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1.
Cephalalgia ; : 3331024221099231, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Delayed-onset of headache seems a specific feature of cerebrovascular events after COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: All consecutive events reported to the United States Vaccine Adverse Reporting System following COVID-19 vaccines (1 January to 24 June 2021), were assessed. The timing of headache onset post-vaccination in subjects with and without concomitant cerebrovascular events, including cerebral venous thrombosis, ischemic stroke, and intracranial haemorrhage was analysed. The diagnostic accuracy in predicting concurrent cerebrovascular events of the guideline- proposed threshold of three-days from vaccination to headache onset was evaluated. RESULTS: There were 314,610 events following 306,907,697 COVID-19 vaccine doses, including 41,700 headaches, and 178/41,700 (0.4%) cerebrovascular events. The median time between the vaccination and the headache onset was shorter in isolated headache (1 day vs. 4 (in cerebral venous thrombosis), 3 (in ischemic stroke), or 10 (in intracranial hemorrhage) days, all P < 0.001). Delayed onset of headache had an area under the curve of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75-0.97) for cerebral venous thrombosis, 0.70 (95% CI: 0.63-76) for ischemic stroke and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.67-84) for intracranial hemorrhage, and >99% negative predictive value. CONCLUSION: Headache following COVID-19 vaccination occurs within 1 day and is rarely associated with cerebrovascular events. Delayed onset of headache 3 days post-vaccination was an accurate diagnostic biomarker for the occurrence of a concomitant cerebrovascular events.

2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(6): 106450, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relationship between cardiac function and mortality after thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke is not well elucidated. METHODS: We analyzed the relationship between cardiac function and mortality prior to discharge in a cohort of patients who underwent thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke at two large medical centers in New York City between December 2018 and November 2020. All analyses were performed using Welch's two sample t-test and logistic regression accounting for age, initial NIHSS and post-procedure ASPECTS score, where OR is for each unit increase in the respective variables. RESULTS: Of 248 patients, 41 (16.5%) died prior to discharge. Mortality was significantly associated with higher initial heart rate (HR; 89 ± 19 bpm vs 80 ± 18 bpm, p = 0.004) and higher maximum HR over entire admission (137 ± 26 bpm vs 114 ± 25 bpm, p < 0.001). Mortality was also associated with presence of NSTEMI/STEMI (63% vs 29%, p < 0.001). When age, initial NIHSS score, and post-procedure ASPECTS score were included in multivariate analysis, there was still a significant relationship between mortality and initial HR (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01- 1.05, p = 0.02), highest HR over the entire admission (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.05, p < 0.001), and presence of NSTEMI/STEMI (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.66-8.87, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Tachycardia is associated with mortality in patients who undergo thrombectomy. Further investigation is needed to determine whether this risk is modifiable.


Subject(s)
Ischemic Stroke , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Stroke , Humans , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Tachycardia/complications , Thrombectomy , Treatment Outcome
4.
Ann Neurol ; 2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756553

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify the rates of neurological events following administration of mRNA (Pfizer, Moderna) or adenovirus vector (Janssen) vaccines in the U.S.. METHODS: We utilized publicly available data from the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) collected between January 1, 2021-June 14, 2021. All free text symptoms that were reported within 42 days of vaccine administration were manually reviewed and grouped into 36 individual neurological diagnostic categories. Post-vaccination neurological event rates were compared between vaccine types and to age-matched baseline incidence rates in the U.S. and rates of neurological events following COVID. RESULTS: Of 306,907,697 COVID vaccine doses administered during the study timeframe, 314,610 (0.1%) people reported any adverse event and 105,214 (0.03%) reported neurological adverse events in a median of 1 day (IQR0-3) from inoculation. Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS), and cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) occurred in fewer than 1 per 1,000,000 doses. Significantly more neurological adverse events were reported following Janssen (Ad26.COV2.S) vaccination compared to either Pfizer-BioNtech (BNT162b2) or Moderna (mRNA-1273; 0.15% versus 0.03% versus 0.03% of doses, respectively,P<0.0001). The observed-to-expected ratios for GBS, CVT and seizure following Janssen vaccination were ≥1.5-fold higher than background rates. However, the rate of neurological events after acute SARS-CoV-2 infection was up to 617-fold higher than after COVID vaccination. INTERPRETATION: Reports of serious neurological events following COVID vaccination are rare. GBS, CVT and seizure may occur at higher than background rates following Janssen vaccination. Despite this, rates of neurological complications following acute SARS-CoV-2 infection are up to 617-fold higher than after COVID vaccination. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Neurology ; 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Little is known about trajectories of recovery 12-months after hospitalization for severe COVID. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients with and without neurological complications during index hospitalization for COVID-19 from March 10, 2020-May 20, 2020. Phone follow-up batteries were performed at 6- and 12-months post-COVID symptom onset. The primary 12-month outcome was the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) comparing patients with or without neurological complications using multivariable ordinal analysis. Secondary outcomes included: activities of daily living (Barthel Index), telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment (t-MoCA) and Neuro-QoL batteries for anxiety, depression, fatigue and sleep. Changes in outcome scores from 6 to 12-months were compared using non-parametric paired-samples sign test. RESULTS: Twelve-month follow-up was completed in N=242 patients (median age 65, 64% male, 34% intubated during hospitalization) and N=174 completed both 6- and 12-month follow-up. At 12-months 197/227 (87%) had ≥1 abnormal metric: mRS>0 (75%), Barthel<100 (64%), t-MoCA≤18 (50%), high anxiety (7%), depression (4%), fatigue (9%) and poor sleep (10%). 12-month mRS scores did not differ significantly among those with (N=113) or without (N=129) neurological complications during hospitalization after adjusting for age, sex, race, pre-COVID mRS and intubation status (adjusted OR 1.4, 95% CI0.8-2.5), though those with neurological complications had higher fatigue scores (T-score 47 vs 44, P=0.037). Significant improvements in outcome trajectories from 6- to 12-months were observed in t-MoCA scores (56% improved, median difference 1 point, P=0.002), and Neuro-QoL anxiety scores (45% improved, P=0.003). Non-significant improvements occurred in fatigue, sleep and depression scores in 48%, 48% and 38% of patients, respectively. Barthel and mRS scores remained unchanged between 6 and 12-months in >50% of patients. DISCUSSION: At 12-months post-hospitalization for severe COVID, 87% of patients had ongoing abnormalities in functional, cognitive or Neuro-QoL metrics and abnormal cognition persisted in 50% of patients without a prior history of dementia/cognitive abnormality. Only fatigue severity differed significantly between patients with or without neurological complications during index hospitalization. However, significant improvements in cognitive (t-MoCA) and anxiety (Neuro-QoL) scores occurred in 56% and 45% of patients, respectively, between 6- to 12-months. These results may not be generalizable to those with mild/moderate COVID.

6.
The Wiley‐Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Social Development ; n/a(n/a):224-238, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1750284

ABSTRACT

Summary In this chapter, the authors focus on disruptions to children's lives at home and at school (including early childhood care and education programs [ECCE] and primary schooling) as critical settings for healthy development. The Covid-19 pandemic has upended children's lives in myriad ways, including disruptions in the family system due to illness or death, financial instability tied to job loss, and educational disruptions as a result of closures of child care facilities and schools. In considering how the Covid-19 pandemic is shaping children's social development, the authors attend to how interactions with others and socialization processes within families and schools may buffer or exacerbate the pandemic's negative impact. Developmental scientists are well positioned to research how macro-level shocks such as the coronavirus pandemic affect children's developmental trajectories, and the life-course perspective can guide and inform that investigation. Introduction We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the cognitive effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adults with no prior history of cognitive impairment. Methods Searches in Medline/Web of Science/Embase from January 1, 2020, to December 13, 2021, were performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.  A meta-analysis of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) total score comparing recovered COVID-19 and healthy controls was performed. Results Oof 6202 articles, 27 studies with 2049 individuals were included (mean age = 56.05 years, evaluation time ranged from the acute phase to 7 months post-infection). Impairment in executive functions, attention, and memory were found in post-COVID-19 patients.  The meta-analysis was performed with a subgroup of 290 individuals and showed a difference in MoCA score between post-COVID-19 patients versus controls (mean difference = ?0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] ?1.59, ?0.29;P = .0049). Discussion Patients recovered from COVID-19 have lower general cognition compared to healthy controls up to 7 months post-infection.

7.
Alzheimers Dement ; 18(5): 1047-1066, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748787

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the cognitive effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adults with no prior history of cognitive impairment. METHODS: Searches in Medline/Web of Science/Embase from January 1, 2020, to December 13, 2021, were performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.  A meta-analysis of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) total score comparing recovered COVID-19 and healthy controls was performed. RESULTS: Oof 6202 articles, 27 studies with 2049 individuals were included (mean age = 56.05 years, evaluation time ranged from the acute phase to 7 months post-infection). Impairment in executive functions, attention, and memory were found in post-COVID-19 patients.  The meta-analysis was performed with a subgroup of 290 individuals and showed a difference in MoCA score between post-COVID-19 patients versus controls (mean difference = -0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.59, -0.29; P = .0049). DISCUSSION: Patients recovered from COVID-19 have lower general cognition compared to healthy controls up to 7 months post-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Adult , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Executive Function , Humans , Infant
8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317002

ABSTRACT

Encephalopathy is a common complication of COVID-19 that can both be a challenge to manage and also negatively impacts prognosis. Whilst encephalopathy may be due to common systemic causes, such as hypoxia, COVID-19 has also been associated with more prolonged encephalopathy due to less common but nevertheless severe complications, such as inflammation of the brain parenchyma, cerebrovascular involvement and seizures, which may be disproportionate to COVID-19 severity and which require specific management. The aim of this review is to provide pragmatic guidance on the management of COVID-19 encephalopathy through a consensus agreement of the Global COVID-19 Neuro-Research Coalition.A systematic literature search of Medline, MedRxiv, and BioRx was conducted between 1st January 2020 and 11th June 2021 with additional review of references cited within the identified bibliographies. A modified Delphi-approach was then undertaken to develop recommendations along with a parallel approach to score the strength of both the recommendation and the supporting evidence.This manuscript presents analysis of contemporaneous evidence for definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of COVID-19 encephalopathy and practical guidance for clinical assessment, investigation, and acute and long-term management.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310708

ABSTRACT

Background: Zinc impairs replication of RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-1, and may be effective against SARS-CoV-2. However, to achieve adequate intracellular zinc levels, administration with an ionophore, which increases intracellular zinc levels, may be necessary. We evaluated the impact of zinc with an ionophore (Zn+ionophore) on COVID-19 in-hospital mortality rates. Methods: : A multicenter cohort study was conducted of 3,473 adult hospitalized patients with reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) positive SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to four New York City hospitals between March 10 through May 20, 2020. Exclusion criteria were: death or discharge within 24h, comfort-care status, clinical trial enrollment, treatment with an IL-6 inhibitor or remdesivir. Patients who received Zn+ionophore were compared to patients who did not using multivariable time-dependent cox proportional hazards models for time to in-hospital death adjusting for confounders including age, sex, race, BMI, diabetes, week of admission, hospital location, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, intubation, acute renal failure, neurological events, treatment with corticosteroids, azithromycin or lopinavir/ritonavir and the propensity score of receiving Zn+ionophore. A sensitivity analysis was performed using a propensity score-matched cohort of patients who did or did not receive Zn+ionophore matched by age, sex and ventilator status. Results: : Among 3,473 patients (median age 64, 1947 [56%] male, 522 [15%] ventilated, 545[16%] died), 1,006 (29%) received Zn+ionophore. Zn+ionophore was associated with a 24% reduced risk of in-hospital mortality (12% of those who received Zn+ionophore died versus 17% who did not;adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR] 0.76, 95% CI 0.60-0.96, P=0.023). More patients who received Zn+ionophore were discharged home (72% Zn+ionophore vs 67% no Zn+ionophore, P=0.003) Neither Zn nor the ionophore alone were associated with decreased mortality rates. Propensity score-matched sensitivity analysis (N=1356) validated these results (Zn+ionophore aHR for mortality 0.63, 95%CI 0.44-0.91, P=0.015). There were no significant interactions for Zn+ionophore with other COVID-19 specific medications. Conclusions: : Zinc with an ionophore was associated with increased rates of discharge home and a 24% reduced risk of in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients, while neither zinc alone nor the ionophore alone reduced mortality. Further randomized trials are warranted.

10.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327557

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background/Objectives Little is known about trajectories of recovery 12-months after hospitalization for severe COVID. Methods We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients with and without neurological complications during index hospitalization for COVID-19 from March 10, 2020-May 20, 2020. Phone follow-up batteries were performed at 6- and 12-months post-COVID symptom onset. The primary 12-month outcome was the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) comparing patients with or without neurological complications using multivariable ordinal analysis. Secondary outcomes included: activities of daily living (Barthel Index), telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment (t-MoCA) and Neuro-QoL batteries for anxiety, depression, fatigue and sleep. Changes in outcome scores from 6 to 12-months were compared using non-parametric paired-samples sign test. Results Twelve-month follow-up was completed in N=242 patients (median age 65, 64% male, 34% intubated during hospitalization) and N=174 completed both 6- and 12-month follow-up. At 12-months 197/227 (87%) had ≥1 abnormal metric: mRS>0 (75%), Barthel<100 (64%), t-MoCA≤18 (50%), high anxiety (7%), depression (4%), fatigue (9%) and poor sleep (10%). 12-month mRS scores did not differ significantly among those with (N=113) or without (N=129) neurological complications during hospitalization after adjusting for age, sex, race, pre-COVID mRS and intubation status (adjusted OR 1.4, 95% CI0.8-2.5), though those with neurological complications had higher fatigue scores (T-score 47 vs 44, P=0.037). Significant improvements in outcome trajectories from 6- to 12-months were observed in t-MoCA scores (56% improved, median difference 1 point, P=0.002), and Neuro-QoL anxiety scores (45% improved, P=0.003). Non-significant improvements occurred in fatigue, sleep and depression scores in 48%, 48% and 38% of patients, respectively. Barthel and mRS scores remained unchanged between 6 and 12-months in >50% of patients. Discussion At 12-months post-hospitalization for severe COVID, 87% of patients had ongoing abnormalities in functional, cognitive or Neuro-QoL metrics and abnormal cognition persisted in 50% of patients without a prior history of dementia/cognitive abnormality. Only fatigue severity differed significantly between patients with or without neurological complications during index hospitalization. However, significant improvements in cognitive (t-MoCA) and anxiety (Neuro-QoL) scores occurred in 56% and 45% of patients, respectively, between 6- to 12-months. These results may not be generalizable to those with mild/moderate COVID.

11.
Alzheimers Dement ; 18(5): 899-910, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620097

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Neurological complications among hospitalized COVID-19 patients may be associated with elevated neurodegenerative biomarkers. METHODS: Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients without a history of dementia (N = 251), we compared serum total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau-181 (p-tau181), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neurofilament light chain (NfL), ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), and amyloid beta (Aß40,42) between patients with or without encephalopathy, in-hospital death versus survival, and discharge home versus other dispositions. COVID-19 patient biomarker levels were also compared to non-COVID cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia controls (N = 161). RESULTS: Admission t-tau, p-tau181, GFAP, and NfL were significantly elevated in patients with encephalopathy and in those who died in-hospital, while t-tau, GFAP, and NfL were significantly lower in those discharged home. These markers correlated with severity of COVID illness. NfL, GFAP, and UCHL1 were higher in COVID patients than in non-COVID controls with MCI or AD. DISCUSSION: Neurodegenerative biomarkers were elevated to levels observed in AD dementia and associated with encephalopathy and worse outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Hospital Mortality , Humans , tau Proteins
12.
J Neurol Sci ; 438: 120146, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611870

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Persistent cognitive symptoms have been reported following COVID-19 hospitalization. We investigated the relationship between demographics, social determinants of health (SDOH) and cognitive outcomes 6-months after hospitalization for COVID-19. METHODS: We analyzed 6-month follow-up data collected from a multi-center, prospective study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Demographic and SDOH variables (age, race/ethnicity, education, employment, health insurance status, median income, primary language, living arrangements, and pre-COVID disability) were compared between patients with normal versus abnormal telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessments (t-MOCA; scores<18/22). Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate predictors of t-MoCA. RESULTS: Of 382 patients available for 6-month follow-up, 215 (56%) completed the t-MoCA (n = 109/215 [51%] had normal and n = 106/215 [49%] abnormal results). 14/215 (7%) patients had a prior history of dementia/cognitive impairment. Significant univariate predictors of abnormal t-MoCA included older age, ≤12 years of education, unemployment pre-COVID, Black race, and a pre-COVID history of cognitive impairment (all p < 0.05). In multivariable analyses, education ≤12 years (adjusted OR 5.21, 95%CI 2.25-12.09), Black race (aOR 5.54, 95%CI 2.25-13.66), and the interaction of baseline functional status and unemployment prior to hospitalization (aOR 3.98, 95%CI 1.23-12.92) were significantly associated with abnormal t-MoCA scores after adjusting for age, history of dementia, language, neurological complications, income and discharge disposition. CONCLUSIONS: Fewer years of education, Black race and unemployment with baseline disability were associated with abnormal t-MoCA scores 6-months post-hospitalization for COVID-19. These associations may be due to undiagnosed baseline cognitive dysfunction, implicit biases of the t-MoCA, other unmeasured SDOH or biological effects of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Dementia/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health
13.
Alzheimer's & Dementia ; 17(S5):e057892, 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1589187

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented global health care crisis. Older individuals and those with pre-existing AD/ADRD or mild cognitive impairment are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a higher mortality. In this study we assessed that the presence of plasma biomarkers associated with AD, neurodegeneration and neuroinflamation in older patients (>60yrs old), who were hospitalized with COVID-19, who either had or did not have new neurological symptoms associated with infection. Method Patients were admitted to New York University Langone Health (NYULH), with sites in Manhattan, Brooklyn and Long Island. All patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Plasma from 310 patients were analyzed (158 were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 with neurological symptoms and 152 were positive for SARS-CoV-2 without neurologic symptoms). Plasma biomarkers assays (total tau [t-tau], neurofilament light [NfL], glial fibrillary acid protein [GFAP], ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 [UCH-L1] A?40, A?42 and pTau-181) were performed at the Biomarker Core of NYU ADRC using the SIMOA SR-X Result The levels of t-tau, NfL, GFAP, and UCH-L1 were measured using the Neurology 4-plex A and showed a significant elevation in COVID-19 patients with neurologic symptoms compared to COVID-19 patients without neurological symptoms: NfL (two tailed t-test p = 0.0003), GFAP (two tailed t-test p = 0.0098), UCH-L1 (two tailed t-test p = 0.0138) and t-tau (two tailed t-test p = 0.04). pTau 181 was also elevated in COVID-19 subjects with neurological symptoms (two tailed t-test p = 0.0141). There were no significant differences with A?1-40 (two tailed t-test p = 0.33). Both A?1-42 and the pTau/ A?42 ratio showed a significant differences in patients with neurological symptoms (two tailed t-test p = 0.049 and p = 0.0017, respectively). Conclusion Serum biomarkers of neuronal injury, neuroinflammation and Alzheimer?s disease such as NfL, t-tau, UCH-L1, GFAP and pTau-181 correlate strongly with the presence of neurological symptoms in COVID-19 patients. These findings indicate that patients who had COVID-19 may have an acceleration of AD/ADRD symptoms and pathology.

14.
J Neurol ; 269(5): 2265-2274, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479471

ABSTRACT

Acute and post-acute neurological symptoms, signs and diagnoses have been documented in an increasing number of patients infected by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this review, we aimed to summarize the current literature addressing neurological events following SARS-CoV-2 infection, discuss limitations in the existing literature and suggest future directions that would strengthen our understanding of the neurological sequelae of COVID-19. The presence of neurological manifestations (symptoms, signs or diagnoses) both at the onset or during SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a more severe disease, as demonstrated by a longer hospital stay, higher in-hospital death rate or the continued presence of sequelae at discharge. Although biological mechanisms have been postulated for these findings, evidence-based data are still lacking to clearly define the incidence, range of characteristics and outcomes of these manifestations, particularly in non-hospitalized patients. In addition, data from low- and middle-income countries are scarce, leading to uncertainties in the measure of neurological findings of COVID-19, with reference to geography, ethnicity, socio-cultural settings, and health care arrangements. As a consequence, at present a specific phenotype that would specify a post-COVID (or long-COVID) neurological syndrome has not yet been identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Neurol ; 12: 741044, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477845

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Our objective was to identify characteristics associated with having an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) among hospitalized COVID-19 patients and the subset of these patients with a neurologic symptom. Materials and Methods: Our derivation cohort consisted of COVID-19 patients admitted to Yale-New Haven Health between January 3, 2020 and August 28, 2020 with and without AIS. We also studied a sub-cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients demonstrating a neurologic symptom with and without an AIS. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory results were compared between AIS and non-AIS patients in the full COVID-19 cohort and in the sub-cohort of COVID-19 patients with a neurologic symptom. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to predict ischemic stroke risk in these two COVID-19 cohorts. These 2 models were externally validated in COVID-19 patients hospitalized at a major health system in New York. We then compared the distribution of the resulting predictors in a non-COVID ischemic stroke control cohort. Results: A total of 1,827 patients were included in the derivation cohort (AIS N = 44; no AIS N = 1,783). Among all hospitalized COVID-19 patients, history of prior stroke and platelet count ≥ 200 × 1,000/µL at hospital presentation were independent predictors of AIS (derivation AUC 0.89, validation AUC 0.82), irrespective of COVID-19 severity. Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with a neurologic symptom (N = 827), the risk of AIS was significantly higher among patients with a history of prior stroke and age <60 (derivation AUC 0.83, validation AUC 0.81). Notably, in a non-COVID ischemic stroke control cohort (N = 168), AIS patients were significantly older and less likely to have had a prior stroke, demonstrating the uniqueness of AIS patients with COVID-19. Conclusions: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients who demonstrate a neurologic symptom and have either a history of prior stroke or are of younger age are at higher risk of ischemic stroke.

16.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 774318, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477841
17.
Neurocrit Care ; 36(2): 357-371, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early neurorehabilitation improves outcomes in patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) after brain injury, but its applicability in COVID-19 is unknown. We describe our experience implementing an early neurorehabilitation protocol for patients with COVID-19-associated DoC in the intensive care unit (ICU) and evaluate factors associated with recovery. METHODS: During the initial COVID-19 surge in New York City between March 10 and May 20, 2020, faced with a disproportionately high number of ICU patients with prolonged unresponsiveness, we developed and implemented an early neurorehabilitation protocol, applying standard practices from brain injury rehabilitation care to the ICU setting. Twenty-one patients with delayed recovery of consciousness after severe COVID-19 participated in a pilot early neurorehabilitation program that included serial Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) assessments, multimodal treatment, and access to clinicians specializing in brain injury medicine. We retrospectively compared clinical features of patients who did and did not recover to the minimally conscious state (MCS) or better, defined as a CRS-R total score (TS) ≥ 8, before discharge. We additionally examined factors associated with best CRS-R TS, last CRS-R TS, hospital length of stay, and time on mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Patients underwent CRS-R assessments a median of six (interquartile range [IQR] 3-10) times before discharge, beginning a median of 48 days (IQR 40-55) from admission. Twelve (57%) patients recovered to MCS after a median of 8 days (IQR 2-14) off continuous sedation; they had lower body mass index (p = 0.009), lower peak serum C-reactive protein levels (p = 0.023), higher minimum arterial partial pressure of oxygen (p = 0.028), and earlier fentanyl discontinuation (p = 0.018). CRS-R scores fluctuated over time, and the best CRS-R TS was significantly higher than the last CRS-R TS (median 8 [IQR 5-23] vs. 5 [IQR 3-18], p = 0.002). Earlier fentanyl (p = 0.001) and neuromuscular blockade (p = 0.015) discontinuation correlated with a higher last CRS-R TS. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of our cohort of patients with prolonged unresponsiveness following severe COVID-19 recovered to MCS or better before hospital discharge, achieving a clinical benchmark known to have relatively favorable long-term prognostic implications in DoC of other etiologies. Hypoxia, systemic inflammation, sedation, and neuromuscular blockade may impact diagnostic assessment and prognosis, and fluctuations in level of consciousness make serial assessments essential. Early neurorehabilitation of these patients in the ICU can be accomplished but is associated with unique challenges. Further research should evaluate factors associated with longer-term neurologic recovery and benefits of early rehabilitation in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurological Rehabilitation , COVID-19/complications , Consciousness , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Humans , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
18.
Stroke ; 52(11): e706-e709, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371922
19.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 690383, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Little is known regarding the prevalence and predictors of prolonged cognitive and psychological symptoms of COVID-19 among community-dwellers. We aimed to quantitatively measure self-reported metrics of fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and sleep and identify factors associated with these metrics among United States residents with or without COVID-19. METHODS: We solicited 1000 adult United States residents for an online survey conducted February 3-5, 2021 utilizing a commercial crowdsourcing community research platform. The platform curates eligible participants to approximate United States demographics by age, sex, and race proportions. COVID-19 was diagnosed by laboratory testing and/or by exposure to a known positive contact with subsequent typical symptoms. Prolonged COVID-19 was self-reported and coded for those with symptoms ≥ 1 month following initial diagnosis. The primary outcomes were NIH PROMIS/Neuro-QoL short-form T-scores for fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and sleep compared among those with prolonged COVID-19 symptoms, COVID-19 without prolonged symptoms and COVID-19 negative subjects. Multivariable backwards step-wise logistic regression models were constructed to predict abnormal Neuro-QoL metrics. RESULTS: Among 999 respondents, the average age was 45 years (range 18-84), 49% were male, 76 (7.6%) had a history of COVID-19 and 19/76 (25%) COVID-19 positive participants reported prolonged symptoms lasting a median of 4 months (range 1-13). Prolonged COVID-19 participants were more often younger, female, Hispanic, and had a history of depression/mood/thought disorder (all P < 0.05). They experienced significantly higher rates of unemployment and financial insecurity, and their symptoms created greater interference with work and household activities compared to other COVID-19 status groups (all P < 0.05). After adjusting for demographics, past medical history and stressor covariates in multivariable logistic regression analysis, COVID-19 status was independently predictive of worse Neuro-QoL cognitive dysfunction scores (adjusted OR 11.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.28, P = 0.047), but there were no significant differences in quantitative measures of anxiety, depression, fatigue, or sleep. CONCLUSION: Prolonged symptoms occurred in 25% of COVID-19 positive participants, and NeuroQoL cognitive dysfunction scores were significantly worse among COVID-19 positive subjects, even after accounting for demographic and stressor covariates. Fatigue, anxiety, depression, and sleep scores did not differ between COVID-19 positive and negative respondents.

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