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Biochem Soc Trans ; 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133693


Natural infection with SARS-CoV-2 induces a robust circulating memory B cell (Bmem) population, which remains stable in number at least 8 months post-infection despite the contraction of antibody levels after 1 month. Multiple vaccines have been developed to combat the virus. These include two new formulations, mRNA and adenoviral vector vaccines, which have varying efficacy rates, potentially related to their distinct capacities to induce humoral immune responses. The mRNA vaccines BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) elicit significantly higher serum IgG and neutralizing antibody levels than the adenoviral vector ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen) vaccines. However, all vaccines induce Spike- and RBD-specific Bmem, which are vital in providing long-lasting protection in the form of rapid recall responses to subsequent infections. Past and current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoC) have shown the capacity to escape antibody neutralization to varying degrees. A booster dose with an mRNA vaccine following primary vaccination restores antibody levels and improves the capacity of these antibodies and Bmem to bind viral variants, including the current VoC Omicron. Future experimental research will be essential to evaluate the durability of protection against VoC provided by each vaccine and to identify immune markers of protection to enable prognostication of people who are at risk of severe complications from COVID-19.