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1.
mSphere ; : e0027922, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097930

ABSTRACT

With much of the world infected with or vaccinated against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (commonly abbreviated SARS-CoV-2; abbreviated here SARS2), understanding the immune responses to the SARS2 spike (S) protein in different situations is crucial to controlling the pandemic. We studied the clinical, systemic, mucosal, and cellular responses to two doses of SARS2 mRNA vaccines in 62 individuals with and without prior SARS2 infection that were divided into three groups based on antibody serostatus prior to vaccination and/or degree of disease symptoms among those with prior SARS2 infection: antibody negative (naive), low symptomatic, and symptomatic. Antibody negative were subjects who were antibody negative (i.e., those with no prior infection). Low symptomatic subjects were those who were antibody negative and had minimal or no symptoms at time of SARS2 infection. Symptomatic subjects were those who were antibody positive and symptomatic at time of SARS2 infection. All three groups were then studied when they received their SARS2 mRNA vaccines. In the previously SARS2-infected (based on antibody test) low symptomatic and symptomatic groups, reactogenic symptoms related to a recall response were elicited after the first vaccination. Anti-S trimer IgA and IgG titers, and neutralizing antibody titers, peaked after the 1st vaccination in the previously SARS2-infected groups and were significantly higher than for the SARS2 antibody-negative group in the plasma and nasal samples at most time points. Nasal and plasma IgA antibody responses were significantly higher in the low symptomatic group than in the symptomatic group at most time points. After the first vaccination, differences in cellular immunity were not evident between groups, but the activation-induced cell marker (AIM+) CD4+ cell response correlated with durability of IgG humoral immunity against the SARS2 S protein. In those SARS2-infected subjects, severity of infection dictated plasma and nasal IgA responses in primary infection as well as response to vaccination (peak responses and durability), which could have implications for continued protection against reinfection. Lingering differences between the SARS2-infected and SARS2-naive up to 10 months postvaccination could explain the decreased reinfection rates in the SARS2-infected vaccinees recently reported and suggests that additional strategies (such as boosting of the SARS2-naive vaccinees) are needed to narrow the differences observed between these groups. IMPORTANCE This study on SARS2 vaccination in those with and without previous exposure to the virus demonstrates that severity of infection dictates IgA responses in primary infection as well as response to vaccination (peak responses and durability), which could have implications for continued protection against reinfection.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(37): e2204717119, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017032

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is a major public health crisis. Despite the development and deployment of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pandemic persists. The continued spread of the virus is largely driven by the emergence of viral variants, which can evade the current vaccines through mutations in the spike protein. Although these differences in spike are important in terms of transmission and vaccine responses, these variants possess mutations in the other parts of their genome that may also affect pathogenesis. Of particular interest to us are the mutations present in the accessory genes, which have been shown to contribute to pathogenesis in the host through interference with innate immune signaling, among other effects on host machinery. To examine the effects of accessory protein mutations and other nonspike mutations on SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, we synthesized both viruses possessing deletions in the accessory genes as well as viruses where the WA-1 spike is replaced by each variant spike gene in a SARS-CoV-2/WA-1 infectious clone. We then characterized the in vitro and in vivo replication of these viruses and compared them to both WA-1 and the full variant viruses. Our work has revealed that the accessory proteins contribute to SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and the nonspike mutations in variants can contribute to replication of SARS-CoV-2 and pathogenesis in the host. This work suggests that while spike mutations may enhance receptor binding and entry into cells, mutations in accessory proteins may alter clinical disease presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins , Virulence , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/genetics , Virulence/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics
3.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 808, 2022 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991682

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has claimed more than 6 million lives and continues to test the world economy and healthcare systems. To combat this pandemic, the biological research community has shifted efforts to the development of medical countermeasures, including vaccines and therapeutics. However, to date, the only small molecules approved for the treatment of COVID-19 in the United States are the nucleoside analogue Remdesivir and the protease inhibitor Paxlovid, though multiple compounds have received Emergency Use Authorization and many more are currently being tested in human efficacy trials. One such compound, Apilimod, is being considered as a COVID-19 therapeutic in a Phase II efficacy trial. However, at the time of writing, there are no published efficacy data in human trials or animal COVID-19 models. Here we show that, while Apilimod and other PIKfyve inhibitors have potent antiviral activity in various cell lines against multiple human coronaviruses, these compounds worsen disease in a COVID-19 murine model when given prophylactically or therapeutically.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Pandemics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors
4.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 790, 2022 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978023

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant evades vaccine-induced immunity. While a booster dose of ancestral mRNA vaccines effectively elicits neutralizing antibodies against variants, its efficacy against Omicron in older adults, who are at the greatest risk of severe disease, is not fully elucidated. Here, we evaluate multiple longitudinal immunization regimens of mRNA BNT162b2 to assess the effects of a booster dose provided >8 months after the primary immunization series across the murine lifespan, including in aged 21-month-old mice. Boosting dramatically enhances humoral and cell-mediated responses with evidence of Omicron cross-recognition. Furthermore, while younger mice are protected without a booster dose, boosting provides sterilizing immunity against Omicron-induced lung infection in aged 21-month-old mice. Correlational analyses reveal that neutralizing activity against Omicron is strongly associated with protection. Overall, our findings indicate age-dependent vaccine efficacy and demonstrate the potential benefit of mRNA booster immunization to protect vulnerable older populations against SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/genetics
5.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(11): 1565-1576, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and evidence of waning vaccine efficacy present substantial obstacles towards controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Booster doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines might address these concerns by amplifying and broadening the immune responses seen with initial vaccination regimens. We aimed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of a homologous booster dose of a SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike protein vaccine (NVX-CoV2373). METHODS: This secondary analysis of a phase 2, randomised study assessed a single booster dose of a SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike protein vaccine with Matrix-M adjuvant (NVX-CoV2373) in healthy adults aged 18-84 years, recruited from 17 clinical centres in the USA and Australia. Eligible participants had a BMI of 17-35 kg/m2 and, for women, were heterosexually inactive or using contraception. Participants who had a history of SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2, confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, serious chronic medical conditions, or were pregnant or breastfeeding were excluded. Approximately 6 months following their primary two-dose vaccination series (administered day 0 and day 21), participants who received placebo for their primary vaccination series received a placebo booster (group A) and participants who received NVX-CoV2373 for their primary vaccination series (group B) were randomly assigned (1:1) again, via centralised interactive response technology system, to receive either placebo (group B1) or a single booster dose of NVX-CoV2373 (5 µg SARS-CoV-2 rS with 50 µg Matrix-M adjuvant; group B2) via intramuscular injection; randomisation was stratified by age and study site. Vaccinations were administered by designated site personnel who were masked to treatment assignment, and participants and other site staff were also masked. Administration personnel also assessed the outcome. The primary endpoints are safety (unsolicited adverse events) and reactogenicity (solicited local and systemic) events and immunogenicity (serum IgG antibody concentrations for the SARS-CoV-2 rS protein antigen) assessed 14 days after the primary vaccination series (day 35) and 28 days following booster (day 217). Safety was analysed in all participants in groups A, B1, and B2, according to the treatment received; immunogenicity was analysed in the per-protocol population (ie, participants in groups A, B1, and B2) who received all assigned doses and who did not test SARS-CoV-2-positive or received an authorised vaccine, analysed according to treatment assignment). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04368988. FINDINGS: 1610 participants were screened from Aug 24, 2020, to Sept 25, 2020. 1282 participants were enrolled, of whom 173 were assigned again to placebo (group A), 106 were re-randomised to NVX-CoV2373-placebo (group B1), and 104 were re-randomised to NVX-CoV2373-NVX-CoV2373 (group B2); after accounting for exclusions and incorrect administration, 172 participants in group A, 102 in group B1, and 105 in group B2 were analysed for safety. Following the active booster, the proportion of participants with available data reporting local (80 [82%] of 97 participants had any adverse event; 13 [13%] had a grade ≥3 event) and systemic (75 [77%] of 98 participants had any adverse event; 15 [15%] had a grade ≥3 event) reactions was higher than after primary vaccination (175 [70%] of 250 participants had any local adverse event, 13 [5%] had a grade ≥3 event; 132 [53%] of 250 had any systemic adverse event, 14 [6%] had a grade ≥3 event). Local and systemic events were transient in nature (median duration 1·0-2·5 days). In the per-protocol immunogenicity population at day 217 (167 participants in group A, 101 participants in group B1, 101 participants in group B2), IgG geometric mean titres (GMT) had increased by 4·7-fold and MN50 GMT by 4·1-fold for the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain compared with the day 35 titres. INTERPRETATION: Administration of a booster dose of NVX-CoV2373 resulted in an incremental increase in reactogenicity. For both the prototype strain and all variants evaluated, immune responses following the booster were similar to or higher than those associated with high levels of efficacy in phase 3 studies of the vaccine. These data support the use of NVX-CoV2373 in booster programmes. FUNDING: Novavax and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Female , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Double-Blind Method , Antibodies, Viral
6.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 57, 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864747

ABSTRACT

The response by vaccine developers to the COVID-19 pandemic has been extraordinary with effective vaccines authorized for emergency use in the United States within 1 year of the appearance of the first COVID-19 cases. However, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants and obstacles with the global rollout of new vaccines highlight the need for platforms that are amenable to rapid tuning and stable formulation to facilitate the logistics of vaccine delivery worldwide. We developed a "designer nanoparticle" platform using phage-like particles (PLPs) derived from bacteriophage lambda for a multivalent display of antigens in rigorously defined ratios. Here, we engineered PLPs that display the receptor-binding domain (RBD) protein from SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV, alone (RBDSARS-PLPs and RBDMERS-PLPs) and in combination (hCoV-RBD PLPs). Functionalized particles possess physiochemical properties compatible with pharmaceutical standards and retain antigenicity. Following primary immunization, BALB/c mice immunized with RBDSARS- or RBDMERS-PLPs display serum RBD-specific IgG endpoint and live virus neutralization titers that, in the case of SARS-CoV-2, were comparable to those detected in convalescent plasma from infected patients. Further, these antibody levels remain elevated up to 6 months post-prime. In dose-response studies, immunization with as little as one microgram of RBDSARS-PLPs elicited robust neutralizing antibody responses. Finally, animals immunized with RBDSARS-PLPs, RBDMERS-PLPs, and hCoV-RBD PLPs were protected against SARS-CoV-2 and/or MERS-CoV lung infection and disease. Collectively, these data suggest that the designer PLP system provides a platform for facile and rapid generation of single and multi-target vaccines.

7.
Gynecol Obstet Invest ; 87(2): 165-172, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832802

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Studies indicate a very low rate of SARS-CoV-2 detection in the placenta or occasionally a low rate of vertical transmission in COVID-19 pregnancy. SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant has become a dominant strain over the world and possesses higher infectivity due to mutations in its spike receptor-binding motif. CASE PRESENTATION: To determine whether SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant has increased potential for placenta infection and vertical transmission, we analyzed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the placenta, umbilical cord, and fetal membrane from a case where an unvaccinated mother and her neonate were COVID-19 positive. A 35-year-old primigravida with COVID-19 underwent an emergent cesarean delivery due to placental abruption in the setting of premature rupture of membranes. The neonate tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 within the first 24 h, and then again on days of life 2, 6, 13, and 21. The placenta exhibited intervillositis, increased fibrin deposition, and syncytiotrophoblast necrosis. Sequencing of viral RNA from fixed placental tissue revealed SAR-CoV-2 B.1.167.2 (Delta) variant. Both spike protein and viral RNA were abundantly present in syncytiotrophoblasts, cytotrophoblasts, umbilical cord vascular endothelium, and fetal membranes. CONCLUSION: We report with strong probability the first SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant transplacental transmission. Placental cells exhibited extensive apoptosis, senescence, and ferroptosis after SARS-CoV-2 Delta infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Placenta/blood supply , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Nature ; 605(7911): 640-652, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773987

ABSTRACT

The global emergence of many severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants jeopardizes the protective antiviral immunity induced after infection or vaccination. To address the public health threat caused by the increasing SARS-CoV-2 genomic diversity, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases within the National Institutes of Health established the SARS-CoV-2 Assessment of Viral Evolution (SAVE) programme. This effort was designed to provide a real-time risk assessment of SARS-CoV-2 variants that could potentially affect the transmission, virulence, and resistance to infection- and vaccine-induced immunity. The SAVE programme is a critical data-generating component of the US Government SARS-CoV-2 Interagency Group to assess implications of SARS-CoV-2 variants on diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutics, and for communicating public health risk. Here we describe the coordinated approach used to identify and curate data about emerging variants, their impact on immunity and effects on vaccine protection using animal models. We report the development of reagents, methodologies, models and notable findings facilitated by this collaborative approach and identify future challenges. This programme is a template for the response to rapidly evolving pathogens with pandemic potential by monitoring viral evolution in the human population to identify variants that could reduce the effectiveness of countermeasures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Biological Evolution , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U.S.) , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pharmacogenomic Variants , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States/epidemiology , Virulence
9.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(634): eabn7842, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723505

ABSTRACT

Multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that have mutations associated with increased transmission and antibody escape have arisen over the course of the current pandemic. Although the current vaccines have largely been effective against past variants, the number of mutations found on the Omicron (B.1.1.529) spike protein appear to diminish the protection conferred by preexisting immunity. Using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudoparticles expressing the spike protein of several SARS-CoV-2 variants, we evaluated the magnitude and breadth of the neutralizing antibody response over time in individuals after infection and in mRNA-vaccinated individuals. We observed that boosting increases the magnitude of the antibody response to wild-type (D614), Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants; however, the Omicron variant was the most resistant to neutralization. We further observed that vaccinated healthy adults had robust and broad antibody responses, whereas responses may have been reduced in vaccinated pregnant women, underscoring the importance of learning how to maximize mRNA vaccine responses in pregnant populations. Findings from this study show substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude and breadth of responses after infection and mRNA vaccination and may support the addition of more conserved viral antigens to existing SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/immunology
10.
Nature ; 604(7904): 134-140, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671590

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected more than 261 million people and has led to more than 5 million deaths in the past year and a half1 ( https://www.who.org/ ). Individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection typically develop mild-to-severe flu-like symptoms, whereas infection of a subset of individuals leads to severe-to-fatal clinical outcomes2. Although vaccines have been rapidly developed to combat SARS-CoV-2, there has been a dearth of antiviral therapeutics. There is an urgent need for therapeutics, which has been amplified by the emerging threats of variants that may evade vaccines. Large-scale efforts are underway to identify antiviral drugs. Here we screened approximately 18,000 drugs for antiviral activity using live virus infection in human respiratory cells and validated 122 drugs with antiviral activity and selectivity against SARS-CoV-2. Among these candidates are 16 nucleoside analogues, the largest category of clinically used antivirals. This included the antivirals remdesivir and molnupiravir, which have been approved for use in COVID-19. RNA viruses rely on a high supply of nucleoside triphosphates from the host to efficiently replicate, and we identified a panel of host nucleoside biosynthesis inhibitors as antiviral. Moreover, we found that combining pyrimidine biosynthesis inhibitors with antiviral nucleoside analogues synergistically inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and in vivo against emerging strains of SARS-CoV-2, suggesting a clinical path forward.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Nucleosides , Pyrimidines , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Nucleosides/analogs & derivatives , Nucleosides/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6055, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475294

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has become a global pandemic. 3CL protease is a virally encoded protein that is essential across a broad spectrum of coronaviruses with no close human analogs. PF-00835231, a 3CL protease inhibitor, has exhibited potent in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 as a single agent. Here we report, the design and characterization of a phosphate prodrug PF-07304814 to enable the delivery and projected sustained systemic exposure in human of PF-00835231 to inhibit coronavirus family 3CL protease activity with selectivity over human host protease targets. Furthermore, we show that PF-00835231 has additive/synergistic activity in combination with remdesivir. We present the ADME, safety, in vitro, and in vivo antiviral activity data that supports the clinical evaluation of PF-07304814 as a potential COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Indoles/administration & dosage , Leucine/administration & dosage , Pyrrolidinones/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/enzymology , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/adverse effects , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Design , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , HeLa Cells , Humans , Indoles/adverse effects , Indoles/pharmacokinetics , Infusions, Intravenous , Leucine/adverse effects , Leucine/pharmacokinetics , Mice , Pyrrolidinones/adverse effects , Pyrrolidinones/pharmacokinetics , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Vero Cells
12.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(10): 1233-1244, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434113

ABSTRACT

Understanding the molecular basis for immune recognition of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein antigenic sites will inform the development of improved therapeutics. We determined the structures of two human monoclonal antibodies-AZD8895 and AZD1061-which form the basis of the investigational antibody cocktail AZD7442, in complex with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 to define the genetic and structural basis of neutralization. AZD8895 forms an 'aromatic cage' at the heavy/light chain interface using germ line-encoded residues in complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) 2 and 3 of the heavy chain and CDRs 1 and 3 of the light chain. These structural features explain why highly similar antibodies (public clonotypes) have been isolated from multiple individuals. AZD1061 has an unusually long LCDR1; the HCDR3 makes interactions with the opposite face of the RBD from that of AZD8895. Using deep mutational scanning and neutralization escape selection experiments, we comprehensively mapped the crucial binding residues of both antibodies and identified positions of concern with regards to virus escape from antibody-mediated neutralization. Both AZD8895 and AZD1061 have strong neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern with antigenic substitutions in the RBD. We conclude that germ line-encoded antibody features enable recognition of the SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD and demonstrate the utility of the cocktail AZD7442 in neutralizing emerging variant viruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigenic Variation , Binding Sites , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Complementarity Determining Regions/chemistry , Complementarity Determining Regions/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
13.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(9): 100405, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377862

ABSTRACT

Recently approved vaccines have shown remarkable efficacy in limiting SARS-CoV-2-associated disease. However, with the variety of vaccines, immunization strategies, and waning antibody titers, defining the correlates of immunity across a spectrum of antibody titers is urgently required. Thus, we profiled the humoral immune response in a cohort of non-human primates immunized with a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (NVX-CoV2373) at two doses, administered as a single- or two-dose regimen. Both antigen dose and boosting significantly altered neutralization titers and Fc-effector profiles, driving unique vaccine-induced antibody fingerprints. Combined differences in antibody effector functions and neutralization were associated with distinct levels of protection in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Moreover, NVX-CoV2373 elicited antibodies that functionally targeted emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Collectively, the data presented here suggest that a single dose may prevent disease via combined Fc/Fab functions but that two doses may be essential to block further transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Saponins/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/drug effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Nanoparticles , Primates/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
15.
Mol Cell ; 81(12): 2656-2668.e8, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179919

ABSTRACT

A deficient interferon (IFN) response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been implicated as a determinant of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To identify the molecular effectors that govern IFN control of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we conducted a large-scale gain-of-function analysis that evaluated the impact of human IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) on viral replication. A limited subset of ISGs were found to control viral infection, including endosomal factors inhibiting viral entry, RNA binding proteins suppressing viral RNA synthesis, and a highly enriched cluster of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi-resident ISGs inhibiting viral assembly/egress. These included broad-acting antiviral ISGs and eight ISGs that specifically inhibited SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1 replication. Among the broad-acting ISGs was BST2/tetherin, which impeded viral release and is antagonized by SARS-CoV-2 Orf7a protein. Overall, these data illuminate a set of ISGs that underlie innate immune control of SARS-CoV-2/SARS-CoV-1 infection, which will facilitate the understanding of host determinants that impact disease severity and offer potential therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factors/genetics , Interferon Type I/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Animals , Antigens, CD/chemistry , Antigens, CD/immunology , Binding Sites , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endoplasmic Reticulum/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum/immunology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , GPI-Linked Proteins/chemistry , GPI-Linked Proteins/genetics , GPI-Linked Proteins/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation , Golgi Apparatus/genetics , Golgi Apparatus/immunology , Golgi Apparatus/virology , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factors/classification , Interferon Regulatory Factors/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/immunology , Virus Internalization , Virus Release/genetics , Virus Release/immunology , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/immunology
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 372, 2021 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033459

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread throughout the world with an urgent need for a safe and protective vaccine to effectuate herd protection and control the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report the development of a SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine (NVX-CoV2373) from the full-length spike (S) protein that is stable in the prefusion conformation. NVX-CoV2373 S form 27.2-nm nanoparticles that are thermostable and bind with high affinity to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptor. In mice, low-dose NVX-CoV2373 with saponin-based Matrix-M adjuvant elicit high titer anti-S IgG that blocks hACE2 receptor binding, neutralize virus, and protects against SARS-CoV-2 challenge with no evidence of vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease. NVX-CoV2373 also elicits multifunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, CD4+ follicular helper T cells (Tfh), and antigen-specific germinal center (GC) B cells in the spleen. In baboons, low-dose levels of NVX-CoV2373 with Matrix-M was also highly immunogenic and elicited high titer anti-S antibodies and functional antibodies that block S-protein binding to hACE2 and neutralize virus infection and antigen-specific T cells. These results support the ongoing phase 1/2 clinical evaluation of the safety and immunogenicity of NVX-CoV2373 with Matrix-M (NCT04368988).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Papio , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Subunit/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(48): 30687-30698, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922313

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has made it clear that we have a desperate need for antivirals. We present work that the mammalian SKI complex is a broad-spectrum, host-directed, antiviral drug target. Yeast suppressor screening was utilized to find a functional genetic interaction between proteins from influenza A virus (IAV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) with eukaryotic proteins that may be potential host factors involved in replication. This screening identified the SKI complex as a potential host factor for both viruses. In mammalian systems siRNA-mediated knockdown of SKI genes inhibited replication of IAV and MERS-CoV. In silico modeling and database screening identified a binding pocket on the SKI complex and compounds predicted to bind. Experimental assays of those compounds identified three chemical structures that were antiviral against IAV and MERS-CoV along with the filoviruses Ebola and Marburg and two further coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. The mechanism of antiviral activity is through inhibition of viral RNA production. This work defines the mammalian SKI complex as a broad-spectrum antiviral drug target and identifies lead compounds for further development.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Filoviridae/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Cell Line , Genes, Suppressor , Models, Molecular , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Protein Binding , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
18.
Vaccine ; 38(50): 7892-7896, 2020 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899644

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for a safe and protective vaccine to control the global spread of SARS-CoV-2 and prevent COVID-19. Here, we report the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine (NVX-CoV2373) produced from the full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein stabilized in the prefusion conformation. Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) immunized with NVX-CoV2373 and the saponin-based Matrix-M™ adjuvant induced anti-S antibody that was neutralizing and blocked binding to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptor. Following intranasal and intratracheal challenge with SARS-CoV-2, immunized macaques were protected against upper and lower infection and pulmonary disease. These results support ongoing phase 1/2 clinical studies of the safety and immunogenicity of NVX-CoV2327 vaccine (NCT04368988).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Immune Sera/drug effects , Immune Sera/immunology , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/pharmacology , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Young Adult
19.
J Virol ; 94(21)2020 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-878910

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China at the end of 2019 and has rapidly caused a pandemic, with over 20 million recorded COVID-19 cases in August 2020 (https://covid19.who.int/). There are no FDA-approved antivirals or vaccines for any coronavirus, including SARS-CoV-2. Current treatments for COVID-19 are limited to supportive therapies and off-label use of FDA-approved drugs. Rapid development and human testing of potential antivirals is urgently needed. Numerous drugs are already approved for human use, and subsequently, there is a good understanding of their safety profiles and potential side effects, making them easier to fast-track to clinical studies in COVID-19 patients. Here, we present data on the antiviral activity of 20 FDA-approved drugs against SARS-CoV-2 that also inhibit SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). We found that 17 of these inhibit SARS-CoV-2 at non-cytotoxic concentrations. We directly followed up seven of these to demonstrate that all are capable of inhibiting infectious SARS-CoV-2 production. Moreover, we evaluated two of these, chloroquine and chlorpromazine, in vivo using a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV model and found that both drugs protect mice from clinical disease.IMPORTANCE There are no FDA-approved antivirals for any coronavirus, including SARS-CoV-2. Numerous drugs are already approved for human use that may have antiviral activity and therefore could potentially be rapidly repurposed as antivirals. Here, we present data assessing the antiviral activity of 20 FDA-approved drugs against SARS-CoV-2 that also inhibit SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in vitro We found that 17 of these inhibit SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that they may have pan-anti-coronaviral activity. We directly followed up seven of these and found that they all inhibit infectious-SARS-CoV-2 production. Moreover, we evaluated chloroquine and chlorpromazine in vivo using mouse-adapted SARS-CoV. We found that neither drug inhibited viral replication in the lungs, but both protected against clinical disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , A549 Cells , Animals , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Chlorpromazine/pharmacology , Drug Approval , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , Virus Replication/drug effects
20.
Nature ; 586(7830): 509-515, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792975

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the aetiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an emerging respiratory infection caused by the introduction of a novel coronavirus into humans late in 2019 (first detected in Hubei province, China). As of 18 September 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 215 countries, has infected more than 30 million people and has caused more than 950,000 deaths. As humans do not have pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2, there is an urgent need to develop therapeutic agents and vaccines to mitigate the current pandemic and to prevent the re-emergence of COVID-19. In February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) assembled an international panel to develop animal models for COVID-19 to accelerate the testing of vaccines and therapeutic agents. Here we summarize the findings to date and provides relevant information for preclinical testing of vaccine candidates and therapeutic agents for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Mesocricetus/virology , Mice , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Primates/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/immunology
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