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Pediatr Radiol ; 51(11): 1991-1999, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359939


BACKGROUND: Since coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a worldwide pandemic in March 2020, many authors have noted the collateral damage on non-COVID-19-related illnesses. These indirect effects of the pandemic have resulted in people presenting later and with more severe stages of disease, even if their diagnoses are not directly related to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: We studied these indirect effects of COVID-19 on the imaging workup and outcomes for pediatric patients at our center who had acute appendicitis during the pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of cases in children ≤18 years who were evaluated for acute appendicitis during the same period, March 1 to May 31, in both 2019 and 2020. We compared demographic and clinical data as well as surgical and pathological findings, and we graded imaging findings according to severity. Differences in patient outcomes were assessed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test and the Pearson chi-square test. RESULTS: The total number of pediatric patients evaluated with imaging for acute appendicitis dropped by 43% between 2019 and 2020 (298 vs. 169), but the total number of children treated remained similar (59 vs. 51). There was proportionate use of US and CT in each timeframe but a higher percentage of positive imaging findings in 2020 (50/169, 29.6% vs. 56/298, 18.7% in 2019, P=0.04). There were more imaging examinations with features of complicated appendicitis among positive cases (9/51, 18% vs. 5/59, 8% in 2019, P=0.08) and more pathologically proven perforated cases during the pandemic (14/51, 27% vs. 6/59, 10% in 2019, P=0.11), although these results did not reach statistical significance. There were no changes in surgical management, vital signs, laboratory values, length of stay or complication rates. CONCLUSION: There was a large drop in the number of pediatric patients imaged for acute appendicitis during the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic despite similar numbers of patients treated. The utilization trends of US vs. CT remained stable between time periods. The differences in imaging findings and perforation rates were less pronounced compared to other published studies.

Appendicitis/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pediatrics/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Acute Disease , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(7): 1467-1481, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634722


The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which presents an unprecedented challenge to medical providers worldwide. Although most SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals manifest with a self-limited mild disease that resolves with supportive care in the outpatient setting, patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 will require a multidisciplinary collaborative management approach for optimal care in the hospital setting. Laboratory and radiologic studies provide critical information on disease severity, management options, and overall prognosis. Medical management is mostly supportive with antipyretics, hydration, oxygen supplementation, and other measures as dictated by clinical need. Among its medical complications is a characteristic proinflammatory cytokine storm often associated with end-organ dysfunction, including respiratory failure, liver and renal insufficiency, cardiac injury, and coagulopathy. Specific recommendations for the management of these medical complications are discussed. Despite the issuance of emergency use authorization for remdesivir, there are still no proven effective antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies, and their use in COVID-19 management should be guided by clinical trial protocols or treatment registries. The medical care of patients with COVID-19 extends beyond their hospitalization. Postdischarge follow-up and monitoring should be performed, preferably using telemedicine, until the patients have fully recovered from their illness and are released from home quarantine protocols.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hospitalization , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Care Team , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2