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J Clin Med ; 11(19)2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066194


To reduce Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related mortality and morbidity, widely available oral COVID-19 treatments are urgently needed. Certain antidepressants, such as fluvoxamine or fluoxetine, may be beneficial against COVID-19. We included 388,945 adult inpatients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at 36 AP-HP (Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris) hospitals from 2 May 2020 to 2 November 2021. We compared the prevalence of antidepressant use at admission in a 1:1 ratio matched analytic sample with and without COVID-19 (N = 82,586), and assessed its association with 28-day all-cause mortality in a 1:1 ratio matched analytic sample of COVID-19 inpatients with and without antidepressant use at admission (N = 1482). Antidepressant use was significantly less prevalent in inpatients with COVID-19 than in a matched control group of inpatients without COVID-19 (1.9% versus 4.8%; Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.38; 95%CI = 0.35-0.41, p < 0.001). Antidepressant use was significantly associated with reduced 28-day mortality among COVID-19 inpatients (12.8% versus 21.2%; OR = 0.55; 95%CI = 0.41-0.72, p < 0.001), particularly at daily doses of at least 40 mg fluoxetine equivalents. Antidepressants with high FIASMA (Functional Inhibitors of Acid Sphingomyelinase) activity seem to drive both associations. These treatments may reduce SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19-related mortality in inpatients, and may be appropriate for prophylaxis and/or COVID-19 therapy for outpatients or inpatients.

Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 341, 2022 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000872


Antidepressants have previously been associated with better outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, but their effect on clinical deterioration among ambulatory patients has not been fully explored. The objective of this study was to assess whether antidepressant exposure was associated with reduced emergency department (ED) or hospital visits among ambulatory patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This retrospective cohort study included adult patients (N = 25 034) with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test performed in a non-hospital setting. Logistic regression analyses tested associations between home use of antidepressant medications and a composite outcome of ED visitation or hospital admission within 30 days. Secondary exposures included individual antidepressants and antidepressants with functional inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (FIASMA) activity. Patients with antidepressant exposure were less likely to experience the primary composite outcome compared to patients without antidepressant exposure (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.89, 95% CI 0.79-0.99, p = 0.04). This association was only observed with daily doses of at least 20 mg fluoxetine-equivalent (aOR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77-0.99, p = 0.04), but not with daily doses lower than 20 mg fluoxetine-equivalent (aOR 0.94, 95% CI 0.80-1.11, p = 0.48). In exploratory secondary analyses, the outcome incidence was also reduced with exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (aOR 0.87, 95% CI 0.75-0.99, p = 0.04), bupropion (aOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55-0.90, p = 0.005), and FIASMA antidepressant drugs (aOR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77-0.99, p = 0.03). Antidepressant exposure was associated with a reduced incidence of emergency department visitation or hospital admission among SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, in a dose-dependent manner. These data support the FIASMA model of antidepressants' effects against COVID-19.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fluoxetine , Humans , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(4): 838-846, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611488


BACKGROUND: COVID-positive outpatients may benefit from remote monitoring, but such a program often relies on smartphone apps. This may introduce racial and socio-economic barriers to participation. Offering multiple methods for participation may address these barriers. OBJECTIVES: (1) To examine associations of race and neighborhood disadvantage with patient retention in a monitoring program offering two participation methods. (2) To measure the association of the program with emergency department visits and hospital admissions. DESIGN: Retrospective propensity-matched cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: COVID-positive outpatients at a single university-affiliated healthcare system and propensity-matched controls. INTERVENTIONS: A home monitoring program providing daily symptom tracking via patient portal app or telephone calls. MAIN MEASURES: Among program enrollees, retention (until 14 days, symptom resolution, or hospital admission) by race and neighborhood disadvantage, with stratification by program arm. In enrollees versus matched controls, emergency department utilization and hospital admission within 30 days. KEY RESULTS: There were 7592 enrolled patients and 9710 matched controls. Black enrollees chose the telephone arm more frequently than White enrollees (68% versus 44%, p = 0.009), as did those from more versus less disadvantaged neighborhoods (59% versus 43%, p = 0.02). Retention was similar in Black enrollees and White enrollees (63% versus 62%, p = 0.76) and in more versus less disadvantaged neighborhoods (63% versus 62%, p = 0.44). When stratified by program arm, Black enrollees had lower retention than White enrollees in the app arm (49% versus 55%, p = 0.01), but not in the telephone arm (69% versus 71%, p = 0.12). Compared to controls, enrollees more frequently visited the emergency department (HR 1.71 [95% CI 1.56-1.87]) and were admitted to the hospital (HR 1.16 [95% CI 1.02-1.31]). CONCLUSIONS: In a COVID-19 remote patient monitoring program, Black enrollees preferentially selected, and had higher retention in, telephone- over app-based monitoring. As a result, overall retention was similar between races. Remote monitoring programs with multiple modes may reduce barriers to participation.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Neighborhood Characteristics , Patient Participation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2