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1.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925539

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the frequency of post-acute COVID-19 sequelae (PASC) symptoms in an outpatient neurology setting. Background: Symptoms of fatigue, headaches, and memory impairment have been reported in patients with PASC. Design/Methods: This is an observational study of the PASC experience of 98 non-hospitalized COVID-positive patients in neurology outpatient clinics. Participants completed a survey regarding persistent symptoms, after acute infection. Scales of quality of life and cognition were obtained and included the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Neuro-QOL (Anxiety, fatigue, depression). Results: Of 98 participants recruited, 68% of participants were seen in neurology clinic specifically for PASC while 31% were seen for non-COVID related complaints but had a prior positive COVID-19 test. Mean age was 50.5±15.1 and 65% were female. Median time post-acute infection was 9.0 (IQR 4.7-11.7/range 0.5 - 16.8) months. Of the 93 participants with symptoms after 6 weeks, the most frequent symptoms reported were fatigue (67%), headaches (49%), muscle aches (48%), word-finding difficulty (48%), difficulty sleeping (47%), shortness of breath (47%), and change in memory (46%). The most common pre-morbid conditions were anxiety/depression (32%), hypertension (26%), pulmonary disease (23%), and autoimmune (17%). BMI>25 was present in 68%. 41% had a prior neurological condition with migraines being the most common (18%). There was no statistically significant difference in reported symptoms, pre-morbid conditions, sex, and age between participants who presented with PASC versus other neurological complaints. Patients reporting persistent fatigue (n=64) had a mean Neuro-QOL fatigue score of 53.3±9.9. Normal mean MoCA scores were present in patients reporting word finding difficulty or memory change (19.3±2.4 points) and in participants with abnormal Neuro-QOL scores (19.4±2.1 points). Conclusions: Patients with PASC in a neurology outpatient clinic report persistent neurological, systemic symptoms that affect their quality of life on multiple validated measures. The MoCA test may not be able to detect subtle cognitive deficits in this population.

2.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925538

ABSTRACT

Objective: We sought to describe PASC-related headache severity and quality of life in a cohort of non-hospitalized individuals presenting to our outpatient neurology practices (PASC) Background: People with post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) have reported many neurological symptoms such as brain fog, memory difficulties, and headache. Design/Methods: Participants with evidence of prior COVID-19 infection were asked to complete symptom scales, Neuro-QOL (anxiety, depression, and fatigue), and validated headache questionnaires: Headache Impact Test-6 and American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention questionnaire. Results: Among 98 participants reporting PASC symptoms after acute illness, mean age was 50.5±15.1 and 65% were female. Headache (49%) was the second most frequent neurologic symptom reported after fatigue (67%). 18% (18/98) had a prior history of migraine headaches. 38.9% (7/18) of participants with pre-morbid migraine reported more than 15 symptomatic headache days per month. When controlling for age and sex, there was a statistically significant difference (p=0.011) between in participants with a prior migraine history indicating more frequent headaches in the last 3 months (mean 39.0±28.5 headaches) compared to participants without prior migraine (mean 18.5±25.3 headaches). HIT-6 scores were also significantly greater (p=0.005) in participants with a migraine history after adjusting for age and sex, (58.6±13.2) versus 47±12.2) indicating worse quality of life related to headaches. In participants with HIT-6 scrores>=56 indicating substantial or severe impact on quality of life and AMPP scores meeting criteria for chronic migraine, NeuroQOL scores for depression, anxiety, and fatigue were also elevated/worse. Conclusions: People with PASC in a neurology outpatient practice, with a prior migraine history report elevated headache frequency, worse quality of life related to their headaches as indicated by the HIT-6 test and Neuro-QOL. These data support the inclusion of headache specific measures in studies of PASC in larger samples and suggests that COVID-19 infection can impact headaches.

3.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925289

ABSTRACT

Objective: To further characterize the relationship between markers of inflammation and outcome in patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy for acute stroke. Background: Inflammation and infection after ischemic stroke are known to exacerbate tissue injury and worsen clinical outcome. Thrombectomy has become standard of care in stroke, but little data exist regarding how inflammation affects outcome after thrombectomy. Design/Methods: We performed retrospective chart review of stroke patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy at 2 tertiary academic centers between December 2018 and November 2020. The relationship between discharge mortality, admission WBC count, admission neutrophil percentage, peak WBC count, and fever (peak temperature >38°C) were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test, Student's t-test, and Fisher's exact test. Multivariable analysis was performed to test for independent predictors of discharge mortality. Analyses were performed for the entire cohort, then repeated in a cohort excluding COVIDpositive patients. Results: Of 254 patients who had thrombectomy for acute stroke, 42 (16.5%) died prior to discharge. Mortality was associated with admission WBC count (10.7 [8.9-14] vs. 8.6 [7-12], p=0.0064), admission neutrophil percentage (78% ± 11 vs. 70% ± 14, p=0.0001), peak WBC count (17 [13-22] vs. 12 [8.9-15], p<0.0001), and fever (71% vs. 29%, p<0.0001). In multivariable analysis, admission WBC count (OR 14, CI 1.5-158, p=0.024), neutrophil percentage (OR 1.04, CI 1.0-1.1, p=0.039), peak WBC count (OR 343, CI 27-5702, p<0.0001) and fever (OR 8.6, CI 3.6-23, p<0.0001) were significantly predictive of discharge mortality after controlling for age, admission NIHSS and post-thrombectomy ASPECTS score. Fifteen patients tested positive for COVID-19. In analyses excluding these patients, peak WBC count and fever remained independent predictors of discharge mortality. Conclusions: Elevated markers of inflammation during hospitalization predict discharge mortality in patients who undergo mechanical thrombectomy for acute stroke. Further study is warranted to investigate causation and identify opportunities to improve quality of care in this patient population.

4.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925140

ABSTRACT

Objective: To characterize the incidence and spectrum of neurological adverse events (AE) after COVID-19 vaccination. Background: The devastating COVID-19 pandemic has led to 230 million people diagnosed and greater than 4.8 million deaths worldwide. Widespread vaccination efforts have resulted in administration of over 6 million vaccine doses to curb the significant health and socioeconomic impacts of the disease. While there are numerous reports of adverse events following COVID-19 vaccine, there is limited characterization of the spectrum of neurological AEs post-vaccination. Design/Methods: Data was gathered from the publicly available Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a passive reporting system not implying causality. Among individuals who received the J&J, Moderna, and Pfizer vaccines from 1/1/2021-6/14/2021, 314,610 adverse events were reported and these were reviewed by Neurology trained clinicians to determine the presence of various neurological AEs (40 conditions coded). Results: 306,473,169 COVID vaccine dose were administered in the USA during the study period with 314,610 total AEs (0.10%) and 105,930 neurological AEs (0.03%) reported. J&J vaccine was associated with the most AEs (17,670, 0.15%), followed by Moderna (42656, 0.03%) and Pfizer (42267, 0.03%). On average more events were reported in women (71%) and a majority occurred after the first dose (54%). < 1 events were reported per million vaccine doses for serious neurological conditions such as Bell's palsy (0.0007%), Guillain-Barre syndrome (0.00009%), cerebral venous thrombosis (0.00005%), transverse myelitis (0.00003%), and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (0.00006%). Overall neurological complications following vaccine were drastically lower than complications post-COVID infection (14-80%). Conclusions: Adverse neurological events following COVID-19 vaccination are extremely rare and significantly less common than adverse neurological effects following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Current evidence suggests that along with being up to 100,000 times more likely to experience a major complication from COVID infection vs. vaccine, the risk of neurological complication is up to 5000 times more likely from infection itself.

5.
Brain Injury ; 36(SUPPL 1):100-101, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1815745

ABSTRACT

Objective: Early neurorehabilitation improves outcomes in patients with disorders of consciousness after brain injury, but its applicability in COVID-19 is unknown. We demonstrate the feasibility of an early neurorehabilitation protocol for patients with COVID-19-associated disorders of consciousness in the intensive care unit (ICU) and evaluate factors associated with recovery. Methods: Between March 10 and May 20, 2020, we prospectively enrolled 21 ICU patients with delayed recovery of consciousness after severe COVID-19 in a pilot early neurorehabilitation protocol including serial Coma Recovery Scale - Revised (CRS-R) assessments and multimodal treatment. We retrospectively compared clinical features of patients who did and did not achieve a CRS-R total score (TS) ≥8, consistent with minimally conscious state, before discharge. We additionally present preliminary 6-month follow-up data for 8 patients who survived to discharge. Results: Patients underwent CRS-R a median of 6 (interquartile range [IQR] 3-10) times before discharge, beginning a median of 48 days (IQR 40-55) from admission. Twelve (57%) patients achieved at least one CRS-R TS ≥8, after a median of 8 days (IQR 2-14) off continuous sedation;they had lower body mass index (p = 0.009), lower peak serum C-reactive protein (p = 0.023), higher minimum arterial partial pressure of oxygen (p = 0.028) and earlier fentanyl discontinuation (p = 0.018). CRS-R scores fluctuated over time and best CRS-R TS was significantly higher than last CRS-R TS (median 8 [IQR 5- 23] vs 5 [IQR 3-18], p = 0.002). Earlier fentanyl (p = 0.001) and neuromuscular blockade (p = 0.015) discontinuation correlated with higher last CRS-R TS. Six-month follow-up data was obtained for 8 of 12 patients who survived to hospital discharge: of these, one patient (13%) had expired;3 (38%) remained in a disorder of consciousness;one (13%) was conscious but moderately disabled;and 3 (38%) achieved functional independence. Conclusion: It is feasible to provide early neurorehabilitation to patients with impaired consciousness after severe COVID-19 in the ICU. These patients can recover, but hypoxia, systemic inflammation, sedation and neuromuscular blockade may impact CRS-R scores and short-term outcomes. Return to functional independence is possible for some patients. Further research should evaluate factors influencing longer-term neurologic recovery and benefits of early rehabilitation in patients with severe COVID-19.

9.
Stroke ; 52(SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1234365

ABSTRACT

Introduction: While the thrombotic complications of COVID-19 have been described, there are limited data on its implications in hemorrhagic stroke. The clinical characteristics, underlying stroke mechanism, and outcomes in this group of patients are especially salient as empiric therapeutic anticoagulation becomes increasingly common in the treatment and prevention of thrombotic complications of COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with hemorrhagic stroke (both nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage and spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage) who were hospitalized between 3/1/20-5/15/20 at a NYC hospital system, during the coronavirus pandemic. We compared the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with hemorrhagic stroke and COVID-19 to those without COVID-19 admitted to our hospital between 3/1/20-5/15/20 (contemporary controls) and 3/1/19-5/15/19 (historical controls), using Fischer's exact test and nonparametric testing. We adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method. Results: During the study period, 19 out of 4071 (0.5%) patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19 had hemorrhagic stroke on imaging. Of all COVID-19 with hemorrhagic stroke, only 3 had non-aneurysmal SAH without intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Among hemorrhagic stroke and COVID-19 patients, coagulopathy was the most common etiology (73.7%);empiric anticoagulation was started in 89.5% vs 4.2% of contemporary and 10.0% of historical controls (both with p = <0.001). Compared to contemporary and historical controls, COVID-19 patients had higher initial NIHSS scores, INR, PTT and fibrinogen levels. These patients also had higher rates of in-hospital mortality [84.6% vs. 4.6%, p =<0.001]. Sensitivity analyses excluding patients with strictly subarachnoid hemorrhage yielded similar results. Conclusion: We observed an overall low rate of imaging-confirmed hemorrhagic stroke among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Most hemorrhages in COVID-19 patients occurred in the setting of therapeutic anticoagulation and were associated with increased mortality. Further studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of therapeutic anticoagulation in COVID-19 patients.

10.
Stroke ; 52(SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1234356

ABSTRACT

Introduction: While coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), the causal relationship has yet to be elucidated. Factors that likely confer increased stroke risk are COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and hyperinflammatory response. Studying clinical features of patients with otherwise undetermined cause of AIS could help better define COVID-19-associated stroke. Methods: We performed a multicenter cross-sectional study of consecutive patients presenting with AIS and COVID-19 to one of two large healthcare systems in New York City during the local COVID- 19 surge from March 1, 2020 to May 31, 2020. In-hospital stroke cases were excluded. We compared demographic and clinical features of patients with COVID-19 and a cryptogenic AIS subtype to patients with COVID-19 and a determined subtype. Baseline characteristics and clinical variables were compared using chi-squared and Fisher exact tests. Results: A total of 62 patients with AIS and COVID-19 at the time of hospital arrival were identified. Of these, 30 were classified as having a cryptogenic subtype (80% after complete diagnotics evaluation), and 32 had an identifiable stroke mechanism. Patients with cryptogenic AIS were significantly younger (p=0.011) and less likely to have co-morbid hypertension (p=0.019), coronary artery disease (p=0.024), heart failure (p=0.039), atrial fibrillation (<0.0001), and prior stroke or TIA (p=0.033) compared to those with defined mechanisms. Further, d-dimer, but not C-reactive protein, was significantly higher in patients with cryptogenic stroke compared to those with defined causes (p=0.009). Conclusion: Patients with AIS in the setting of COVID-19 and no other determined stroke mechanism were younger, less likely to have classic risk factors, and had higher d-dimer levels when compared to those with a determined mechanism. Further study of COVID-19-associated hypercoagulability as a mechanism of stroke is warranted.

11.
Critical Care Medicine ; 48(12):e1211-e1217, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209806

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Hyponatremia occurs in up to 30% of patients with pneumonia and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of hyponatremia associated with coronavirus disease 2019 and the impact on outcome is unknown. We aimed to identify the prevalence, predictors, and impact on outcome of mild, moderate, and severe admission hyponatremia compared with normonatremia among coronavirus disease 2019 patients. DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter, observational cohort study. SETTING: Four New York City hospitals that are part of the same health network. PATIENTS: Hospitalized, laboratory-confirmed adult coronavirus disease 2019 patients admitted between March 1, 2020, and May 13, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Hyponatremia was categorized as mild (sodium: 130-134 mmol/L), moderate (sodium: 121-129 mmol/L), or severe (sodium: <= 120 mmol/L) versus normonatremia (135-145 mmol/L). The primary outcome was the association of increasing severity of hyponatremia and in-hospital mortality assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Secondary outcomes included encephalopathy, acute renal failure, mechanical ventilation, and discharge home compared across sodium levels using Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square tests. In exploratory analysis, the association of sodium levels and interleukin-6 levels (which has been linked to nonosmotic release of vasopressin) was assessed. Among 4,645 patient encounters, hyponatremia (sodium < 135 mmol/L) occurred in 1,373 (30%) and 374 of 1,373 (27%) required invasive mechanical ventilation. Mild, moderate, and severe hyponatremia occurred in 1,032 (22%), 305 (7%), and 36 (1%) patients, respectively. Each level of worsening hyponatremia conferred 43% increased odds of in-hospital death after adjusting for age, gender, race, body mass index, past medical history, admission laboratory abnormalities, admission Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, renal failure, encephalopathy, and mechanical ventilation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.43;95% CI, 1.08-1.88;p = 0.012). Increasing severity of hyponatremia was associated with encephalopathy, mechanical ventilation, and decreased probability of discharge home (all p < 0.001). Higher interleukin-6 levels correlated with lower sodium levels (p = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Hyponatremia occurred in nearly a third of coronavirus disease 2019 patients, was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality, and was associated with increased risk of encephalopathy and mechanical ventilation.

12.
Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases ; 30(2):105535, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown worse outcomes in patients with comorbid ischemic stroke (IS) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but have had small sample sizes. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients in the Vizient Clinical Data Base R with IS as a discharge diagnosis. The study outcomes were in-hospital death and favorable discharge (home or acute rehabilitation). In the primary analysis, we compared IS patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (IS-COVID) discharged April 1-July 31, 2020 to pre-COVID IS patients discharged in 2019 (IS controls). In a secondary analysis, we compared a matched cohort of IS-COVID patients to patients within the IS controls who had pneumonia (IS-PNA), created with inverse-probability-weighting (IPW). RESULTS: In the primary analysis, we included 166,586 IS controls and 2086 IS-COVID from 312 hospitals in 46 states. Compared to IS controls, IS-COVID were less likely to have hypertension, dyslipidemia, or be smokers, but more likely to be male, younger, have diabetes, obesity, acute renal failure, acute coronary syndrome, venous thromboembolism, intubation, and comorbid intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage (all p<0.05). Black and Hispanic patients accounted for 21.7% and 7.4% of IS controls, respectively, but 33.7% and 18.5% of IS-COVID (p<0.001). IS-COVID, versus IS controls, were less likely to receive alteplase (1.8% vs 5.6%, p<0.001), mechanical thrombectomy (4.4% vs. 6.7%, p<0.001), to have favorable discharge (33.9% vs. 66.4%, p<0.001), but more likely to die (30.4% vs. 6.5%, p<0.001). In the matched cohort of patients with IS-COVID and IS-PNA, IS-COVID had a higher risk of death (IPW-weighted OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.33-1.82) and lower odds of favorable discharge (IPW-weighted OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.54-0.73). CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic stroke patients with COVID-19 are more likely to be male, younger, and Black or Hispanic, with significant increases in morbidity and mortality compared to both ischemic stroke controls from 2019 and to patients with ischemic stroke and pneumonia.

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