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1.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(6): 570-572, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534553

ABSTRACT

An individual may contract coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and influenza simultaneously; hence, adequate measures must be undertaken for the next winter in Japan. In preparation for the future, this study aimed to clarify the incidence of influenza coinfection in patients with COVID-19 during the previous winter. We conducted a retrospective study of the medical records of 193 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between January 31, 2020, and April 23, 2020, in a single hospital. We evaluated the incidence of COVID-19 and influenza coinfection. Using rapid diagnostic testing, we found that no patient with COVID-19 was coinfected with influenza. Coinfection with influenza and COVID-19 was rare during the past winter in Japan.

2.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 2489-2509, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375855

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus. Favipiravir is an orally administrable antiviral drug whose mechanism of action is to selectively inhibit RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. A preliminary trial in COVID-19 patients reported significant improvements across a multitude of clinical parameters, but these findings have not been confirmed in an adequate well-controlled trial. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III trial assessing the efficacy and safety of favipiravir in patients with moderate pneumonia not requiring oxygen therapy. METHODS: COVID-19 patients with moderate pneumonia (SpO2 ≥ 94%) within 10 days of onset of fever (temperature ≥ 37.5 °C) were assigned to receive either placebo or favipiravir (1800 mg twice a day on Day 1, followed by 800 mg twice a day for up to 13 days) in a ratio of 1:2. An adaptive design was used to re-estimate the sample size. The primary endpoint was a composite outcome defined as the time to improvement in temperature, oxygen saturation levels (SpO2), and findings on chest imaging, and recovery to SARS-CoV-2-negative. This endpoint was re-examined by the Central Committee under blinded conditions. RESULTS: A total of 156 patients were randomized. The median time of the primary endpoint was 11.9 days in the favipiravir group and 14.7 days in the placebo group, with a significant difference (p = 0.0136). Favipiravir-treated patients with known risk factors such as obesity or coexisting conditions provided better effects. Furthermore, patients with early-onset in the favipiravir group showed higher odds ratio. No deaths were documented. Although adverse events in the favipiravir group were predominantly transient, the incidence was significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested favipiravir may be one of options for moderate COVID-19 pneumonia treatment. However, the risk of adverse events, including hyperuricemia, should be carefully considered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.jp number: JapicCTI-205238.

4.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(4): 344-351, 2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323438

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in mid-December 2019 and has rapidly spread worldwide. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from patients with COVID-19 to construct a simple risk prediction score to be implemented in prehospital settings. Patients were classified into critical and non-critical groups based on disease severity during hospitalization. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors and develop a risk prediction score. A total of 234 patients were included in the study. The median age of the critical group was significantly older than that of the non-critical group (68.0 and 44.0 years, respectively), and the percentage of males in the critical group was higher than that in the non-critical group (90.2% and 60.6%, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that factors such as age ≥ 45 years, male sex, comorbidities such as hypertension and cancer, and having fever and dyspnea on admission were independently associated with the critical COVID-19 infection. No critical events were noted in patients with a total risk factor score of ≤ 2. Contrastingly, patients with a total risk factor score ≥ 4 were more likely to have critical COVID-19 infection. This risk prediction score may be useful in identifying critical COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Jpn J Radiol ; 39(8): 783-790, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1176398

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate CT patterns of COVID-19 pneumonia associated with respiratory failure (RF) focused on the distribution of lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-five patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were reviewed. CT findings were classified as follows: Type A; patchy ground glass attenuation (GGA) with/without air-space consolidation, Type B; non-segmental GGA with/without air-space consolidation in both the central and peripheral lung portions especially with subpleural spare, and Type C; non-segmental GGA with/without air-space consolidation predominantly distributed in the peripheral lung portion without subpleural spare. We analyzed CT patterns and clinical factors associated with RF, including age categories. RESULTS: The number of patients with Type A, B and C was 31 (37%), 24 (28%) and 30 (35%), respectively. Type C and hypertension were independently associated with RF. On comparing between Types B and C, the frequency of traction bronchiectasis was higher in Type C than in Type B (P < 0.001). The ratio of Type C in patients ≥ 65 years old (66%) was higher than in patients < 40 years old (P < 0.001) and 40-49 years old (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The Type C, increasing with age, was associated with RF. Traction bronchiectasis in the lesion was more frequent in Type C than in Type B. Secondary abstract A lesion adjacent to the pleura and hypertension is associated with respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19. The frequency of a lesion adjacent to the pleura increased with age. The distribution of lesions is a useful parameter to predict respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(6): 869-875, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101364

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: One of the most prominent and concerning complications associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is venous and arterial thromboembolisms. The aim of the present study was to delineate the prevalence of thromboembolic events and the current status of prophylactic anticoagulation therapy in patients with COVID-19 in Japan. METHODS: Between February 1 and August 31, 2020, we performed a dual-center, retrospective cohort study based on data obtained from the medical charts of COVID-19 patients admitted to healthcare facilities in Japan. The primary outcome was any thromboembolic event including pulmonary embolism (PE), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke and other systemic thromboemboli. RESULTS: During the study period, we extracted 628 consecutive patients admitted for COVID-19. Prophylactic anticoagulant therapy was administered in 63 (10%) patients of whom 20 (31.7%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Thromboembolic events occurred in 18 (2.9%) patients (14.3% of patients in ICU and 2.2% of patients in the general wards). DVT were detected in 13 (2.1%) patients, PE in 11 (1.8%), and both DVT and PE in 6 (0.96%) patients. An increasing prevalence in thromboembolic events was noted with progressive clinical severity. Overall in-hospital mortality was 4.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic anticoagulation therapy was administered in only 10% of all hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The prevalence of any thromboembolic events was 2.9% in COVID-19 patients with most events occurring in severe and critical patients. Therefore, prophylactic anticoagulation therapy may be warranted in severe and critical patients but in asymptomatic to moderate patients the practice remains controversial.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Thromboembolism , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/prevention & control
7.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 26(3): 485-493, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused an international outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), data on the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with cancer are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes including mortality and viral shedding period in COVID-19 patients with cancer in Japan. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 32 patients with a history of cancer who were referred to our hospital between January 31, 2020 and May 25, 2020. We evaluated the association between clinical outcomes and potential prognostic factors using univariate analyses. RESULTS: The median age was 74.5 (range 24-90) years and 22 patients (69%) were men. A total of 11 patients (34%) died. Our analyses demonstrated that the mortality was significantly associated with lymphocyte count, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, serum ferritin, and C-reactive protein on admission. The median period between illness onset and the first effective negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR result was 22 days (interquartile range 18-25) in survivors. Of four patients with hematological malignancy who developed COVID-19 within the rest period of chemotherapy, three died and the other patient, who received bendamustine plus rituximab therapy, had the longest duration of viral shedding (56 days). CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that the risk factors for mortality previously reported in general COVID-19 patients, including lymphocytopenia, were also effective in cancer patients. Patients who received cytotoxic chemotherapy recently or were treated with chemotherapy, which can lead to lymphocyte reduction, had poor prognosis and prolonged periods of viral shedding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo , Young Adult
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