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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(4): e1010155, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785210

ABSTRACT

Macaques are a commonly used model for studying immunity to human viruses, including for studies of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. However, it is unknown whether macaque antibody responses resemble the response in humans. To answer this question, we employed a phage-based deep mutational scanning approach (Phage-DMS) to compare which linear epitopes are targeted on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein in convalescent humans, convalescent (re-infected) rhesus macaques, mRNA-vaccinated humans, and repRNA-vaccinated pigtail macaques. We also used Phage-DMS to determine antibody escape pathways within each epitope, enabling a granular comparison of antibody binding specificities at the locus level. Overall, we identified some common epitope targets in both macaques and humans, including in the fusion peptide (FP) and stem helix-heptad repeat 2 (SH-H) regions. Differences between groups included a response to epitopes in the N-terminal domain (NTD) and C-terminal domain (CTD) in vaccinated humans but not vaccinated macaques, as well as recognition of a CTD epitope and epitopes flanking the FP in convalescent macaques but not convalescent humans. There was also considerable variability in the escape pathways among individuals within each group. Sera from convalescent macaques showed the least variability in escape overall and converged on a common response with vaccinated humans in the SH-H epitope region, suggesting highly similar antibodies were elicited. Collectively, these findings suggest that the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in macaques shares many features with humans, but with substantial differences in the recognition of certain epitopes and considerable individual variability in antibody escape profiles, suggesting a diverse repertoire of antibodies that can respond to major epitopes in both humans and macaques. Differences in macaque species and exposure type may also contribute to these findings.

2.
Frontiers in immunology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602351

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 vaccine rollout is critical for reducing SARS-CoV-2 infections, hospitalizations, and deaths worldwide. Unfortunately, massive disparities exist in getting vaccines to vulnerable populations, including people living with HIV. Preliminary studies indicate that COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are safe and immunogenic in people living with HIV that are virally suppressed with potent antiretroviral therapy but may be less efficacious in immunocompromised individuals. This raises the concern that COVID-19 vaccines may be less effective in resource poor settings with limited access to antiretroviral therapy. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity of a single dose COVID-19 replicon RNA vaccine expressing Spike protein (A.1) from SARS-CoV-2 (repRNA-CoV2S) in immunocompromised, SIV infected and immune competent, naïve pigtail macaques. Moderate vaccine-specific cellular Th1 T-cell responses and binding and neutralizing antibodies were induced by repRNA-CoV2S in SIV infected animals and naïve animals. Furthermore, vaccine immunogenicity was elicited even among the animals with the highest SIV viral burden or lowest peripheral CD4 counts prior to immunization. This study provides evidence that a SARS-CoV-2 repRNA vaccine could be employed to induce strong immunity against COVID-19 in HIV infected and other immunocompromised individuals.

3.
Cell ; 184(21): 5432-5447.e16, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454060

ABSTRACT

Understanding vaccine-elicited protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants and other sarbecoviruses is key for guiding public health policies. We show that a clinical stage multivalent SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain nanoparticle (RBD-NP) vaccine protects mice from SARS-CoV-2 challenge after a single immunization, indicating a potential dose-sparing strategy. We benchmarked serum neutralizing activity elicited by RBD-NPs in non-human primates against a lead prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike (HexaPro) using a panel of circulating mutants. Polyclonal antibodies elicited by both vaccines are similarly resilient to many RBD residue substitutions tested, although mutations at and surrounding position 484 have negative consequences for neutralization. Mosaic and cocktail nanoparticle immunogens displaying multiple sarbecovirus RBDs elicit broad neutralizing activity in mice and protect mice against SARS-CoV challenge even in the absence of SARS-CoV RBD in the vaccine. This study provides proof of principle that multivalent sarbecovirus RBD-NPs induce heterotypic protection and motivates advancing such broadly protective sarbecovirus vaccines to the clinic.

4.
Science ; 370(6521): 1208-1214, 2020 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913668

ABSTRACT

We developed a de novo protein design strategy to swiftly engineer decoys for neutralizing pathogens that exploit extracellular host proteins to infect the cell. Our pipeline allowed the design, validation, and optimization of de novo human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) decoys to neutralize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The best monovalent decoy, CTC-445.2, bound with low nanomolar affinity and high specificity to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) showed that the design is accurate and can simultaneously bind to all three RBDs of a single spike protein. Because the decoy replicates the spike protein target interface in hACE2, it is intrinsically resilient to viral mutational escape. A bivalent decoy, CTC-445.2d, showed ~10-fold improvement in binding. CTC-445.2d potently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 infection of cells in vitro, and a single intranasal prophylactic dose of decoy protected Syrian hamsters from a subsequent lethal SARS-CoV-2 challenge.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cricetinae , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Directed Molecular Evolution/methods , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Engineering/methods , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
5.
Cell ; 183(5): 1367-1382.e17, 2020 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893667

ABSTRACT

A safe, effective, and scalable vaccine is needed to halt the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We describe the structure-based design of self-assembling protein nanoparticle immunogens that elicit potent and protective antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in mice. The nanoparticle vaccines display 60 SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domains (RBDs) in a highly immunogenic array and induce neutralizing antibody titers 10-fold higher than the prefusion-stabilized spike despite a 5-fold lower dose. Antibodies elicited by the RBD nanoparticles target multiple distinct epitopes, suggesting they may not be easily susceptible to escape mutations, and exhibit a lower binding:neutralizing ratio than convalescent human sera, which may minimize the risk of vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease. The high yield and stability of the assembled nanoparticles suggest that manufacture of the nanoparticle vaccines will be highly scalable. These results highlight the utility of robust antigen display platforms and have launched cGMP manufacturing efforts to advance the SARS-CoV-2-RBD nanoparticle vaccine into the clinic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cohort Studies , Epitopes/immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Macaca nemestrina , Male , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells , Young Adult
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