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1.
AIDS Care ; : 1-5, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062604

ABSTRACT

Obtaining antiretroviral therapy (ART) was a challenge for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. On 26 January 2020, the Chinese Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention issued a nationwide directive to relax restrictions on where and when PLHIV could refill ART. This qualitative study explored unexpected barriers under this directive and recommendations to improve future ART delivery. Between February 11 and February 15 2020, in-depth interviews of 4 groups of stake holders related to ART refilling (i.e., PLHIV, community-based organization employees, CDC staff, infectious disease physicians and nurses), were conducted via WeChat. Data were managed by NVivo 11.0 and transcripts were coded using thematic analysis. Sixty-two interviews were conducted. The main barriers to refilling ART included: (1) inconsistent documentation requirements to refill ART, (2) lack of specific protocols on ART refilling, (3) insufficient staffing, and (4) regimen verification and drug shortages. The most common recommendations to improve future ART delivery were: (1) to establish a nationwide system to distribute ART and (2) increase the number of pills delivered with each ART refill. Strengthening protocols and systems to refill ART and improving collaboration is key to preventing interruptions in ART among PLHIV during public health emergencies.

2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2102329, 2022 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984960

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer are considered at high risk of COVID-19 related complications with higher mortality rates than healthy individuals. This study investigated the perception, acceptance, and influencing factors of COVID-19 vaccination among cancer patients in Guangzhou, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Guangzhou, China from August to November 2021 in two tertiary medical centers. Outpatients were recruited through hospital posters to complete a questionnaire including demographics, medical history, knowledge, and attitude toward COVID-19 vaccines and COVID-19 vaccination status. Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze predictors for acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination. In total, only 75 out of 343 patients (21.87%) had received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine. Twenty-one patients (6.12%) had received a recommendation about COVID-19 vaccination from their physicians. Patients who were recommended by physicians to get vaccinated (aOR = 11.71 95% CI: 2.71-50.66), with a monthly income of more than CNY 5000 (aOR = 3.94, 95% CI: 1.88-8.26) were more likely to have received COVID-19 vaccination. Cancer patients who had been diagnosed for more than one year (aOR = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.09-0.51), had received multiple cancer treatment strategies (aOR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.16-0.74), worried about the safety of COVID-19 vaccines (aOR = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.11-0.40), were less likely to have received COVID-19 vaccination. COVID-19 vaccination uptake among cancer patients was insufficient. The proportion of cancer patients receiving vaccination recommendations from physicians remains inadequate. Physicians are expected to play an essential role in patients' knowledge of the safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines.

3.
European Journal of Psychotraumatology ; 13(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782284

ABSTRACT

Background Pre-hospitalisation, hospitalisation and post-hospitalisation factors may significantly affect depression, anxiety and post-traumatic growth (PTG) among COVID-19 survivors. Objective Our study investigated depression, anxiety and PTG and their correlates among COVID-19 survivors. Method A cross-sectional telephone survey recruited 199 COVID-19 patients (Mean age = 42.7;53.3% females) at six-month follow-up after hospital discharge in five Chinese cities (i.e. Wuhan, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Dongguan and Nanning). Their demographic information, clinical records and experiences during (e.g. severity of covid-19 symptoms, treatment and exposure to other patients’ suffering) and after hospitalisation (e.g. perceived impact of covid-19, somatic symptoms after hospitalisation), and psychosocial factors (e.g. perceived discrimination, self-stigma, affiliate stigma, resilience and social support) were investigated. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD-7) scale, respectively. PTG was examined by the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) instrument. Results The proportion of depressive symptoms <5, ≥5 and <10, ≥10 were 76.9%, 12.0% and 11.1%, respectively. The proportion of anxiety symptoms <5, ≥5 and <10, ≥10 were 77.4%, 15.1% and 7.5%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that receiving mental health care services during hospitalisation, somatic symptoms after discharge, perceived affiliate stigma and perceived impact of being infected with COVID-19 were significantly and positively associated with probable depression. Significant correlates of probable anxiety also included permanent residents of the city, somatic symptoms after discharge, perceived impact of being infected with COVID-19 and self-stigma. Social support, self-stigma and receiving mental health care services during hospitalisation were positively associated with PTG. Conclusions: The results suggest that post-hospitalisation and psychosocial factors had relatively stronger associations with depression, anxiety and PTG than pre-hospitalisation and hospitalisation factors. Promoting social support and social inclusion may be useful strategies to improve the mental health of COVID-19 survivors. HIGHLIGHTS • Post-hospitalisation and psychosocial factors had relatively stronger associations with depression, anxiety and PTG than pre-hospitalisation and hospitalisation factors, promoting social support and social inclusion may be useful strategies to improve mental health of COVID-19 survivors.

4.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2055294, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774261

ABSTRACT

Background: Pre-hospitalisation, hospitalisation and post-hospitalisation factors may significantly affect depression, anxiety and post-traumatic growth (PTG) among COVID-19 survivors. Objective: Our study investigated depression, anxiety and PTG and their correlates among COVID-19 survivors. Method: A cross-sectional telephone survey recruited 199 COVID-19 patients (Mean age = 42.7; 53.3% females) at six-month follow-up after hospital discharge in five Chinese cities (i.e. Wuhan, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Dongguan and Nanning). Their demographic information, clinical records and experiences during (e.g. severity of covid-19 symptoms, treatment and exposure to other patients' suffering) and after hospitalisation (e.g. perceived impact of covid-19, somatic symptoms after hospitalisation), and psychosocial factors (e.g. perceived discrimination, self-stigma, affiliate stigma, resilience and social support) were investigated. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD-7) scale, respectively. PTG was examined by the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) instrument. Results: The proportion of depressive symptoms <5, ≥5 and <10, ≥10 were 76.9%, 12.0% and 11.1%, respectively. The proportion of anxiety symptoms <5, ≥5 and <10, ≥10 were 77.4%, 15.1% and 7.5%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that receiving mental health care services during hospitalisation, somatic symptoms after discharge, perceived affiliate stigma and perceived impact of being infected with COVID-19 were significantly and positively associated with probable depression. Significant correlates of probable anxiety also included permanent residents of the city, somatic symptoms after discharge, perceived impact of being infected with COVID-19 and self-stigma. Social support, self-stigma and receiving mental health care services during hospitalisation were positively associated with PTG.Conclusions: The results suggest that post-hospitalisation and psychosocial factors had relatively stronger associations with depression, anxiety and PTG than pre-hospitalisation and hospitalisation factors. Promoting social support and social inclusion may be useful strategies to improve the mental health of COVID-19 survivors. HIGHLIGHTS: • Post-hospitalisation and psychosocial factors had relatively stronger associations with depression, anxiety and PTG than pre-hospitalisation and hospitalisation factors, promoting social support and social inclusion may be useful strategies to improve mental health of COVID-19 survivors.


Antecedentes: Los factores pre-hospitalización, durante la hospitalización y post-hospitalización pueden afectar significativamente la depresión, la ansiedad y el crecimiento postraumático (CPT) en los sobrevivientes de COVID-19.Objetivo: Nuestro estudio investigó la depresión, la ansiedad y el CPT y sus correlatos en sobrevivientes de COVID-19.Método: Una encuesta telefónica transversal reclutó a 199 pacientes con COVID-19 (edad promedio = 42,7; 53,3% mujeres) a los seis meses de seguimiento después del alta hospitalaria en cinco ciudades chinas (Wuhan, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Dongguan y Nanning). Su información demográfica, registros clínicos y experiencias durante la hospitalización (e.g. gravedad de los síntomas de COVID-19, tratamiento, exposición al sufrimiento de otros pacientes) y después de la hospitalización (e.g. impacto percibido de COVID-19, síntomas somáticos después de la hospitalización) y factores psicosociales (e.g. discriminación percibida, autoestigma, estigma de afiliación, resiliencia, apoyo social) fueron investigados. Los síntomas depresivos y de ansiedad se midieron mediante el Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente (PHQ-9 en su sigla en inglés) y la escala de trastorno de ansiedad generalizada (GAD-7 en su sigla en inglés) respectivamente, el CPT se examinó mediante el instrumento Inventario de Crecimiento Postraumático (PTGI en su sigla en inglés).Resultados: La proporción de síntomas depresivos <5, ≥5 y <10, y ≥10 fue 76,9%, 12,0% y 11,1% respectivamente. La proporción de síntomas de ansiedad <5, ≥5 y <10, y ≥10 fue del 77,4%, 15,1% y 7,5% respectivamente. La regresión logística multivariante mostró que recibir servicios de atención de salud mental durante la hospitalización, los síntomas somáticos después del alta, el estigma de afiliación percibido y el impacto percibido de estar infectado con COVID-19 se asociaron significativa y positivamente con una probable depresión. Los correlatos significativos de ansiedad probable también incluyeron ser residente permanente de la ciudad, síntomas somáticos después del alta, impacto percibido de estar infectado con COVID-19 y autoestigma. El apoyo social, el autoestigma y recibir servicios de salud mental durante la hospitalización se asociaron positivamente con el CPT.Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que los factores psicosociales y posteriores a la hospitalización tuvieron asociaciones relativamente más fuertes con la depresión, la ansiedad y el CPT que los factores previos a la hospitalización y hospitalización. Promover el apoyo social y la inclusión social pueden ser estrategias útiles para mejorar la salud mental de los sobrevivientes de COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medically Unexplained Symptoms , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Discharge , Survivors
5.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2019980, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665830

ABSTRACT

Background: As a highly infectious disease with human-to-human transmission characteristics, COVID-19 has caused panic in the general public. Those who have recovered from COVID-19 may experience discrimination and internalized stigma. They may be more likely to worry about social interaction and develop social anxiety. Objectives: This study investigated the associations among hospitalization factors, social/interpersonal factors, personal factors, and social anxiety to reveal the mechanism of social anxiety in COVID-19 survivors. Methods: A cross-sectional, multicenter telephone survey was conducted from July to September 2020 in five Chinese cities (i.e. Wuhan, Nanning, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, and Dongguan); adult COVID-19 survivors were recruited 6 months after they were discharged from the hospital. Linear regressions and path analysis based on the minority stress model were conducted to test the relationships among hospitalization, social/interpersonal factors, personal factors, and social anxiety. Results: The response rate was 74.5% (N = 199, 55.3% females). Linear regression analyses showed that various hospitalization, social/interpersonal, and personal factors were statistically significantly associated with social anxiety. Path analysis showed that the proposed model fit the data well (χ2(df) = 3.196(3), p = .362, CFI = .999, NNFI = .996, RMSEA = .018). Internalized stigma fully mediated the association between perceived discrimination/social support and social anxiety, while it partially mediated the association between perceived affiliate stigma and social anxiety. Conclusions: The results suggest that social/interpersonal and personal factors have a stronger association with social anxiety than hospitalization factors and highlight the importance of internalized stigma in understanding the mechanisms of these relationships. Clinical psychologists can refer to these modifiable psychosocial factors to develop efficient interventions for mental health promotion.


Antecedentes: Como una enfermedad altamente infecciosa con características de transmisión de persona a persona, el COVID-19 ha causado pánico en el público en general. Aquellos que se han recuperado del COVID-19 pueden experimentar discriminación y estigma internalizado. Es más probable que se preocupen por la interacción social y desarrollen ansiedad social.Objetivos: Este estudio investigó las asociaciones entre factores de hospitalización, factores sociales /interpersonales, factores personales y ansiedad social para revelar el mecanismo de ansiedad social en sobrevivientes de COVID-19.Métodos: Se realizó una encuesta telefónica transversal multicentro de julio a septiembre de 2020 en cinco ciudades chinas (es decir, Wuhan, Nanning, Shenzhen, Zhuhai y Dongguan). Se reclutaron sobrevivientes adultos de COVID-19 seis meses después de ser dados de alta del hospital. Se realizaron regresiones lineales y análisis de ruta basados en el modelo de estrés de minoría para probar las relaciones entre la hospitalización, los factores sociales/interpersonales, los factores personales y la ansiedad social.Resultados: La tasa de respuesta fue del 74,5% (N = 199, 55,3% mujeres). Los análisis de regresión lineal mostraron que varios factores de hospitalización, sociales/interpersonales y personales se asociaron de manera estadísticamente significativa con la ansiedad social. El análisis de ruta mostró que el modelo propuesto se ajustaba bien a los datos (χ 2 (df) = 3.196 (3), p = .362, CFI = .999, NNFI = .996, RMSEA = .018). El estigma internalizado medió completamente la asociación entre discriminación/apoyo social percibido y ansiedad social, mientras que medió parcialmente la asociación entre el estigma percibido de afiliados y ansiedad social.Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que los factores sociales/interpersonales y personales tienen una asociación más fuerte con la ansiedad social que los factores de hospitalización y resaltan la importancia del estigma internalizado en la comprensión de los mecanismos de estas relaciones. Los psicólogos clínicos pueden referirse a estos factores psicosociales modificables para desarrollar intervenciones eficientes para la promoción de la salud mental.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Hospitalization , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Stigma , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Survivors , Young Adult
6.
European Journal of Psychotraumatology ; 13(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1661180

ABSTRACT

Background As a highly infectious disease with human-to-human transmission characteristics, COVID-19 has caused panic in the general public. Those who have recovered from COVID-19 may experience discrimination and internalized stigma. They may be more likely to worry about social interaction and develop social anxiety. Objectives This study investigated the associations among hospitalization factors, social/interpersonal factors, personal factors, and social anxiety to reveal the mechanism of social anxiety in COVID-19 survivors. Methods A cross-sectional, multicenter telephone survey was conducted from July to September 2020 in five Chinese cities (i.e. Wuhan, Nanning, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, and Dongguan);adult COVID-19 survivors were recruited 6 months after they were discharged from the hospital. Linear regressions and path analysis based on the minority stress model were conducted to test the relationships among hospitalization, social/interpersonal factors, personal factors, and social anxiety. Results The response rate was 74.5% (N = 199, 55.3% females). Linear regression analyses showed that various hospitalization, social/interpersonal, and personal factors were statistically significantly associated with social anxiety. Path analysis showed that the proposed model fit the data well (χ2(df) = 3.196(3), p = .362, CFI = .999, NNFI = .996, RMSEA = .018). Internalized stigma fully mediated the association between perceived discrimination/social support and social anxiety, while it partially mediated the association between perceived affiliate stigma and social anxiety. Conclusions The results suggest that social/interpersonal and personal factors have a stronger association with social anxiety than hospitalization factors and highlight the importance of internalized stigma in understanding the mechanisms of these relationships. Clinical psychologists can refer to these modifiable psychosocial factors to develop efficient interventions for mental health promotion. HIGHLIGHTS Internalized stigma fully mediated the effects of perceived discrimination and social support on social anxiety and partially mediated the effect of perceived affiliate stigma on social anxiety.

7.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 773106, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643547

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 survivors who had acute respiratory symptoms might experience prolonged post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to further rehabilitation, somatic symptoms and related distress. The conservation of resource (COR) theory is a well-developed theory to understand how people develop PTSD symptoms in traumatic events. The current study aimed to examine the potential factors of PTSD symptoms and interrelationships among this factors among COVID-19 survivors based on the COR theory. This cross-sectional telephone survey enrolled 199 COVID-19 patients (Mean age = 42.7; 53.3% females) 6 months after their hospital discharge in five Chinese cities (i.e., Wuhan, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Dongguan, and Nanning). The results showed that 7% of participants were classified as having probable PTSD. The significant potential factors relating to PTSD symptoms included socio-demographic status, hospitalization experiences, post-hospitalization experiences, and psychological status. Besides, the proposed statistical mediation model based on the COR framework showed good model fit, χ2(df) = 17.286 (5), p = 0.004, CFI = 0.962, NNFI = 0.951, RMSEA = 0.077. Perceived resource loss/gain fully mediated the association between exposure to other patients' suffering during hospitalization and PTSD symptoms, and partially mediated the relationships from somatic symptoms/perceived impact of being infected with COVID-19 after discharge to PTSD symptoms. On the other hand, resilience was a full mediator in the relationship from ICU experience to PTSD symptoms and a partial mediator in the relationship from perceived impact to PTSD symptoms. The results provide preliminary support on applying the COR theory to understand the factors of PTSD symptoms among COVID-19 survivors. Interventions to reduce PTSD symptoms in this population can be developed based on the modifiable psychosocial mediators.

9.
Sleep Med ; 91: 273-281, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many COVID-19 survivors reported stigmatization after recovery. This study investigated the association between stigma (discrimination experiences, self-stigma and perceived affiliate stigma) and sleep quality among COVID-19 survivors six months after hospital discharge. METHODS: Participants were recovered adult COVID-19 survivors discharged between February 1 and April 30, 2020. Medical staff of five participating hospitals approached all discharged COVID-19 period during this period. A total of 199 participants completed the telephone interview during July to September, 2020. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the hypothesize that resilience and social support would mediate the associations between stigma and sleep quality. RESULTS: The results showed that 10.1% of the participants reported terrible/poor sleep quality, 26.1% reported worse sleep quality in the past week when comparing their current status versus the time before COVID-19. After adjusting for significant background characteristics, participants who had higher number of discrimination experience, perceived stronger self-stigma and stronger perceived affiliate stigma reported poorer sleep quality. Resilience and social support were positively and significantly associated with sleep quality. The indirect effect of self-stigma on sleep quality through social support and resilience was significant and negative. Perceived affiliate stigma also had a significant and negative indirect effect on sleep quality through social support and resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Various types of stigma after recovery were associated with poor sleep quality among COVID-19 survivors, while social support and resilience were protective factors. Resilience and social support mediated the associations between self-stigma/perceived affiliate stigma and sleep quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adult , Hospitals , Humans , Patient Discharge , Sleep Quality , Social Support , Survivors
10.
BJPsych Open ; 7(6): e191, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463283

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding factors associated with post-discharge sleep quality among COVID-19 survivors is important for intervention development. Aims: This study investigated sleep quality and its correlates among COVID-19 patients 6 months after their most recent hospital discharge. Method: Healthcare providers at hospitals located in five different Chinese cities contacted adult COVID-19 patients discharged between 1 February and 30 March 2020. A total of 199 eligible patients provided verbal informed consent and completed the interview. Using score on the single-item Sleep Quality Scale as the dependent variable, multiple linear regression models were fitted. Results: Among all participants, 10.1% reported terrible or poor sleep quality, and 26.6% reported fair sleep quality, 26.1% reported worse sleep quality when comparing their current status with the time before COVID-19, and 33.7% were bothered by a sleeping disorder in the past 2 weeks. After adjusting for significant background characteristics, factors associated with sleep quality included witnessing the suffering (adjusted B = -1.15, 95% CI = -1.70, -0.33) or death (adjusted B = -1.55, 95% CI = -2.62, -0.49) of other COVID-19 patients during hospital stay, depressive symptoms (adjusted B = -0.26, 95% CI = -0.31, -0.20), anxiety symptoms (adjusted B = -0.25, 95% CI = -0.33, -0.17), post-traumatic stress disorders (adjusted B = -0.16, 95% CI = -0.22, -0.10) and social support (adjusted B = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.10). Conclusions: COVID-19 survivors reported poor sleep quality. Interventions and support services to improve sleep quality should be provided to COVID-19 survivors during their hospital stay and after hospital discharge.

12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 321, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633920

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and quickly spread throughout China and the rest of the world. Many mathematical models have been developed to understand and predict the infectiousness of COVID-19. We aim to summarize these models to inform efforts to manage the current outbreak. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of science, EMBASE, bioRxiv, medRxiv, arXiv, Preprints, and National Knowledge Infrastructure (Chinese database) for relevant studies published between 1 December 2019 and 21 February 2020. References were screened for additional publications. Crucial indicators were extracted and analysed. We also built a mathematical model for the evolution of the epidemic in Wuhan that synthesised extracted indicators. Results: Fifty-two articles involving 75 mathematical or statistical models were included in our systematic review. The overall median basic reproduction number (R0) was 3.77 [interquartile range (IQR) 2.78-5.13], which dropped to a controlled reproduction number (Rc) of 1.88 (IQR 1.41-2.24) after city lockdown. The median incubation and infectious periods were 5.90 (IQR 4.78-6.25) and 9.94 (IQR 3.93-13.50) days, respectively. The median case-fatality rate (CFR) was 2.9% (IQR 2.3-5.4%). Our mathematical model showed that, in Wuhan, the peak time of infection is likely to be March 2020 with a median size of 98,333 infected cases (range 55,225-188,284). The earliest elimination of ongoing transmission is likely to be achieved around 7 May 2020. Conclusions: Our analysis found a sustained Rc and prolonged incubation/ infectious periods, suggesting COVID-19 is highly infectious. Although interventions in China have been effective in controlling secondary transmission, sustained global efforts are needed to contain an emerging pandemic. Alternative interventions can be explored using modelling studies to better inform policymaking as the outbreak continues.

13.
J Infect ; 80(6): 656-665, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To better inform efforts to treat and control the current outbreak with a comprehensive characterization of COVID-19. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CNKI (Chinese Database) for studies published as of March 2, 2020, and we searched references of identified articles. Studies were reviewed for methodological quality. A random-effects model was used to pool results. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's test. RESULTS: 43 studies involving 3600 patients were included. Among COVID-19 patients, fever (83.3% [95% CI 78.4-87.7]), cough (60.3% [54.2-66.3]), and fatigue (38.0% [29.8-46.5]) were the most common clinical symptoms. The most common laboratory abnormalities were elevated C-reactive protein (68.6% [58.2-78.2]), decreased lymphocyte count (57.4% [44.8-69.5]) and increased lactate dehydrogenase (51.6% [31.4-71.6]). Ground-glass opacities (80.0% [67.3-90.4]) and bilateral pneumonia (73.2% [63.4-82.1]) were the most frequently reported findings on computed tomography. The overall estimated proportion of severe cases and case-fatality rate (CFR) was 25.6% (17.4-34.9) and 3.6% (1.1-7.2), respectively. CFR and laboratory abnormalities were higher in severe cases, patients from Wuhan, and older patients, but CFR did not differ by gender. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of COVID-19 cases are symptomatic with a moderate CFR. Patients living in Wuhan, older patients, and those with medical comorbidities tend to have more severe clinical symptoms and higher CFR.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors
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