already thought about their future income. On a 10-point Likert scale (1 = 'no influence', 10 = 'very big influence') 76% answered that the expected future income exerts a considerable (≥5 Likert points) influence on their career choice in general. The mean of the ideal expected monthly income of the residents, GPs and other specialists was €1154 ± 648, €1696 ± 904 and €2174 ± 1594, respectively. The mean of the monthly income for a GP, as estimated by the studenst, was €1140 in rural and €1122 in urban settings. More than four-fifths of the students (N = 375/453) rejected the practice of informal payment. CONCLUSIONS: Expected salaray is one important aspect in the career choice of medical students, students wish to have more information on this topic. The reported ideal incomes are higher than those expected. This points to a relevant gap. However, most of the students do not accept informal payment as a possibility to close this gap. The expected and the ideal income differ from the real incomes of Hungarian GPs - this indicates the need of bringing objectoive information to the students to enhance attractivity of GP as a carer choice.


Subject(s)
Students, Medical , Career Choice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Practice , Female , Humans , Specialization , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
SSRN; 2021.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-292692

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic called for a fast conduct of studies to establish vaccines and therapies, but also to identify the natural history and drivers of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC). Digital epidemiology may serve this aim by rapidly generating large sample sizes allowing dedicated analyses of biomaterial in a subsample of interest. Methods: Of 129,733 households in Halle (Saale) invited to the cohort study for digital health research in Germany (DigiHero), 8,077 individuals participated, among these 919 that reported prior positive SARS-CoV-2 testing in their households. These were invited to respond to a PASC-focused questionnaire and to undergo blood sampling for cytokine and autoantibody profiling. Cytokine profiles were validated in a second cohort with early infections and single-cell transcriptomics datasets. Results: The analysis is based on the first 318 DigiHero participants, 258 thereof on average eight months after mostly mild infection. PASC were reported in 67.8% of cases and consisted predominantly in fatigue, dyspnea and concentration deficit. The recovery from PASC was not associated with post-infection vaccination suggesting that it may not be driven by a cryptic SARS-CoV-2 reservoir. We confirmed the high percentage of individuals with autoantibodies after COVID-19, but found no association with PASC. While our data show that a broad range of cytokines remain deregulated long after infection, IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α represented a triad that was associated with PASC. Blood profiling and single-cell data from early infection indicated that these cytokines are induced in COVID-19 lung pro-inflammatory macrophages creating a feedback loop that may trigger their long-term activation. Conclusion: We provide evidence for a long-lasting cytokine signature potentially underlying many of the clinical symptoms of PASC that may be driven by macrophage primed during acute infection. This study demonstrates how the combination of digital epidemiology with selective biobanking can rapidly generate hints towards disease mechanisms.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302308

ABSTRACT

Shisha smoking is also known as hookah, water pipe, goza, and nargile. Shisha use among the young is increasing globally. Shisha smoke results in a high concentration of carbon monoxide, tar, nicotine, and heavy metals which can be toxic to humans, especially with chronic exposure. This study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors of shisha smoking among in-school adolescents in Ethiopia. Four regional states in Ethiopia (Oromia, Amhara, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region, Tigray) and the capital city (Addis Ababa) were the study areas. A two-stage cluster sampling approach was employed to produce a representative sample. From the sampling frames in the study areas, 36 high schools were selected randomly. A multi-level logistic regression analysis was used to account for cluster-specific random effects, the effect of individuals', and school-level variables for ever-use of shisha. A total of 3355 secondary school grade 9 and 10 students aged between 13 and 22 years took part in this study. A total of 86 (2.6%) and 20 (0.6%) of the study participants, reported that they had ever smoked or were current smokers of shisha, respectively. Of all study participants, 38.6% perceived shisha as less harmful than cigarettes and 48.5% reported that they do not know which was more harmful to health. Students were more likely to ever use shisha if they had friend/s who smoke shisha (AOR = 16.8, 95% CI: 6.4-44.3), ever smoked cigarettes (AOR = 8.2, 95% CI: 3.4-19.8), ever used khat (AOR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.9-10.4), ever used marijuana (AOR = 3.9, 95% CI: 1.4-11.1), ever used smokeless tobacco (AOR = 3.1 95% CI: 1.1-8.4), and students had received income from their parents (AOR = 3.1 CI: 1.1-8.8). Prevalence of ever and current use of shisha among high school students is low in Ethiopia compared to many countries in Africa. The majority of adolescents perceived shisha as less harmful to health than cigarette smoking. Health education about the harmful effects of shisha should be delivered to adolescents, along with information on other substances like khat, cigarettes, marijuana, and smokeless tobacco to prevent initiation of substance use.


Subject(s)
Smoking Water Pipes , Adolescent , Adult , Cities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Schools , Smoking , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
GMS J Med Educ ; 37(7): Doc95, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970571

ABSTRACT

Background: The corona pandemic is changing the framework conditions for medical studies and continuing education as well as the work with patients and within teams. Systematic reflection and communication about experiences and ways of dealing with them forms the basis for successful learning in and out of the crisis. Therefore, we designed a 90-minute workshop "Corona-Debriefing" for students and physicians in specialist-training in family medicine (ÄiW) using three successive moderated interaction phases: Questionnaire survey via tele-dialogue voting (TED) with immediate presentation of results and discussion, moderated experience reports on the categories risk/assessment/support/coping and finally moderated group discussions in small groups to collect "best practice" examples of crisis management. Objective: We tested "Corona-Debriefing" as a pilot test with 48 participants (TN) in July 2020 (30 present, 14 online) in order to assess mental stress and risk perception of participants plus formative/brief summative evaluation of the workshop. Methods: The PHQ-4 with its subscales GAD-2 (anxiety) and PHQ-2 (depression) was used to assess mental stress; risk assessments were made by means of self-constructed 5-point Likert-scales for the dimensions person/society/health/economy. A formative evaluation was carried out by means of a questionnaire at the end of the event; the brief summative assessment was asked for by means of a school grading scale. Results: 37 complete TED questionnaires and 22 evaluations were obtained. TN showed a low personal risk assessment, but considerable fears about social and economic developments. Needs are seen mainly in improvements regarding organization, protective equipment and technical communication (e.g. official recommendations for action). The workshop was rated "good" or "very good" in 95% of the evaluations. Criticism was directed at the limited time available, the narrowing of topics by moderators and the desire for (even) more room for the exchange of personal experiences. Conclusion: The workshop "Corona-Debriefing" is a relatively easy way to use crisis experiences for learning processes. "Corona-Debriefing" can be used by changing the focus of moderation in various courses, years or fields of study, whereby the participants' own personal and clinical crisis experiences remain a prerequisite for a meaningful "debriefing".


Subject(s)
Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Education, Medical , Education , Teaching , Clinical Competence , Communication , Education/standards , Education, Medical/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Family Practice , Humans , Learning , Pilot Projects , Program Evaluation
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(2)2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024574

ABSTRACT

Targeting dementia prevention, first trials addressing multiple modifiable risk factors showed promising results in at-risk populations. In Germany, AgeWell.de is the first large-scale initiative investigating the effectiveness of a multi-component lifestyle intervention against cognitive decline. We aimed to investigate the recruitment process and baseline characteristics of the AgeWell.de participants to gain an understanding of the at-risk population and who engages in the intervention. General practitioners across five study sites recruited participants (aged 60-77 years, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Incidence of Dementia/CAIDE dementia risk score ≥ 9). Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with eligible participants, including neuropsychological assessments. We analyzed group differences between (1) eligible vs. non-eligible participants, (2) participants vs. non-participants, and (3) between intervention groups. Of 1176 eligible participants, 146 (12.5%) dropped out before baseline; the study population was thus 1030 individuals. Non-participants did not differ from participants in key sociodemographic factors and dementia risk. Study participants were M = 69.0 (SD = 4.9) years old, and 52.1% were women. The average Montreal Cognitive Assessment/MoCA score was 24.5 (SD = 3.1), indicating a rather mildly cognitively impaired study population; however, 39.4% scored ≥ 26, thus being cognitively unimpaired. The bandwidth of cognitive states bears the interesting potential for differential trial outcome analyses. However, trial conduction is impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, requiring adjustments to the study protocol with yet unclear methodological consequences.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction/prevention & control , Life Style , Patient Selection , Aged , Female , Germany , Healthy Aging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests
6.
Eur J Gen Pract ; 26(1): 182-188, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990368

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 outbreak has significantly changed all aspects of general practice in Europe. This article focuses on the academic challenges for the discipline, mainly in the field of education, research, and quality assurance. The efforts of the European Region of the World Organisation of National Colleges, Academies, and Academic Associations of General Practitioners/Family Physicians (WONCA Europe) to support academic sustainability of the discipline in the time of pandemic are presented. Medical education was affected by the pandemic, threatening both its productivity and quality. Emerging new educational methods might be promising, but the results of their rapid implementation remain uncertain. A relatively small number of publications related to COVID-19 and general practice is available in the medical literature. There is a shortage of original data from general practice settings. This contrasts with the crucial role of GPs in fighting a pandemic. COVID-19 outbreak has opened widely new research areas, which should be explored by GPs. Maintaining the quality of care and safety of all patients during the COVID-19 pandemic is the utmost priority. Many of them suffer from poor access or inadequate management of their problems. Rapid implementation of telemedicine brought both threats and opportunities. The COVID-19 pandemic also challenged doctors' safety and well-being. These aspects will require discussion and remedy to prevent deterioration of the quality of primary care. WONCA Europe is making a multi-faceted effort to support GPs in difficult times of the pandemic. It is ready to support future efforts to uphold the integrity of family medicine as an academic discipline.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Education, Medical , Family Practice/methods , Education, Distance , Europe , Family Practice/education , Family Practice/standards , General Practice/education , General Practice/methods , General Practice/standards , Humans , Quality of Health Care , Telemedicine
7.
Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes ; 153-154: 32-38, 2020 Aug.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598452

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In order to stem the spread of an epidemic, widespread adherence to safety measures and their acceptance within the German population are of key importance. This survey examines the levels of knowledge and the perception of risk within the population and analyses implementation and adherence to the recommended and legally mandated safety measures in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In March 2020, participants registered on the HeReCa-Online-Panel from Saxony-Anhalt, Berlin and Schleswig Holstein were invited to complete a 65-question survey. RESULTS: 1048 respondents answered the questionnaire, which amounts to a response of 3.5%. 83% of respondents stated that they felt themselves to be well-informed or very well-informed concerning COVID-19 and the coronavirus. The majority of respondents reported fears for the well-being of family members (60%) or the health of the German population as a whole (45%); 79% reported concerns regarding adverse economic impacts. 79% of respondents have implemented individual protective measures, such as reducing social contacts and maintaining the recommended physical distance in public spaces. Most respondents regarded the government-mandated safety measures as predominantly reasonable and appropriate. CONCLUSIONS: In the early phase of the pandemic, most people kept themselves informed about of COVID-19 and started to take individual measures for risk reduction. Acceptance of governmental measures to stem the spread of the pandemic was high.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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