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1.
Heart Vessels ; 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748495

ABSTRACT

In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we sought to evaluate the prevalence of cardiac involvement in patients with COVID-19 using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A literature review was performed to investigate the left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction (EF), the prevalence of LV late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), pericardial enhancement, abnormality on T1 mapping, and T2 mapping/T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and myocarditis (defined by modified Lake Louis criteria). Pooled mean differences (MD) between COVID-19 patients and controls for LVEF and RVEF were estimated using random-effects models. We included data from 10.462 patients with COVID-19, comprising 1.010 non-athletes and 9.452 athletes from 29 eligible studies. The meta-analysis showed a significant difference between COVID-19 patients and controls in terms of LVEF [MD = - 2.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) - 5.11 to - 0.56, p < 0.001] and RVEF (MD = - 2.69%, 95% CI - 4.41 to - 1.27, p < 0.001). However, in athletes, no significant difference was identified in LVEF (MD = - 0.74%, 95% CI - 2.41 to - 0.93, p = 0.39) or RVEF (MD = - 1.88%, 95% CI - 5.21 to 1.46, p = 0.27). In non-athletes, the prevalence of LV LGE abnormalities, pericardial enhancement, T1 mapping, T2 mapping/T2WI, myocarditis were 27.5% (95%CI 17.4-37.6%), 11.9% (95%CI 4.1-19.6%), 39.5% (95%CI 16.2-62.8%), 38.1% (95%CI 19.0-57.1%) and 17.6% (95%CI 6.3-28.9%), respectively. In athletes, these values were 10.8% (95%CI 2.3-19.4%), 35.4% (95%CI - 3.2 to 73.9%), 5.7% (95%CI - 2.9 to 14.2%), 1.9% (95%CI 1.1-2.7%), 0.9% (0.3-1.6%), respectively. Both LVEF and RVEF were significantly impaired in COVID-19 patients compared to controls, but not in athletes. In addition, the prevalence of myocardial involvement is not negligible in patients with COVID-19.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667162

ABSTRACT

Vaccinations may be one of the solutions to end the COVID-19 pandemic. One's psychological state may be strongly related to one's willingness to be vaccinated. This study investigated the relationship between the psychological state of Japanese university students and their willingness to be vaccinated. A self-report questionnaire on COVID-19, its vaccines (vaccination status, and perceived efficacy and safety), and psychological state (anxiety and depressive mood) was administered online, and 560 valid responses were obtained. The unvaccinated group reported significantly lower perceived vaccine effectiveness and importance than the vaccinated group. However, there were no differences in anxiety and depressive mood symptoms between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on the unvaccinated participants to identify the factors associated with their unwillingness to be vaccinated; there was a significant association between anxiety and unwillingness to receive the vaccine (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant association between depressive mood and unwillingness to receive the vaccine. The results suggest that timely psychological support for Japanese university students experiencing high levels of anxiety is important in accelerating vaccination programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities , Vaccination
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-297019

ABSTRACT

Background: Sedentary behavior, particularly prevalent during the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has been shown to lead to depression. In medical students, this could negatively affect the provision of healthcare. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between sedentary behavior and depression in Japanese medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: : An online cross-sectional survey was conducted from July 30 to August 30, 2021, using anonymous questionnaire system to assess respondents’ sociodemographic characteristics, physical activity, sedentary behavior among 1000 Japanese university students. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2). The data of 484 respondents (48.4%) were included in a stepwise analysis, where we set the difference between medical and non-medical students as Model 1 and that between medical students with and without depression as Model 2. Results: : In Model 1, medical students were less physically active ( p <0.001), had longer sedentary time ( p <0.001), and had higher PHQ-2 scores ( p =0.048) than non-medical students. Moreover, Model 2 showed that longer sedentary time (OR=1.001, p =0.036) and screen time for leisure (OR=1.003, p =0.002) were associated with depression among medical students. Conclusions: : Based on these results, it is evident that reducing Japanese medical students’ sedentary time and leisure screen time can help combat depression during COVID-19 pandemic;thus, these results can guide the development of appropriate interventions to prevent and treat depression.

4.
Sustainability ; 13(21):11600, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1479342

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease pandemic has led to college students spending more time at home. “Stay-at-home exercise” videos to mitigate inactivity are currently available on various digital platforms;however, it is unclear whether these videos lead to behavioral changes among college students. This study aimed to investigate the improvement in physical activity (PA) resulting from “stay-at-home exercise” among college students. Overall, 150 college students were recruited, and 125 students (control group: 65;intervention group: 60) who completed baseline surveys were analyzed. The preliminary outcomes were PA, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), subjective well-being (SWB), and psychological stress (K6). Mixed model repeated-measure analysis of variance compared the outcomes before and after the intervention. After 8 weeks of “stay-at-home exercise”, there was no significant interaction in PA (F = 0.02, p = 0.89);however, a significant interaction for the general health subscale of HRQoL (F = 9.52), SWB (F = 6.70), and K6 (F = 7.83) was detected (p <0.05). On comparing the pre- and post-intervention results, we found that only distributing an 8-week streaming video of “stay-at-home exercise” did not increase the amount of physical activity among participants, but it did have a positive effect on their mental health during the pandemic.

5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(10)2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227020

ABSTRACT

Changes in the daily lives and mental health of people with disabilities due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic have not been reported. The Japanese government closed public facilities, including swimming pools, during the first wave of COVID-19, and many competitive swimmers lost their places of activities. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on life space and apathy among swimmers and investigated differences in the impact on swimmers with and without disabilities. A total of 39 competitive swimmers participated in this study, including 11 male and nine female swimmers with disabilities (swimmers with disabilities = para-swimmers), and e11 male and eight female swimmers without disabilities. Baseline and follow-up web-based questionnaire surveys were conducted, and changes in life space and apathy scale (AS) were assessed. Female para-swimmers showed significantly lower apathy than female able-bodied subjects (para, during; 16.0 ± 1.9; after, 12.8 ± 3.2; non-disabled; during, 10.5 ± 4.4; after, 10.6 ± 4.8; p < 0.05). Female swimmers with disabilities may be more likely to experience worsening mental health due to changes in their lifestyle.


Subject(s)
Apathy , COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Sports for Persons with Disabilities , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Swimming
7.
Hypertens Res ; 43(11): 1257-1266, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725057

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak initiated on the Diamond Princess Cruise Ship at Yokohama harbor in February 2020, we have been doing our best to treat COVID-19 patients. In animal experiments, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type-1 receptor blockers (ARBs) are reported to suppress the downregulation of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and they may inhibit the worsening of pathological conditions. We aimed to examine whether preceding use of ACEIs and ARBs affected the clinical manifestations and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. One hundred fifty-one consecutive patients (mean age 60 ± 19 years) with polymerase-chain-reaction proven severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who were admitted to six hospitals in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, were analyzed in this multicenter retrospective observational study. Among all COVID-19 patients, in the multiple regression analysis, older age (age ≥ 65 years) was significantly associated with the primary composite outcome (odds ratio (OR) 6.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.28-22.78, P < 0.001), which consisted of (i) in-hospital death, (ii) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, (iii) mechanical ventilation, including invasive and noninvasive methods, and (iv) admission to the intensive care unit. In COVID-19 patients with hypertension, preceding ACEI/ARB use was significantly associated with a lower occurrence of new-onset or worsening mental confusion (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.002-0.69, P = 0.02), which was defined by the confusion criterion, which included mild disorientation or hallucination with an estimation of medical history of mental status, after adjustment for age, sex, and diabetes. In conclusion, older age was a significant contributor to a worse prognosis in COVID-19 patients, and ACEIs/ARBs could be beneficial for the prevention of confusion in COVID-19 patients with hypertension.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hypertension/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Confusion/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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