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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 938322, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043444

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite the likely association between coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines and cases of myocarditis/pericarditis, the benefit-risk assessment by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) still showed a favorable balance for the primary series of COVID-19 mRNA vaccinations. Since August 2021, a full-scale booster vaccination in certain recipients has been recommended. Great concerns about whether the COVID-19 mRNA booster vaccination could increase the risks of myocarditis/pericarditis have been raised since then. The present study aimed to compare the incidence rates and risks of myocarditis/pericarditis between booster and primary vaccination programs. Methods: The CDC COVID Data Tracker and the Vaccines Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) were queried between December 11, 2020 and March 15, 2022. Incidence rates were calculated by cases of myocarditis/pericarditis divided by the number of vaccinated people or the total doses of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Disproportionality patterns for myocarditis/pericarditis of different COVID-19 mRNA vaccinations were accessed based on the reporting odds and proportional reporting ratios (ROR and PRR, respectively). Results: A total of 2,588 reports of myocarditis/pericarditis were identified after administration of primary-series COVID-19 mRNA vaccination and 269 after the booster dose program during the study period. The incidence of myocarditis/pericarditis following booster COVID-19 mRNA vaccination was lower than that of primary series. The results showed significantly high reporting of myocarditis/pericarditis following the administration of primary COVID-19 mRNA vaccination, whereas the disproportional level was lower in the booster-dose vaccination. Conclusion: This study found that the booster dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination when compared with primary series course did not lead to an increase in the risks of myocarditis/pericarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
2.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 47(11): 1789-1795, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019417

ABSTRACT

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Evidence on whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination could cause hearing-related adverse events is still conflicting. This study aims to access the association between COVID-19 vaccine and hearing disorder. METHODS: The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) was queried between January 2020 to November 2021. The disproportionality pattern for hearing impairment of COVID-19 vaccine was accessed by calculating the reporting odds ratio (ROR) and proportional reporting ratio (PRR). A further subgroup analysis based on the type of COVID-19 vaccine and the doses administered was performed. In addition, the disproportionalities for hearing dysfunction between COVID-19 and influenza vaccines were compared. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 14,956 reports of hearing-related adverse events were identified with COVID-19 vaccination and 151 with influenza vaccine during the analytic period in VAERS. The incidence of hearing disorder following COVID-19 vaccination was 6.66 per 100,000. The results of disproportionality analysis revealed that the adverse events of hearing impairment, after administration of COVID-19 vaccine, was significantly highly reported (ROR 2.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.20-2.56; PRR: 2.35, χ2 537.58), for both mRNA (ROR 2.37, 95% CI 2.20-2.55; PRR 2.34, χ2 529.75) and virus vector vaccines (ROR 2.50, 95% CI 2.28-2.73; PRR 2.56, χ2 418.57). While the disproportional level for hearing dysfunction was quite lower in influenza vaccine (ROR 0.36, 95% CI 0.30-0.42; PRR 0.36, χ2 172.24). WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: This study identified increased risk for hearing disorder following administration of both mRNA and virus vector COVID-19 vaccines compared to influenza vaccination in real-world settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Humans , Pharmacovigilance , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects , Hearing Disorders/chemically induced , RNA, Messenger
3.
Soc Work Health Care ; 61(4): 261-279, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956461

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 rapidly overwhelmed the world in 2020, medical social workers have fought against the disease on the front lines as a member of medical teams, but little is known about the impact of the pandemic on their mental health. This study investigated the resilience, perceived social support and professional quality of life of medical social workers in Mainland China under the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic. An online questionnaire survey was applied to 319 respondents and the results showed that informal support was positively related with compassion satisfaction (r = 0.67, p < .01) and negatively correlated with job burnout (r = -0.51, p < .01) while formal support was positively associated with compassion satisfaction (r = 0.61, p < .01) and negatively associated with job burnout (r = -0.44. p < .01). Resilience was positively correlated with compassion satisfaction (r = 0.56, p < .01) and negatively correlated with job burnout (r = -0.49, p < .01). Nevertheless, neither perceived social support nor resilience was associated with secondary traumatic stress. The regression results further highlighted the role of informal social support on job burnout. Measures should be taken to enhance the professional quality of life for medical social workers during a public health crisis .


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Social Support , Social Workers/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Eur J Med Chem ; 225: 113818, 2021 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385491

ABSTRACT

Cathepsin C, an important lysosomal cysteine protease, mediates the maturation process of neutrophil serine proteases, and participates in the inflammation and immune regulation process associated with polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Therefore, cathepsin C is considered to be an attractive target for treating inflammatory diseases. With INS1007 (trade name: brensocatib) being granted a breakthrough drug designation by FDA for the treatment of Adult Non-cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis and Coronavirus Disease 2019, the development of cathepsin C inhibitor will attract attentions from medicinal chemists in the future soon. Here, we summarized the research results of cathepsin C as a therapeutic target, focusing on the development of cathepsin C inhibitor, and provided guidance and reference opinions for the upcoming development boom of cathepsin C inhibitor.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Cathepsin C/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Discovery , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cathepsin C/genetics , Cathepsin C/metabolism , Humans , Papillon-Lefevre Disease/genetics , Papillon-Lefevre Disease/pathology , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
5.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 42(5):487-493, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-828076

ABSTRACT

To explore the PED treatment preparation that can directly be used in piglets, here we inserted the PEDV neutralizingantibody PC10-IgG gene sequence into the human adenovirus type V (Ad5) backbone plasmid to construct the recombinantadenovirus Ad5-PC10-IgG and analyzed its anti-PEDV effect. The supernatant of HEK293 cells infected with Ad5-PC10-IgG wasdetected by ELISA, and purified IgG from the supernatant was detected by SDS-PAGE and western blot. The results showed that HEK293 cells infected by Ad5-PC10-IgG were able to secrete and express PC10-IgG and the antibody titer was relatively high. Thesecreted PC10-IgG was also used to test the binding activity (by IFA) and neutralize activity (by PCR and IFA) against PEDV, andthe results showed that PC10-IgG expressed by Ad5-PC10-IgG in the supernatant could significantly inhibit PEDV infection in VeroE6 cells and had good binding activity. In order to verify whether Ad5-PC10-IgG can infect the pig's small intestine, Ad5-PC10-IgGwere used to infect porcine intestinal enteroids, and the supernatant after infection was detected by ELISA as well as the expressionof PC10-IgG by porcine intestinal enteroids were detected by IFA. The results showed that Ad5-PC10-IgG was able to infect porcineintestinal enteroids and the PC10-IgG was secreted by viral infected cells. In addition, mice were inoculated by Ad5-PC10-IgG, andthe serum and anal swabs were collected at different time points and detected by ELISA. After that, the binding activity andneutralizing activity of PC10-IgG in the serum against PEDV were detected through the virus binding experiment and the virusinhibition experiment. The results showed that on the 1, 3, 5 day after inoculation, the serum of the inoculated mice contained higherconcentrations of PC10-IgG instead of anal swabs, and the PC10-IgG in the serum had good binding activity and neutralizingactivity to PEDV. The above results indicate that Ad5-PC10-IgG can secrete and express the active neutralizing antibody PC10-IgGin vivo and in vitro. Therefore, this study lays the foundation for the further development of PEDV therapeutic antibody againstPEDV infection in the future.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1180, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609573

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an economically important pathogen that has evolved several mechanisms to evade type I IFN responses. Type III interferon (IFN-λ), an innate cytokine that primarily targets the mucosal epithelia, is critical in fighting mucosal infection in the host and has been reported to potently inhibit PEDV infection in vitro. However, how PEDV escapes IFN-λ antiviral response remains unclear. In this study, we found that PEDV infection induced significant IFN-λ expression in type I IFN-defective Vero E6 cells, but virus-induced endogenous IFN-λ did not reduce PEDV titers. Moreover, we demonstrated that PEDV escaped IFN-λ responses by substantially upregulating the suppressor of cytokine signaling protein 1 (SOCS1) expression, which impaired the induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and dampened the IFN-λ antiviral response and facilitated PEDV replication in Vero E6 cells. We further showed that PEDV infection increased SOCS1 expression by decreasing host miR-30c-5p expression. MiR-30c-5p suppressed SOCS1 expression through targeting the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of SOCS1. The inhibition of IFN-λ elicited ISGs expression by SOCS1 was specifically rescued by overexpression of miR-30c-5p. Collectively, our findings identify a new strategy by PEDV to escape IFN-λ-mediated antiviral immune responses by engaging the SOCS1/miR-30c axis, thus improving our understanding of its pathogenesis.

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