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PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277174, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116998


The COVID-19 pandemic has been affecting the mental health of hospital workers. During the prolonged pandemic, hospital workers may experience much more severe psychological distress, leading to an increased risk of suicide. This study aimed to investigate changes in psychological effects on hospital workers over 12 months from the beginning of the pandemic and clarify factors associated with psychological distress and suicide-related ideation 1-year after the pandemic's beginning. These repeated, cross-sectional surveys collected demographic, mental health, and stress-related data from workers in 2 hospitals in Yokohama, Japan. The first survey, conducted in March-April 2020, contained the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) assessing general distress and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) assessing event-related distress. In the second survey in March 2021, hospital workers at the same two hospitals were reassessed using the same questionnaire, and Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was added to assess their suicide-related ideation. The findings of the first and second surveys revealed that the average score of GHQ-12 (3.08 and 3.73, respectively), the IES-R total score (6.8 and 12.12, respectively), and the prevalence rates of severe general distress (35.0% and 44.0%, respectively) and severe event-related distress (7.0% and 17.1%, respectively) deteriorated. The second survey showed that 8.6% of the hospital workers were experiencing suicide-related ideation. Both the general and event-related distress were associated with suicide-related ideation. In these surveys, mental health outcomes among the hospital workers deteriorated over one year from the pandemic's beginning, and their severe psychological distress was the risk factor for the suicide-related ideation. Further studies are needed to compare the psychological effects on hospital workers during and after the prolonged pandemic and to explore appropriate measures to support hospital workers' mental health.

COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Suicide , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Hospitals
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245294, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021678


The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychological effects of the COVID-19 outbreak and associated factors on hospital workers at the beginning of the outbreak with a large disease cluster on the Diamond Princess cruise ship. This cross-sectional, survey-based study collected demographic data, mental health measurements, and stress-related questionnaires from workers in 2 hospitals in Yokohama, Japan, from March 23, 2020, to April 6, 2020. The prevalence rates of general psychological distress and event-related distress were assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the 22-item Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), respectively. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the 26-item stress-related questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with mental health outcomes for workers both at high- and low-risk for infection of COVID-19. A questionnaire was distributed to 4133 hospital workers, and 2697 (65.3%) valid questionnaires were used for analyses. Overall, 536 (20.0%) were high-risk workers, 944 (35.0%) of all hospital workers showed general distress, and 189 (7.0%) demonstrated event-related distress. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that 'Feeling of being isolated and discriminated' was associated with both the general and event-related distress for both the high- and low-risk workers. In this survey, not only high-risk workers but also low-risk workers in the hospitals admitting COVID-19 patients reported experiencing psychological distress at the beginning of the outbreak.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Hotspot , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Ships , Young Adult