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2.
ssrn; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.3894960

ABSTRACT

Background The long-term consequences of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) treatment for COVID-19 patients are yet to be reported. This study assessed the 1-year outcomes in patients with severe COVID-19, who were recruited in our previous UC-MSC clinical trial.Methods: In this prospective, longitudinal, cohort study, 100 patients enrolled in our phase 2 trial were prospectively followed up at 3-month intervals for 1 year to evaluate the long-term safety and effectiveness of UC-MSC treatment. The primary endpoint was an altered proportion of whole-lung lesion volumes measured by high-resolution CT. Other imaging outcomes, 6-minute walking distance (6-MWD), lung function, plasma biomarkers, and adverse events were also recorded and analyzed. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04288102).Findings: Within 3 months, MSC administration exerted numerical improvement in whole-lung lesion volume compared with the placebo, leading to a significant difference of −10.82% (95% CI: −20.69%, −1.46%, P=0.030) on day 10. MSC also reduced the proportion of solid component lesion volume compared with the placebo at each follow-up point, with a significant difference of − 9.02% (95%CI: − 17.44%, − 0.10%, P=0.045) at month 9. More interestingly, 17.86% (10/56) of patients in the MSC group had normal CT images at month 12 ( P= 0.013), but none in the placebo group. The incidence of symptoms was lower in the MSC group than in the placebo group at each follow-up time, particularly sleep difficulties at month 3 (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.07,0.50; P=0.001), and usual activity at month 12 (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.03,0.79; P=0.018). Neutralizing antibodies were all positive, with a similar median inhibition rate (61.6% vs. 67.55%) in both groups at month 12. No difference in adverse events at the 1-year follow-up and tumor markers at month 12 were observed between the two groups.Interpretation: UC-MSC administration achieves a long-term benefit in the recovery of lung lesions and symptoms in COVID-19 patients.Trial Registration: This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04288102).Funding The National Key R&D Program of China, the Innovation Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and the National Science and Technology Major Project.Declaration of Interest: None to declare. Ethical Approval: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Fifth Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital (2020-013-D).

3.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.10.29.360479

ABSTRACT

Dysfunctional immune response in the COVID-19 patients is a recurrent theme impacting symptoms and mortality, yet the detailed understanding of pertinent immune cells is not complete. We applied single-cell RNA sequencing to 284 samples from 205 COVID-19 patients and controls to create a comprehensive immune landscape. Lymphopenia and active T and B cell responses were found to coexist and associated with age, sex and their interactions with COVID-19. Diverse epithelial and immune cell types were observed to be virus-positive and showed dramatic transcriptomic changes. Elevation of ANXA1 and S100A9 in virus-positive squamous epithelial cells may enable the initiation of neutrophil and macrophage responses via the ANXA1-FPR1 and S100A8/9-TLR4 axes. Systemic up-regulation of S100A8/A9, mainly by megakaryocytes and monocytes in the peripheral blood, may contribute to the cytokine storms frequently observed in severe patients. Our data provide a rich resource for understanding the pathogenesis and designing effective therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.

4.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.10.29.361261

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a surge of crowd-sourced initiatives aimed at simulating the proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. A bottleneck currently exists in translating these simulations into tangible predictions that can be leveraged for pharmacological studies. Here we report on extensive electrostatic calculations done on an exascale simulation of the opening of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, performed by the Folding@home initiative. We compute the electric potential as the solution of the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation using a parallel sharp numerical solver. The inherent multiple length scales present in the geometry and solution are reproduced using highly adaptive Octree grids. We analyze our results focusing on the electro-geometric properties of the receptor-binding domain and its vicinity. This work paves the way for a new class of hybrid computational and data-enabled approaches, where molecular dynamics simulations are combined with continuum modeling to produce high-fidelity computational measurements serving as a basis for protein bio-mechanism investigations.

5.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.10.15.20213553

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) for severe COVID-19 patients with lung damage. Design, Multicentre , randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting Two hospitals in Wuhan, China, 5 March 2020 to 28 March 2020. Participants 101 severe COVID-19 patients with lung damage aged between 18-74 years. Intervention Patients were randomly assigned at a 2:1 ratio to receive either UC-MSCs (40 million cells per infusion) or placebo on days 0, 3, and 6. Main outcome measures The primary endpoints were safety and an altered proportion of whole lung lesion size from baseline to day 28, measured by chest computed tomography. Secondary outcomes were reduction of consolidation lesion sizeand lung function improvement (6-minute walk test, maximum vital capacity, diffusing capacity). Primary analysis was done in the modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population and safety analysis was done in all patients who started their assigned treatment. Results 100 patients were finally recruited to receive either UC-MSCs (n = 65) or placebo (n = 35). The patients receiving UC-MSCs exhibited a trend of numerical improvement in whole lung lesion size from baseline to day 28 compared with the placebo cases (the median difference was -13.31%, 95%CI -29.14%, 2.13%, P=0.080). UC-MSCs administration significantly reduced the proportions of consolidation lesion size from baseline to day 28 compared with the placebo (median difference: -15.45%, 95% CI -30.82%, -0.39%, P=0.043). The 6-minute walk test showed an increased distance in patients treated with UC-MSCs (difference: 27.00 m, 95% CI 0.00, 57.00, P=0.057). The incidence of adverse events was similar, and no serious adverse events were observed in the two groups. Conclusions UC-MSCs treatment is a safe and potentially effective therapeutic approach for COVID-19 patients with lung damage. A phase 3 trial is required to evaluate effects on reducing mortality and preventing long-term pulmonary disability.

6.
ssrn; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.3680611

ABSTRACT

Background: Treatment of severe Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is challenging. We performed a phase 2 trial to assess the efficacy and safety of human umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells (UC‑MSCs) to treat patients with severe COVID-19 with lung damage, based on our phase 1 data.Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial, we recruited 101 eligible patients with severe COVID-19 with lung damage aged between 18–74 years from two hospitals. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned at a 2:1 ratio to receive either UC-MSCs (4 × 107 cells per infusion) or placebo on day 0, 3, and 6. We excluded patients with malignant tumours, shock, or other organ failure. The primary endpoint was an altered proportion of whole lung lesion areas from baseline to day 28, measured by chest computed tomography. Other imaging outcomes, 6-minute walk test, maximum vital capacity, diffusing capacity, plasma biomarkers, and adverse events were recorded and analysed. Primary analysis was done in the modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population and safety analysis was done in all patients who started their assigned treatment. Findings: From March 5, 2020, to March 28, 2020, 100 patients were finally enrolled and received either UC-MSCs (n = 65) or placebo (n = 35). During follow-up, the patients receiving UC-MSCs exhibited a trend of numerical improvement in whole lung lesions from baseline to day 28 compared with the placebo cases. UC-MSCs administration significantly reduced the proportions of consolidation lesions from baseline to day 28 in the treated patients compared with the placebo subjects. The 6-minute walk test showed an increased distance in patients treated with UC-MSCs. Notably, UC-MSCs delivery was well tolerated, with no serious adverse events.Interpretation: UC-MSCs treatment is a safe and potentially effective therapeutic approach for patients with severe COVID‑19. The trial suggests that UC-MSCs administration might benefit patients with COVID-19 with lung damage at the convalescent stage as well as the progression stage.Trial Registration: This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04288102.Funding Statement: This trial was supported by The National Key R&D Program of China (2020YFC0841900, 2020YFC0844000, 2020YFC08860900); The Innovation Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81721002); The National Science and Technology Major Project (2017YFA0105703).Declaration of Interests: All authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: Ethical approval was obtained from the institutional review boards of each participating hospital. Written informed consent was obtained from all the enrolled patients or their legal representatives if they were unable to provide consent.

7.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.07.23.217703

ABSTRACT

In COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, the relationship between disease severity and the host immune response is not fully understood. Here we performed single-cell RNA sequencing in peripheral blood samples of five healthy donors and 13 COVID-19 patients including moderate, severe and convalescent cases. Through determining the transcriptional profiles of immune cells, coupled with assembled T cell receptor and B cell receptor sequences, we analyzed the functional properties of immune cells. Most cell types in COVID-19 patients showed a strong interferon-alpha response, and an overall acute inflammatory response. Moreover, intensive expansion of highly cytotoxic effector T cell subsets, such as CD4+ Effector-GNLY (Granulysin), CD8+ Effector-GNLY and NKT CD160, was associated with convalescence in moderate patients. In severe patients, the immune landscape featured a deranged interferon response, profound immune exhaustion with skewed T cell receptor repertoire and broad T cell expansion. These findings illustrate the dynamic nature of immune responses during the disease progression.

8.
researchsquare; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-48131.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: Liver injuries in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported, however, the clinical role played by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is obscure.  Methods: In this multicenter, retrospective study, the parameters of liver function tests in COVID-19 inpatients were compared between various timepoints referred to SARS-CoV-2 shedding, and 3 to 7 days before first detection of viral shedding was regarded as reference baseline.Results: Totally, 70 COVID-19 inpatients were enrolled. Twenty-two (31.4%) cases had self-medications history after illness. At baseline, 10 (14.3%), 7 (10%), 9 (12.9%), 2 (2.9%), 15 (21.4%), and 4 (5.7%) patients already had abnormal rates of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, and total bilirubin (TBIL), respectively. ALT and AST abnormal rates and levels did not show any significantly dynamic change during the full period of viral shedding (all P > 0.05). GGT abnormal rate (P = 0.008) and level (P = 0.033) significantly increased on day 10 of viral shedding. Meanwhile, no simultaneously significant increases of ALP abnormal rates and levels were observed. TBIL abnormal rates and levels significantly increased on day 1 and 5 of viral shedding (all P < 0.05). Albumin abnormal decrease rates increased and levels decreased consistently from baseline to SARS-CoV-2 clearance day (all P < 0.05). Thirteen (18.6%) patients had chronic liver diseases, two of them died. The ALT and AST abnormal rates and levels did not increase in patients with chronic liver diseases during SARS-CoV-2 shedding.Conclusions: The SARS-CoV-2 does not directly lead to elevations of ALT and AST, but may result in elevations of GGT and TBIL, the albumin decreased extraordinarily even SARS-CoV-2 shedding discontinued.

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