Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 44
Filter
1.
Biomedicines ; 10(5):934, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1792823

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes a strong inflammatory response. To obtain an overview of inflammatory mediators and effector cells, we studied 25 intensive-care-unit patients during the timeframe after off-label chloroquine treatment and before an introduction of immunomodulatory drugs. Material and methods: Blood samples were weekly examined with flow cytometry (FCM) for surface and intracytoplasmic markers, cytokine assays were analyzed for circulating interleukins (ILs), and blood smears were evaluated for morphological changes. Samples from healthy volunteers were used for comparison. Organ function data and 30-day mortality were obtained from medical records. Results: Compared to that of the healthy control group, the expression levels of leukocyte surface markers, i.e., the cluster of differentiation (CD) markers CD2, CD4, CD8, CD158d, CD25, CD127, and CD19, were lower (p < 0.001), while those of leukocytes expressing CD33 were increased (p < 0.05). An aberrant expression of CD158d on granulocytes was found on parts of the granulocyte population. The expression levels of intracellular tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and IL-1 receptor type 2 in leukocytes were higher (p < 0.001) as well as plasma levels of TNFα, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 (p < 0.001), interferon gamma (IFNγ) (p < 0.01), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (p < 0.05). The expression levels of CD33+ leukocytes and circulating IL-6 were higher (p < 0.05) among patients with arterial oxygen partial pressure-to-fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) ratios below 13.3 kPa compared to in the remaining patients. The expression levels of TNFα, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were higher in patients treated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) (p < 0.05), and the levels of the maximum plasma creatinine and TNFαSpearman's rank-order correlation coefficient (rho = 0.51, p < 0.05) and IL-8 (rho = 0.44, p < 0.05) correlated. Blood smears revealed neutrophil dysplasia with pseudo-Pelger forms being most common. Conclusion: These findings suggest that patients with severe COVID-19, in addition to augmented ILs, lymphopenia, and increased granulocytes, also had effects on the bone marrow.

2.
Butler-Laporte, Guillaume, Povysil, Gundula, Kosmicki, Jack, Cirulli, Elizabeth, Drivas, Theodore, Furini, Simone, Saad, Chadi, Schmidt, Axel, Olszewski, Pawel, Korotko, Urszula, Quinodoz, Mathieu, Çelik, Elifnaz, Kundu, Kousik, Walter, Klaudia, Jung, Junghyung, Stockwell, Amy, Sloofman, Laura, Charney, Alexander, Jordan, Daniel, Beckmann, Noam, Przychodzen, Bartlomiej, Chang, Timothy, Pottinger, Tess, Shang, Ning, Brand, Fabian, Fava, Francesca, Mari, Francesca, Chwialkowska, Karolina, Niemira, Magdalena, Pula, Szymon, Baillie, Kenneth, Stuckey, Alex, Ganna, Andrea, Karczewski, Konrad, Veerapen, Kumar, Bourgey, Mathieu, Bourque, Guillaume, Eveleigh, Robert J. M.; Forgetta, Vincenzo, Morrison, David, Langlais, David, Lathrop, Mark, Mooser, Vincent, Nakanishi, Tomoko, Frithiof, Robert, Hultström, Michael, Lipcsey, Miklos, Marincevic-Zuniga, Yanara, Nordlund, Jessica, Schiabor Barrett, Kelly, Lee, William, Bolze, Alexandre, White, Simon, Riffle, Stephen, Tanudjaja, Francisco, Sandoval, Efren, Neveux, Iva, Dabe, Shaun, Casadei, Nicolas, Motameny, Susanne, Alaamery, Manal, Massadeh, Salam, Aljawini, Nora, Almutairi, Mansour, Arabi, Yaseen, Alqahtan, Saleh, Al Harthi, Fawz, Almutairi, Amal, Alqubaishi, Fatima, Alotaibi, Sarah, Binowayn, Albandari, Alsolm, Ebtehal, Bardisy, Hadeel El, Fawzy, Mohammad, Geschwind, Daniel, Arteaga, Stephanie, Stephens, Alexis, Butte, Manish, Boutros, Paul, Yamaguchi, Takafumi, Tao, Shu, Eng, Stefan, Sanders, Timothy, Tung, Paul, Broudy, Michael, Pan, Yu, Gonzalez, Alfredo, Chavan, Nikhil, Johnson, Ruth, Pasaniuc, Bogdan, Yaspan, Brian, Smieszek, Sandra, Rivolta, Carlo, Bibert, Stephanie, Bochud, Pierre-Yves, Dabrowski, Maciej, Zawadzki, Pawel, Sypniewski, Mateusz, Kaja, Elżbieta, Chariyavilaskul, Pajaree, Nilaratanakul, Voraphoj, Hirankarn, Nattiya, Shotelersuk, Vorasuk, Pongpanich, Monnat, Phokaew, Chureerat, Chetruengchai, Wanna, Kawai, Yosuke, Hasegawa, Takanori, Naito, Tatsuhiko, Namkoong, Ho, Edahiro, Ryuya, Kimura, Akinori, Ogawa, Seishi, Kanai, Takanori, Fukunaga, Koichi, Okada, Yukinori, Imoto, Seiya, Miyano, Satoru, Mangul, Serghei, Abedalthagafi, Malak, Zeberg, Hugo, Grzymski, Joseph, Washington, Nicole, Ossowski, Stephan, Ludwig, Kerstin, Schulte, Eva, Riess, Olaf, Moniuszko, Marcin, Kwasniewski, Miroslaw, Mbarek, Hamdi, Ismail, Said, Verma, Anurag, Goldstein, David, Kiryluk, Krzysztof, Renieri, Alessandra, Ferreira, Manuel, Richards, Brent, Initiative, Covid- Host Genetics, De, C. O. I. Host Genetics Group, Study, Gen-Covid Multicenter, Gen, Omicc Consortium, Japan, Covid-Task Force, Regeneron Genetics, Center.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332108

ABSTRACT

Host genetics is a key determinant of COVID-19 outcomes. Previously, the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative genome-wide association study used common variants to identify multiple loci associated with COVID-19 outcomes. However, variants with the largest impact on COVID-19 outcomes are expected to be rare in the population. Hence, studying rare variants may provide additional insights into disease susceptibility and pathogenesis, thereby informing therapeutics development. Here, we combined whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing from 21 cohorts across 12 countries and performed rare variant exome-wide burden analyses for COVID-19 outcomes. In an analysis of 5,048 severe disease cases and 571,009 controls, we observed that carrying a rare deleterious variant in the SARS-CoV-2 sensor toll-like receptor TLR7 (on chromosome X) was associated with a 5.3-fold increase in severe disease (95% CI: 2.75-10.05, p=5.41×10 -7 ). These results further support TLR7 as a genetic determinant of severe disease and suggest that larger studies on rare variants influencing COVID-19 outcomes could provide additional insights.

3.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1762525

ABSTRACT

Most SARS-CoV-2 infected patients experience influenza-like symptoms of low or moderate severity. But, already in 2020 early during the pandemic it became obvious that many patients had a high incidence of thrombotic complications, which prompted treatment with high doses of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH;typically 150-300IU/kg) to prevent thrombosis. In some patients, the disease aggravated after approximately 10 days and turned into a full-blown acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like pulmonary inflammation with endothelialitis, thrombosis and vascular angiogenesis, which often lead to intensive care treatment with ventilator support. This stage of the disease is characterized by dysregulation of cytokines and chemokines, in particular with high IL-6 levels, and also by reduced oxygen saturation, high risk of thrombosis, and signs of severe pulmonary damage with ground glass opacities. The direct link between SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19-associated lung injury is not clear. Indirect evidence speaks in favor of a thromboinflammatory reaction, which may be initiated by the virus itself and by infected damaged and/or apoptotic cells. We and others have demonstrated that life-threatening COVID-19 ARDS is associated with a strong activation of the intravascular innate immune system (IIIS). In support of this notion is that activation of the complement and kallikrein/kinin (KK) systems predict survival, the necessity for usage of mechanical ventilation, acute kidney injury and, in the case of MBL, also coagulation system activation with thromboembolism. The general properties of the IIIS can easily be translated into mechanisms of COVID-19 pathophysiology. The prognostic value of complement and KKsystem biomarkers demonstrate that pharmaceuticals, which are licensed or have passed the phase I trial stage are promising candidate drugs for treatment of COVID-19. Examples of such compounds include complement inhibitors AMY-101 and eculizumab (targeting C3 and C5, respectively) as well as kallikrein inhibitors ecallantide and lanadelumab and the bradykinin receptor (BKR) 2 antagonist icatibant. In this conceptual review we discuss the activation, crosstalk and the therapeutic options that are available for regulation of the IIIS.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329947

ABSTRACT

Background: Steroids have been shown to reduce inflammation, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) and lung oedema. Based on evidences from clinical trials, steroids are widely used in severe COVID-19. However, the effect on lung aeration and perfusion in this group of patients are unexplored. Objective: Profiting by dual energy computed tomography (DECT), we investigated whether steroids affect HPV in severe COVID-19 and whether they reduce lung oedema and improve gas distribution. Methods: . Severe COVID-19 patients included in a single-center prospective observational study at the intensive care unit at Uppsala University Hospital who had undergone DECT were enrolled in the current study. Patients’ cohort was divided in two groups depending on the administration of steroids. From each patient’s DECT, 20 inflation maps and 20 perfusion maps, evenly distributed along the cranial-caudal axis, were analyzed. To estimate HPV, perfusion distribution was analyzed in both the whole lung and the hypoinflated areas. Total lung weight, index of lung oedema, was estimated. Results: . Sixty patients were analyzed, whereof 43 received steroids. Patients exposed to steroids showed a better (non-perfused area 10% vs 15%, p < 0.01) and more homogeneous (kurtosis: 2.51 vs 1.85, p < 0.01) perfusion of hypoinflated areas, indicating reduced HPV. Moreover, they showed a significantly lower lung weight (853gr vs 1005gr, p = 0.01). Conclusions: . The use of steroids was associated with impaired HPV and reduced lung oedema in severe COVID-19. This is consistent with previous findings in other diseases. Moreover, reduced lung weight and a more homogeneous distribution of gas within the lung were shown in patients treated with steroids.Trial registration: Clinical Trials ID: NCT04316884, Registered March 13, 2020

5.
J Infect Dis ; 225(6): 965-970, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740882

ABSTRACT

Antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 16 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and neurological symptoms were assessed using 2 independent methods. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) specific for the virus spike protein was found in 81% of patients in serum and in 56% in CSF. SARS-CoV-2 IgG in CSF was observed in 2 patients with negative serological findings. Levels of IgG in both serum and CSF were associated with disease severity (P < .05). All patients with elevated markers of central nervous system damage in CSF also had CSF antibodies (P = .002), and CSF antibodies had the highest predictive value for neuronal damage markers of all tested clinical variables.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Nervous System Diseases/blood , Nervous System Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibody Formation , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 55, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to inspired oxygen fraction (PaO2/FIO2) during invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) is used as criteria to grade the severity of respiratory failure in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). During the SARS-CoV2 pandemic, the use of PaO2/FIO2 ratio has been increasingly used in non-invasive respiratory support such as high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and non-invasive ventilation (NIV). The grading of hypoxemia in non-invasively ventilated patients is uncertain. The main hypothesis, investigated in this study, was that the PaO2/FIO2 ratio does not change when switching between MV, NIV and HFNC. METHODS: We investigated respiratory function in critically ill patients with COVID-19 included in a single-center prospective observational study of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden. In a steady state condition, the PaO2/FIO2 ratio was recorded before and after any change between two of the studied respiratory support techniques (i.e., HFNC, NIV and MV). RESULTS: A total of 148 patients were included in the present analysis. We find that any change in respiratory support from or to HFNC caused a significant change in PaO2/FIO2 ratio. Changes in respiratory support between NIV and MV did not show consistent change in PaO2/FIO2 ratio. In patients classified as mild to moderate ARDS during MV, the change from HFNC to MV showed a variable increase in PaO2/FIO2 ratio ranging between 52 and 140 mmHg (median of 127 mmHg). This made prediction of ARDS severity during MV from the apparent ARDS grade during HFNC impossible. CONCLUSIONS: HFNC is associated with lower PaO2/FIO2 ratio than either NIV or MV in the same patient, while NIV and MV provided similar PaO2/FIO2 and thus ARDS grade by Berlin definition. The large variation of PaO2/FIO2 ratio indicates that great caution should be used when estimating ARDS grade as a measure of pulmonary damage during HFNC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/therapy , Cannula , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oxygen , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , RNA, Viral , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320251

ABSTRACT

Background: We investigated the prevalence of ECG abnormalities and their association with mortality, organ dysfunction and cardiac biomarkers in a cohort of COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: : This cohort study included patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU of a tertiary hospital in Sweden. ECG, clinical data and laboratory findings during ICU stay were extracted from medical records and ECGs obtained near ICU admission were reviewed by two independent physicians. Results: : Eighty patients had an acceptable ECG near ICU-admission. In the entire cohort 30-day mortality was 28%. Compared to patients with normal ECG, among whom 30-day mortality was 16%, patients with ECG fulfilling criteria for prior myocardial infarction had higher mortality, 63%, odds ratio (OR) 9.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02-55.6) adjusted for Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 and patients with ST-T abnormalities had 50% mortality and OR 6.05 (95% CI 1.82-21.3) in univariate analysis. Both prior myocardial infarction pattern and ST-T pathology were associated with need for vasoactive treatment and higher peak plasma levels of troponin-I, NT-pro-BNP (N-terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide), and lactate during ICU stay compared to patients with normal ECG. Conclusion: ECG with prior myocardial infarction pattern or acute ST-T pathology at ICU admission is associated with death, need for vasoactive treatment and higher levels of biomarkers of cardiac damage and strain in severely ill COVID-19 patients, and should alert clinicians to a poor prognosis. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials ID: NCT04316884. Registered 20 March 2020, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04316884.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307853

ABSTRACT

Diagnosing persons infected by COVID-19 is key to the control of the pandemic. It has, however, become increasingly important to identify those who have had the infection by measurement of circulating antibodies against Sars-COV-2 of the IgM and IgG type. In this report we show the development of a rapid and sensitive point-of-care assay for the measurement of IgG antibodies against the two spike proteins, S1 and S2, of the Sars-COV-2 virus.MethodThe AgPlus electrochemical technology was applied and the S1 and S2 proteins were biotinylated and immobilized onto streptavidin coated magnetic particles as the capture component of the assay. The IgG antibodies bound to the particles were detected by anti-human IgG and the signal expressed as nC (nano Coulomb). Assay time was <10 min.ResultsPlasma (n=211) from 117 SARS-Cov-2 PCR positive patients and from 78 persons with samples taken before the COVID-19 pandemic were analysed. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 91.9% and 100%, respectively. The assay was highly correlated to a predicate and FDA-approved IgG antibody ELISA (r=0.81). The IgG response was significantly lower in patients who died during their ICU stay.ConclusionsA poor IgG response after a COVID-19 infection is a serious risk factor as to death. A sensitive, rapid and accurate IgG antibody POC assay should be useful in the daily management and evaluation of COVID-19 infected patients.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313242

ABSTRACT

Background: The spread of virus via the blood stream has been suggested to contribute to extra pulmonary organ failure in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We assessed SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia (RNAemia) and the association between RNAemia and inflammation, organ failure and mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients.MethodsIn a tertiary center we included all patients with PCR verified COVID-19 and consent admitted to ICU. SARS-CoV-2 RNA copies above 1000/ml measured by PCR in plasma was defined as RNAemia and used as surrogate for viremia.ResultsOf the 92 patients RNAemia was found in 31 (34%) and RNA in plasma was detected in 63 (58%). Hypertension and corticosteroid treatment was more common in patients with RNAemia . RNAemia levels were higher in patients with RAAS-inhibitor treatment or corticosteroid treatment than those without. Extra-pulmonary organ failure biomarkers and the extent of organ failure were similar in patients with and without RNAemia, but the former group had more renal replacement therapy and higher mortality (26 vs 16%;35 vs 16%, respectively, p=0.04). RNAemia was not an independent predictor of death at 30 days after adjustment for age. ConclusionSARS-CoV2 RNA copies in plasma is a common finding in ICU patients with COVID-19. Although viremia was not associated with extra pulmonary organ failure it was more common in patients who did not survive to 30 days after ICU admission.Trial registrationClinicalTrials NCT04316884

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312769

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is known to present with disease severities of varying degree. In its most severe form, infection may lead to respiratory failure and multi-organ dysfunction. Here we study the levels of extracellular histone H3 (H3), neutrophil elastase (NE) and cfDNA in relation to other plasma parameters, including the immune modulators GAS6 and AXL, ICU scoring systems and mortality in patients with severe COVID-19. Methods: We measured plasma H3, NE, cfDNA, GAS6 and AXL concentration in plasma of 83 COVID-19-positive and 11 COVID-19-negative patients at admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at the Uppsala University hospital, a tertiary hospital in Sweden and a total of 333 samples obtained from these patients during the ICU-stay. We determined their correlation with disease severity, organ failure, mortality and other blood parameters. Results: H3, NE, cfDNA, GAS6 and AXL were increased in plasma of COVID-19 patients compared to controls. cfDNA and GAS6 decreased in time in in patients surviving to 30 days post ICU admission. Plasma H3 was a common feature of COVID-19 patients, detected in 40% of the patients at ICU admission. Although these measures were not predictive of the final outcome of the disease, they correlated well with parameters of tissue damage (H3 and cfDNA) and neutrophil counts (NE). A subset of samples displayed H3 processing, possibly due to proteolysis. Conclusions: Elevated H3 and cfDNA levels in COVID-19 patients illustrate the severity of the cellular damage observed in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The increase in NE indicates the important role of neutrophil response and the process of NETosis in the disease. GAS6 appears as part of an early activated mechanism of response in Covid-19.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310699

ABSTRACT

Background: Several reports on neurological complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection have been published. However, systematic description on intensive care unit acquired weakness (ICUAW) are still missing. Methods: : The objective was to determine the incidence and characteristics of critical illness polyneuropathy (CIN) and myopathy (CIM) in patients with severe COVID-19. We also aimed to describe the electrophysiological features and their relation to plasma biomarkers for neuronal injury. This was a prospective observational intensive care unit cohort study. All adult patients admitted to the general intensive care unit (ICU) at Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden, between March 13 and June 8, 2020 were screened for inclusion. Patients with PCR confirmed COVID-19 were included. All patients were admitted to intensive care treatment due to severe COVID-19, including intravenous anaesthesia, opioid anaelgesia, neuromuscular blockade and mechanical ventilation. Associations of clinical, electrophysiological (sensory and motor conduction studies and electromyography) and biomarker data [neurofilament light chain (NfL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAp) and tau] were studied between COVID-19 patients who developed CIN/CIM and those who did not. Results: : 111 COVID-19 patients were included, 11 (11 males, mean age: 64 years) developed CIN/CIM whereas 100 (74 males, mean age: 61 years) did not (non-CIN/CIM). The CIN/CIM incidence was higher in COVID-19 patients compared to a general ICU-population treated during 2019 (9.9% vs 3.4%). In particular CIN was more frequent in the COVID-19 ICU cohort (50%) compared with the non-COVID-19 ICU cohort (0%, p=0.008). NfL and GFAp levels were higher in the CIN/CIM group both at the early (<9 days) and late time points (>11 days) compared with the non-CIN/CIM group (both p=0.001) and correlated with nerve amplitudes. Conclusions: : CIN/CIM, in particular CIN, were more prevalent among COVID-19 patients than an ICU treated control cohort and should be considered in the differential diagnostic workup and the further rehabilitation of COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients who later developed ICUAW had significantly higher NfL and GFAp in the early phase of ICU care, which suggests their potential as predictive biomarkers. Trial registration: The study protocol was registered (ClinicalTrialsID:NCT04316884). Mechanisms for Organ Dysfunction in Covid-19 (UMODCOVID19) March 18, 2020.

13.
Biomedicines ; 10(1)2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634444

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has shaken the world and intensive care units (ICU) have been challenged by numerous patients suffering from a previously unknown disease. Leptin is a polypeptide pleiotropic hormone, mainly expressed by adipocytes. It acts as a proinflammatory cytokine and is associated with several conditions, known to increase the risk of severe COVID-19. Very little is known about leptin in severe viral disorders. Plasma leptin was analyzed in 222 out of 229 patients with severe COVID-19 on admission to an ICU at Uppsala University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Sweden, and compared to plasma leptin in 25 healthy blood donors. COVID-19 was confirmed by positive PCR. Leptin levels were significantly higher in patients with COVID-19 (18.3 ng × mL-1; IQR = 30.4), than in healthy controls (7.8 ng × mL-1; IQR = 6.4). Women had significantly higher leptin values (22.9 ng × mL-1; IQR = 29.8) than men (17.5 ng × mL-1; IQR = 29.9). Mortality at 30 days was 23% but was not associated with increased leptin levels. Neither median duration of COVID-19 before admission to ICU (10 days; IQR = 4) or median length of ICU stay (8 days; IQR = 11) correlated with the plasma leptin levels. Leptin levels in COVID-19 were higher in females than in males. Both treatment (e.g., use of corticosteroids) and prophylaxis (vaccines) have been improved since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, which may contribute to some difficulties in deciphering relations between COVID-19 and leptin.

14.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261315, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the prevalence of ECG abnormalities and their association with mortality, organ dysfunction and cardiac biomarkers in a cohort of COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: This cohort study included patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU of a tertiary hospital in Sweden. ECG, clinical data and laboratory findings during ICU stay were extracted from medical records and ECGs obtained near ICU admission were reviewed by two independent physicians. RESULTS: Eighty patients had an acceptable ECG near ICU-admission. In the entire cohort 30-day mortality was 28%. Compared to patients with normal ECG, among whom 30-day mortality was 16%, patients with ECG fulfilling criteria for prior myocardial infarction had higher mortality, 63%, odds ratio (OR) 9.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02-55.6) adjusted for Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 and patients with ST-T abnormalities had 50% mortality and OR 6.05 (95% CI 1.82-21.3) in univariable analysis. Both prior myocardial infarction pattern and ST-T pathology were associated with need for vasoactive treatment and higher peak plasma levels of troponin-I, NT-pro-BNP (N-terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide), and lactate during ICU stay compared to patients with normal ECG. CONCLUSION: ECG with prior myocardial infarction pattern or acute ST-T pathology at ICU admission is associated with death, need for vasoactive treatment and higher levels of biomarkers of cardiac damage and strain in severely ill COVID-19 patients, and should alert clinicians to a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type/blood , Troponin I/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/virology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Prevalence
15.
Hum Genet ; 141(1): 147-173, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565371

ABSTRACT

The combined impact of common and rare exonic variants in COVID-19 host genetics is currently insufficiently understood. Here, common and rare variants from whole-exome sequencing data of about 4000 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals were used to define an interpretable machine-learning model for predicting COVID-19 severity. First, variants were converted into separate sets of Boolean features, depending on the absence or the presence of variants in each gene. An ensemble of LASSO logistic regression models was used to identify the most informative Boolean features with respect to the genetic bases of severity. The Boolean features selected by these logistic models were combined into an Integrated PolyGenic Score that offers a synthetic and interpretable index for describing the contribution of host genetics in COVID-19 severity, as demonstrated through testing in several independent cohorts. Selected features belong to ultra-rare, rare, low-frequency, and common variants, including those in linkage disequilibrium with known GWAS loci. Noteworthily, around one quarter of the selected genes are sex-specific. Pathway analysis of the selected genes associated with COVID-19 severity reflected the multi-organ nature of the disease. The proposed model might provide useful information for developing diagnostics and therapeutics, while also being able to guide bedside disease management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Phenotype , Severity of Illness Index , Whole Exome Sequencing , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Germany , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Quebec , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden , United Kingdom
16.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295015

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective We aimed to investigate the acute cardiac effects of severe SARS-CoV-2. Methods This is an observational study generated from the first 79 patients admitted to Uppsala intensive care due to respiratory failure with SARS-CoV-2 infection. 34 underwent echocardiography of which 25 were included in the study and compared to 44 non-echo patients. Exclusion was based on absence of normofrequent sinus rhythm and mechanical respiratory support. Biomarker analysis was carried out on all patients. Results Mortality was increased in the echo compared to non-echo group (44 % vs. 16%, p<0.05). Right sided dimensions and functional parameters were not affected. Tricuspid regurgitation velocity indicated how increased pulmonary artery pressure was associated with mortality (survivors (n=5): 2.51 ± 0.01 m/s vs. non-survivors (n=5): 3.06 ± 0.11 m/s, p<0.05). Cardiac markers and D-dimer correlated to initiation of echocardiography (hs-TnI (ng/L): echo (n=23): 133 ± 45 vs. non-echo (n=41): 81.3 ± 45, p<0.01;NTproBNP (ng/L): echo (n=25): 2959 ± 573 vs. non-echo (n=42): 1641 ± 420, p<0.001;D-dimer (mg/L): echo (n=25): 16.1 ± 3.7 vs. non-echo (n=43: 6.1 ± 1.5, p<0.01) and mortality (hs-TnI (ng/L): survivors (n=48): 59.1 ± 21 vs. non-survivors (n=17): 211 ± 105, p<0.0001;NT-proBNP (ng/L): survivors (n=47): 1310 ± 314 vs. non-survivors (n=20): 4065 ± 740, p<0.0001;D-dimer (mg/L): survivors (n=50): 7.2 ± 1.5 vs. non-survivors (n=18): 17.1 ± 4.8, p<0.01). All intervals refer to standard error of the mean. Tricuspid regurgitation velocity was correlated with troponin I (r=0.93, r 2 =0.74, p<0.001, n=10). Conclusions These results suggest that there is no clear negative effect on cardiac function in critical SARS-CoV-2. There are indications that pulmonary pressure elevation carries a negative predictive outcome suggesting pulmonary disease as the driver of mortality. Cardiac biomarkers as well as D-dimer carry predictive value. Trial registration number Patients were included in “Clinical trials NCT04316884 ” Article summary Strength and limitations of this study - The patient body is recruited from all patients admitted to ICU in need of mechanical respiratory support independent of background which makes it relevant to clinical practice. - The echocardiographic image acquisition was carried out by hospital assigned agents on clinical indication, which makes the results applicable in a clinical setting. - Since the image acquisition was carried out on a clinical indication, the results may be skewed towards the false positive if applied to all Covid19 patients.

17.
J Clin Invest ; 131(23)2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546628

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThere is considerable variability in COVID-19 outcomes among younger adults, and some of this variation may be due to genetic predisposition.MethodsWe combined individual level data from 13,888 COVID-19 patients (n = 7185 hospitalized) from 17 cohorts in 9 countries to assess the association of the major common COVID-19 genetic risk factor (chromosome 3 locus tagged by rs10490770) with mortality, COVID-19-related complications, and laboratory values. We next performed metaanalyses using FinnGen and the Columbia University COVID-19 Biobank.ResultsWe found that rs10490770 risk allele carriers experienced an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.7). Risk allele carriers had increased odds of several COVID-19 complications: severe respiratory failure (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.6-2.6), venous thromboembolism (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.4), and hepatic injury (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0). Risk allele carriers age 60 years and younger had higher odds of death or severe respiratory failure (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.8-3.9) compared with those of more than 60 years (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8; interaction, P = 0.038). Among individuals 60 years and younger who died or experienced severe respiratory failure, 32.3% were risk-variant carriers compared with 13.9% of those not experiencing these outcomes. This risk variant improved the prediction of death or severe respiratory failure similarly to, or better than, most established clinical risk factors.ConclusionsThe major common COVID-19 genetic risk factor is associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality, which are more pronounced among individuals 60 years or younger. The effect was similar in magnitude and more common than most established clinical risk factors, suggesting potential implications for future clinical risk management.


Subject(s)
Alleles , COVID-19 , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genetic Loci , Polymorphism, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Risk Factors
18.
J Neuroradiol ; 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A wide range of neuroradiological findings has been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), ranging from subcortical white matter changes to infarcts, haemorrhages and focal contrast media enhancement. These have been descriptively but inconsistently reported and correlations with clinical findings and biomarkers have been difficult to extract from the literature. The purpose of this study was to quantify the extents of neuroradiological findings in a cohort of patients with COVID-19 and neurological symptoms, and to investigate correlations with clinical findings, duration of intensive care and biomarkers in blood. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 and at least one new-onset neurological symptom were included from April until July 2020. Nineteen patients were examined regarding clinical symptoms, biomarkers in blood and MRI of the brain. In order to quantify the MRI findings, a semi-quantitative neuroradiological severity scale was constructed a priori, and applied to the MR images by two specialists in neuroradiology. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The score from the severity scale correlated significantly with blood biomarkers of CNS injury (glial fibrillary acidic protein, total-tau, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1) and inflammation (C-reactive protein), Glasgow Coma Scale score, and the number of days spent in intensive care. The underlying radiological assessments had inter-rater agreements of 90.5%/86% (for assessments with 2/3 alternatives). Total intraclass correlation was 0.80. Previously reported neuroradiological findings in COVID-19 have been diverse and heterogenous. In this study, the extent of findings in MRI examination of the brain, quantified using a structured report, shows correlation with relevant biomarkers.

19.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292388

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to inspired oxygen fraction (PaO2/FIO2) during invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) is used as criteria to grade the severity of respiratory failure in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). During the SARS-CoV2 pandemic the use of PaO2/FIO2 ratio has been increasingly used in non-invasive respiratory support such as high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and non-invasive ventilation (NIV). The grading of hypoxemia in non-invasively ventilated patients is uncertain. The main hypothesis, investigated in this study, was that the PaO2/FIO2 ratio does not change when switching between MV, NIV and HFNC. Methods This was a sub-study of a single-center prospective observational study of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden for critical COVID-19. In a steady state condition, the PaO2/FIO2 ratio was recorded before and after any change between two of the studied respiratory support techniques (i.e., HFNC, NIV and MV). Results A total of 148 patients were included in the present analysis. We find that any change in respiratory support from or to HFNC caused a significant change in PaO2/FIO2 ratio (up to 48 mmHg, from HFNC to MV). Changes in respiratory support between NIV and MV did not show consistent change in PaO2/FIO2 ratio. In patients classified as mild to moderate ARDS during MV, the change from HFNC to MV showed a variable increase in PaO2/FIO2 ratio ranging between 52 and 140 mmHg (median of 127 mm Hg). This made prediction of ARDS severity during MV from the apparent ARDS grade during HFNC impossible. Conclusion HFNC is associated with lower PaO2/FIO2 ratio than either NIV or MV in the same patient, while NIV and MV provided similar PaO2/FIO2 and thus ARDS grade by Berlin definition. The large variation of PaO2/FIO2 ratio precludes using ARDS grade as a measure of pulmonary damage during HFNC.

20.
Cytokine ; 149: 155727, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although pneumonia is the hallmark of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), multiple organ failure may develop in severe disease. TNFα receptors in their soluble form (sTNFR) are involved in the immune cascade in other systemic inflammatory processes such as septic shock, and could mediate the inflammatory activation of distant organs. The aim of this study is to analyse plasma levels of sTNFR 1 and 2 in association with organ failure and outcome in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: After informed consent, we included 122 adult patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 at ICU admission. Demographic data, illness severity scores, organ failure and survival at 30 days were collected. Plasma sTNFR 1 and 2 levels were quantified during the first days after ICU admission. Twenty-five healthy blood donors were used as control group. RESULTS: Levels of sTNFR were higher in severe COVID-19 patients compared to controls (p < 0.001). Plasma levels of sTNFR were associated to illness severity scores (SAPS 3 and SOFA), inflammation biomarkers such as IL-6, ferritin and PCT as well as development of AKI during ICU stay. sTNFR 1 higher than 2.29 ng/mL and? sTNFR 2 higher than 11.7 ng/mL were identified as optimal cut-offs to discriminate survivors and non-survivors 30 days after ICU admission and had an area under the curve in receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.75 and 0.67 respectively. CONCLUSION: Plasma levels of sTNFR 1 and 2 were higher in COVID-19 patients compared to controls and were strongly associated with other inflammatory biomarkers, severity of illness and acute kidney injury development during ICU stay. In addition, sTNFR 1 was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality after adjustment for age and respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/blood , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL