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1.
Sci Transl Med ; : eabn7842, 2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621990

ABSTRACT

Multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that possess mutations associated with increased transmission and antibody escape have arisen over the course of the current pandemic. Although the current vaccines have largely been effective against past variants, the number of mutations found on the Omicron (B.1.1.529) spike protein appear to diminish the protection conferred by pre-existing immunity. Using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudoparticles expressing the spike protein of several SARS-CoV-2 variants, we evaluated the magnitude and breadth of the neutralizing antibody response over time in individuals after infection and in mRNA-vaccinated individuals. We observed that boosting increases the magnitude of the antibody response to wildtype (D614), Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants; however, the Omicron variant was the most resistant to neutralization. We further observed that vaccinated healthy adults had robust and broad antibody responses whereas responses may have been reduced in vaccinated pregnant women, underscoring the importance of learning how to maximize mRNA vaccine responses in pregnant populations. Findings from this study show substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude and breadth of responses after infection and mRNA vaccination and may support the addition of more conserved viral antigens to existing SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6055, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475294

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has become a global pandemic. 3CL protease is a virally encoded protein that is essential across a broad spectrum of coronaviruses with no close human analogs. PF-00835231, a 3CL protease inhibitor, has exhibited potent in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 as a single agent. Here we report, the design and characterization of a phosphate prodrug PF-07304814 to enable the delivery and projected sustained systemic exposure in human of PF-00835231 to inhibit coronavirus family 3CL protease activity with selectivity over human host protease targets. Furthermore, we show that PF-00835231 has additive/synergistic activity in combination with remdesivir. We present the ADME, safety, in vitro, and in vivo antiviral activity data that supports the clinical evaluation of PF-07304814 as a potential COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Indoles/administration & dosage , Leucine/administration & dosage , Pyrrolidinones/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/enzymology , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/adverse effects , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Design , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , HeLa Cells , Humans , Indoles/adverse effects , Indoles/pharmacokinetics , Infusions, Intravenous , Leucine/adverse effects , Leucine/pharmacokinetics , Mice , Pyrrolidinones/adverse effects , Pyrrolidinones/pharmacokinetics , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Vero Cells
3.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(10): 1233-1244, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434113

ABSTRACT

Understanding the molecular basis for immune recognition of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein antigenic sites will inform the development of improved therapeutics. We determined the structures of two human monoclonal antibodies-AZD8895 and AZD1061-which form the basis of the investigational antibody cocktail AZD7442, in complex with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 to define the genetic and structural basis of neutralization. AZD8895 forms an 'aromatic cage' at the heavy/light chain interface using germ line-encoded residues in complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) 2 and 3 of the heavy chain and CDRs 1 and 3 of the light chain. These structural features explain why highly similar antibodies (public clonotypes) have been isolated from multiple individuals. AZD1061 has an unusually long LCDR1; the HCDR3 makes interactions with the opposite face of the RBD from that of AZD8895. Using deep mutational scanning and neutralization escape selection experiments, we comprehensively mapped the crucial binding residues of both antibodies and identified positions of concern with regards to virus escape from antibody-mediated neutralization. Both AZD8895 and AZD1061 have strong neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern with antigenic substitutions in the RBD. We conclude that germ line-encoded antibody features enable recognition of the SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD and demonstrate the utility of the cocktail AZD7442 in neutralizing emerging variant viruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigenic Variation , Binding Sites , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Complementarity Determining Regions/chemistry , Complementarity Determining Regions/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
4.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(9): 100405, 2021 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377862

ABSTRACT

Recently approved vaccines have shown remarkable efficacy in limiting SARS-CoV-2-associated disease. However, with the variety of vaccines, immunization strategies, and waning antibody titers, defining the correlates of immunity across a spectrum of antibody titers is urgently required. Thus, we profiled the humoral immune response in a cohort of non-human primates immunized with a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (NVX-CoV2373) at two doses, administered as a single- or two-dose regimen. Both antigen dose and boosting significantly altered neutralization titers and Fc-effector profiles, driving unique vaccine-induced antibody fingerprints. Combined differences in antibody effector functions and neutralization were associated with distinct levels of protection in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Moreover, NVX-CoV2373 elicited antibodies that functionally targeted emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Collectively, the data presented here suggest that a single dose may prevent disease via combined Fc/Fab functions but that two doses may be essential to block further transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants.

6.
Mol Cell ; 81(12): 2656-2668.e8, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179919

ABSTRACT

A deficient interferon (IFN) response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been implicated as a determinant of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To identify the molecular effectors that govern IFN control of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we conducted a large-scale gain-of-function analysis that evaluated the impact of human IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) on viral replication. A limited subset of ISGs were found to control viral infection, including endosomal factors inhibiting viral entry, RNA binding proteins suppressing viral RNA synthesis, and a highly enriched cluster of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi-resident ISGs inhibiting viral assembly/egress. These included broad-acting antiviral ISGs and eight ISGs that specifically inhibited SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1 replication. Among the broad-acting ISGs was BST2/tetherin, which impeded viral release and is antagonized by SARS-CoV-2 Orf7a protein. Overall, these data illuminate a set of ISGs that underlie innate immune control of SARS-CoV-2/SARS-CoV-1 infection, which will facilitate the understanding of host determinants that impact disease severity and offer potential therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factors/genetics , Interferon Type I/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Animals , Antigens, CD/chemistry , Antigens, CD/immunology , Binding Sites , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endoplasmic Reticulum/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum/immunology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , GPI-Linked Proteins/chemistry , GPI-Linked Proteins/genetics , GPI-Linked Proteins/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation , Golgi Apparatus/genetics , Golgi Apparatus/immunology , Golgi Apparatus/virology , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factors/classification , Interferon Regulatory Factors/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/immunology , Virus Internalization , Virus Release/genetics , Virus Release/immunology , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/immunology
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 372, 2021 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033459

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread throughout the world with an urgent need for a safe and protective vaccine to effectuate herd protection and control the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report the development of a SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine (NVX-CoV2373) from the full-length spike (S) protein that is stable in the prefusion conformation. NVX-CoV2373 S form 27.2-nm nanoparticles that are thermostable and bind with high affinity to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptor. In mice, low-dose NVX-CoV2373 with saponin-based Matrix-M adjuvant elicit high titer anti-S IgG that blocks hACE2 receptor binding, neutralize virus, and protects against SARS-CoV-2 challenge with no evidence of vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease. NVX-CoV2373 also elicits multifunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, CD4+ follicular helper T cells (Tfh), and antigen-specific germinal center (GC) B cells in the spleen. In baboons, low-dose levels of NVX-CoV2373 with Matrix-M was also highly immunogenic and elicited high titer anti-S antibodies and functional antibodies that block S-protein binding to hACE2 and neutralize virus infection and antigen-specific T cells. These results support the ongoing phase 1/2 clinical evaluation of the safety and immunogenicity of NVX-CoV2373 with Matrix-M (NCT04368988).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Papio , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Subunit/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(48): 30687-30698, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922313

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has made it clear that we have a desperate need for antivirals. We present work that the mammalian SKI complex is a broad-spectrum, host-directed, antiviral drug target. Yeast suppressor screening was utilized to find a functional genetic interaction between proteins from influenza A virus (IAV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) with eukaryotic proteins that may be potential host factors involved in replication. This screening identified the SKI complex as a potential host factor for both viruses. In mammalian systems siRNA-mediated knockdown of SKI genes inhibited replication of IAV and MERS-CoV. In silico modeling and database screening identified a binding pocket on the SKI complex and compounds predicted to bind. Experimental assays of those compounds identified three chemical structures that were antiviral against IAV and MERS-CoV along with the filoviruses Ebola and Marburg and two further coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. The mechanism of antiviral activity is through inhibition of viral RNA production. This work defines the mammalian SKI complex as a broad-spectrum antiviral drug target and identifies lead compounds for further development.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Filoviridae/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Cell Line , Genes, Suppressor , Models, Molecular , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Protein Binding , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
9.
Vaccine ; 38(50): 7892-7896, 2020 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899644

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for a safe and protective vaccine to control the global spread of SARS-CoV-2 and prevent COVID-19. Here, we report the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine (NVX-CoV2373) produced from the full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein stabilized in the prefusion conformation. Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) immunized with NVX-CoV2373 and the saponin-based Matrix-M™ adjuvant induced anti-S antibody that was neutralizing and blocked binding to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptor. Following intranasal and intratracheal challenge with SARS-CoV-2, immunized macaques were protected against upper and lower infection and pulmonary disease. These results support ongoing phase 1/2 clinical studies of the safety and immunogenicity of NVX-CoV2327 vaccine (NCT04368988).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Immune Sera/drug effects , Immune Sera/immunology , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/pharmacology , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Young Adult
10.
J Virol ; 94(21)2020 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-878910

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China at the end of 2019 and has rapidly caused a pandemic, with over 20 million recorded COVID-19 cases in August 2020 (https://covid19.who.int/). There are no FDA-approved antivirals or vaccines for any coronavirus, including SARS-CoV-2. Current treatments for COVID-19 are limited to supportive therapies and off-label use of FDA-approved drugs. Rapid development and human testing of potential antivirals is urgently needed. Numerous drugs are already approved for human use, and subsequently, there is a good understanding of their safety profiles and potential side effects, making them easier to fast-track to clinical studies in COVID-19 patients. Here, we present data on the antiviral activity of 20 FDA-approved drugs against SARS-CoV-2 that also inhibit SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). We found that 17 of these inhibit SARS-CoV-2 at non-cytotoxic concentrations. We directly followed up seven of these to demonstrate that all are capable of inhibiting infectious SARS-CoV-2 production. Moreover, we evaluated two of these, chloroquine and chlorpromazine, in vivo using a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV model and found that both drugs protect mice from clinical disease.IMPORTANCE There are no FDA-approved antivirals for any coronavirus, including SARS-CoV-2. Numerous drugs are already approved for human use that may have antiviral activity and therefore could potentially be rapidly repurposed as antivirals. Here, we present data assessing the antiviral activity of 20 FDA-approved drugs against SARS-CoV-2 that also inhibit SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in vitro We found that 17 of these inhibit SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that they may have pan-anti-coronaviral activity. We directly followed up seven of these and found that they all inhibit infectious-SARS-CoV-2 production. Moreover, we evaluated chloroquine and chlorpromazine in vivo using mouse-adapted SARS-CoV. We found that neither drug inhibited viral replication in the lungs, but both protected against clinical disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , A549 Cells , Animals , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Chlorpromazine/pharmacology , Drug Approval , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , Virus Replication/drug effects
12.
Nature ; 586(7830): 509-515, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792975

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the aetiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an emerging respiratory infection caused by the introduction of a novel coronavirus into humans late in 2019 (first detected in Hubei province, China). As of 18 September 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 215 countries, has infected more than 30 million people and has caused more than 950,000 deaths. As humans do not have pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2, there is an urgent need to develop therapeutic agents and vaccines to mitigate the current pandemic and to prevent the re-emergence of COVID-19. In February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) assembled an international panel to develop animal models for COVID-19 to accelerate the testing of vaccines and therapeutic agents. Here we summarize the findings to date and provides relevant information for preclinical testing of vaccine candidates and therapeutic agents for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Mesocricetus/virology , Mice , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Primates/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/immunology
13.
N Engl J Med ; 383(24): 2320-2332, 2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: NVX-CoV2373 is a recombinant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (rSARS-CoV-2) nanoparticle vaccine composed of trimeric full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins and Matrix-M1 adjuvant. METHODS: We initiated a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 1-2 trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the rSARS-CoV-2 vaccine (in 5-µg and 25-µg doses, with or without Matrix-M1 adjuvant, and with observers unaware of trial-group assignments) in 131 healthy adults. In phase 1, vaccination comprised two intramuscular injections, 21 days apart. The primary outcomes were reactogenicity; laboratory values (serum chemistry and hematology), according to Food and Drug Administration toxicity scoring, to assess safety; and IgG anti-spike protein response (in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] units). Secondary outcomes included unsolicited adverse events, wild-type virus neutralization (microneutralization assay), and T-cell responses (cytokine staining). IgG and microneutralization assay results were compared with 32 (IgG) and 29 (neutralization) convalescent serum samples from patients with Covid-19, most of whom were symptomatic. We performed a primary analysis at day 35. RESULTS: After randomization, 83 participants were assigned to receive the vaccine with adjuvant and 25 without adjuvant, and 23 participants were assigned to receive placebo. No serious adverse events were noted. Reactogenicity was absent or mild in the majority of participants, more common with adjuvant, and of short duration (mean, ≤2 days). One participant had mild fever that lasted 1 day. Unsolicited adverse events were mild in most participants; there were no severe adverse events. The addition of adjuvant resulted in enhanced immune responses, was antigen dose-sparing, and induced a T helper 1 (Th1) response. The two-dose 5-µg adjuvanted regimen induced geometric mean anti-spike IgG (63,160 ELISA units) and neutralization (3906) responses that exceeded geometric mean responses in convalescent serum from mostly symptomatic Covid-19 patients (8344 and 983, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: At 35 days, NVX-CoV2373 appeared to be safe, and it elicited immune responses that exceeded levels in Covid-19 convalescent serum. The Matrix-M1 adjuvant induced CD4+ T-cell responses that were biased toward a Th1 phenotype. (Funded by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04368988).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nanoparticles , Pandemics , Saponins , Th1 Cells/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
14.
ACS Nano ; 14(6): 7617-7627, 2020 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647565

ABSTRACT

The current outbreak of the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) demands its rapid, convenient, and large-scale diagnosis to downregulate its spread within as well as across the communities. But the reliability, reproducibility, and selectivity of majority of such diagnostic tests fail when they are tested either to a viral load at its early representation or to a viral gene mutated during its current spread. In this regard, a selective "naked-eye" detection of SARS-CoV-2 is highly desirable, which can be tested without accessing any advanced instrumental techniques. We herein report the development of a colorimetric assay based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), when capped with suitably designed thiol-modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) specific for N-gene (nucleocapsid phosphoprotein) of SARS-CoV-2, could be used for diagnosing positive COVID-19 cases within 10 min from the isolated RNA samples. The thiol-modified ASO-capped AuNPs agglomerate selectively in the presence of its target RNA sequence of SARS-CoV-2 and demonstrate a change in its surface plasmon resonance. Further, the addition of RNaseH cleaves the RNA strand from the RNA-DNA hybrid leading to a visually detectable precipitate from the solution mediated by the additional agglomeration among the AuNPs. The selectivity of the assay has been monitored in the presence of MERS-CoV viral RNA with a limit of detection of 0.18 ng/µL of RNA having SARS-CoV-2 viral load. Thus, the current study reports a selective and visual "naked-eye" detection of COVID-19 causative virus, SARS-CoV-2, without the requirement of any sophisticated instrumental techniques.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Metal Nanoparticles , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Oligonucleotides, Antisense/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Base Sequence , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Colorimetry/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Genes, Viral , Gold , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nanotechnology/methods , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA Caps/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods
15.
Curr Opin Virol ; 40: 37-40, 2020 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526854

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus (CoV) called SARS-CoV-2 emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 as the etiological agent of a viral pneumonia called COVID-19. The global spread of SARS-CoV-2 has been so extensive that the WHO declared COVID-19 a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Below, we discuss the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and provide the historical context, which strongly suggests emerging CoVs provide an immediate threat to global public health and will continue to do so in the future.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Global Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Animals , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
16.
mSphere ; 5(2)2020 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-9910

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from the Hubei province in China in late 2019 demonstrates the epidemic potential of coronaviruses. The rapid spread of this virus across the world in only 2 months highlights the transmissibility of this family of viruses and the significant morbidity and mortality that they can cause. We highlight the current state of knowledge of coronavirus biology while answering questions concerning the current outbreak of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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