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1.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973209

ABSTRACT

In this cohort of 42 adolescents with a previous multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) diagnosis, 32 (76.2%) were vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccines, with a low incidence of relevant adverse events. More importantly, no new MIS-C or myocarditis occurred after a median of 10 weeks (range 5.3-19.7) post-vaccination.

2.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939013

ABSTRACT

The increased incidence of COVID-19 cases and deaths in Spain in March 2020 led to the declaration by the Spanish government of a state of emergency imposing strict confinement measures on the population. The objective of this study was to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota of children and adults and its relation to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity during the pandemic lockdown in Spain. This cross-sectional study included family households located in metropolitan Barcelona, Spain, with one adult with a previous confirmed COVID-19 episode and one or more exposed co-habiting child contacts. Nasopharyngeal swabs were used to determine SARS-CoV-2 infection status, characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota and determine common respiratory DNA/RNA viral co-infections. A total of 173 adult cases and 470 exposed children were included. Overall, a predominance of Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum and a limited abundance of common pathobionts including Haemophilus and Streptococcus were found both among adults and children. Children with current SARS-CoV-2 infection presented higher bacterial richness and increased Fusobacterium, Streptococcus and Prevotella abundance than non-infected children. Among adults, persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNA was associated with an increased abundance of an unclassified member of the Actinomycetales order. COVID-19 severity was associated with increased Staphylococcus and reduced Dolosigranulum abundance. The stringent COVID-19 lockdown in Spain had a significant impact on the nasopharyngeal microbiota of children, reflected in the limited abundance of common respiratory pathobionts and the predominance of Corynebacterium, regardless of SARS-CoV-2 detection. COVID-19 severity in adults was associated with decreased nasopharynx levels of healthy commensal bacteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Viruses , Adult , Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Nasopharynx , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptococcus , Viruses/genetics
3.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263741, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690714

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite their clear lesser vulnerability to COVID-19, the extent by which children are susceptible to getting infected by SARS-CoV-2 and their capacity to transmit the infection to other people remains inadequately characterized. We aimed to evaluate the role of school reopening and the preventive strategies in place at schools in terms of overall risk for children and community transmission, by comparing transmission rates in children as detected by a COVID-19 surveillance platform in place in Catalonian Schools to the incidence at the community level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Infections detected in Catalan schools during the entire first trimester of classes (September-December 2020) were analysed and compared with the ongoing community transmission and with the modelled predicted number of infections. There were 30.486 infections (2.12%) documented among the circa 1.5M pupils, with cases detected in 54.0% and 97.5% of the primary and secondary centres, respectively. During the entire first term, the proportion of "bubble groups" (stable groups of children doing activities together) that were forced to undergo confinement ranged between 1 and 5%, with scarce evidence of substantial intraschool transmission in the form of chains of infections, and with ~75% of all detected infections not leading to secondary cases. Mathematical models were also used to evaluate the effect of different parameters related to the defined preventive strategies (size of the bubble group, number of days of confinement required by contacts of an index case). The effective reproduction number inside the bubble groups in schools (R*), defined as the average number of schoolmates infected by each primary case within the bubble, was calculated, yielding a value of 0.35 for primary schools and 0.55 for secondary schools, and compared with the outcomes of the mathematical model, implying decreased transmissibility for children in the context of the applied measures. Relative homogenized monthly cumulative incidence ([Formula: see text]) was assessed to compare the epidemiological dynamics among different age groups and this analysis suggested the limited impact of infections in school-aged children in the context of the overall community incidence. CONCLUSIONS: During the fall of 2020, SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 cases detected in Catalan schools closely mirrored the underlying community transmission from the neighbourhoods where they were set and maintaining schools open appeared to be safe irrespective of underlying community transmission. Preventive measures in place in those schools appeared to be working for the early detection and rapid containment of transmission and should be maintained for the adequate and safe functioning of normal academic and face-to-face school activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Residence Characteristics , Schools , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Models, Theoretical , Spain/epidemiology
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307024

ABSTRACT

Fever without source (FWS) in infants is a frequent cause of consultation at the emergency department and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 could affect the approach to those infants. The aim of this study is to define the clinical characteristics and rates of bacterial coinfections of infants < 90 days with FWS as the first manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This is a cross-sectional study of infants under 90 days of age with FWS and positive SARS-CoV2 PCR in nasopharyngeal swab/aspirate, attended at the emergency departments of 49 Spanish hospitals (EPICO-AEP cohort) from March 1st to June 26th, 2020. Three hundred and thirty-three children with COVID-19 were included in EPICO-AEP. A total of 67/336 (20%) were infants less than 90 days old, and 27/67(40%) presented with FWS. Blood cultures were performed in 24/27(89%) and were negative in all but one (4%) who presented a Streptococcus mitis bacteremia. Urine culture was performed in 26/27(97%) children and was negative in all, except in two (7%) patients. Lumbar puncture was performed in 6/27(22%) cases, with no growth of bacteria. Two children had bacterial coinfections: 1 had UTI and bacteremia, and 1 had UTI. C-reactive was protein over 20 mg/L in two children (one with bacterial coinfection), and procalcitonin was normal in all. One child was admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit because of apnea episodes. No patients died. Conclusion: FWS was frequent in infants under 90 days of age with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Standardized markers to rule out bacterial infections remain useful in this population, and the outcome is generally good.

5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 751705, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686480

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 affects children to a lesser extent than adults but they can still get infected and transmit SARS-CoV-2 to their contacts. Field deployable non-invasive sensitive diagnostic techniques are needed to evaluate the infectivity dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric populations and guide public health interventions, particularly if this population is not fully vaccinated. We evaluated the utility of high-throughput Luminex assays to quantify saliva IgM, IgA and IgG antibodies against five SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) antigens in a contacts and infectivity longitudinal study in 122 individuals (52 children and 70 adults). We compared saliva versus serum/plasma samples in infected children and adults diagnosed by weekly RT-PCR over 35 days (n=62), and those who consistently tested negative over the same follow up period (n=60), in the Summer of 2020 in Barcelona, Spain. Saliva antibody levels in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive individuals were significantly higher than in negative individuals and correlated with those measured in sera/plasmas. Asymptomatic infected individuals had higher levels of anti-S IgG than symptomatic individuals, suggesting a protective anti-disease role for antibodies. Higher anti-S IgG and IgM levels in serum/plasma and saliva, respectively, in infected children compared to infected adults could also be related to stronger clinical immunity in them. Among infected children, males had higher levels of saliva IgG to N and RBD than females. Despite overall correlation, individual clustering analysis suggested that responses that may not be detected in blood could be patent in saliva, and vice versa. In conclusion, measurement of SARS-CoV-2-specific saliva antibodies should be considered as a complementary non-invasive assay to serum/plasma to determine COVID-19 prevalence and transmission in pediatric populations before and after vaccination campaigns.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Saliva , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 66-73, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the role of children in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission is critical to guide decision-making for schools in the pandemic. We aimed to describe the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among children and adult staff in summer schools. METHODS: During July 2020, we prospectively recruited children and adult staff attending summer schools in Barcelona who had SARS-CoV-2 infection. Primary SARS-CoV-2 infections were identified through (1) a surveillance program in 22 summer schools of 1905 participants, involving weekly saliva sampling for SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) during 2-5 weeks; and (2) cases identified through the Catalonian Health Surveillance System of children diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection by nasopharyngeal RT-PCR. All centers followed prevention protocols: bubble groups, handwashing, face masks, and conducting activities mostly outdoors. Contacts of a primary case within the same bubble were evaluated by nasopharyngeal RT-PCR. Secondary attack rates and the effective reproduction number in summer schools (Re*) were calculated. RESULTS: Among the >2000 repeatedly screened participants, 30 children and 9 adults were identified as primary cases. A total of 253 close contacts of these primary cases were studied (median, 9 [interquartile range, 5-10] for each primary case), among which 12 new cases (4.7%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. The Re* was 0.3, whereas the contemporary rate in the general population from the same areas in Barcelona was 1.9. CONCLUSIONS: The transmission rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children attending school-like facilities under strict prevention measures was lower than that reported for the general population. This suggests that under preventive measures schools are unlikely amplifiers of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, supporting current recommendations for school opening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Spain/epidemiology
7.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 309, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surveillance tools to estimate viral transmission dynamics in young populations are essential to guide recommendations for school opening and management during viral epidemics. Ideally, sensitive techniques are required to detect low viral load exposures among asymptomatic children. We aimed to estimate SARS-CoV-2 infection rates in children and adult populations in a school-like environment during the initial COVID-19 pandemic waves using an antibody-based field-deployable and non-invasive approach. METHODS: Saliva antibody conversion defined as ≥ 4-fold increase in IgM, IgA, and/or IgG levels to five SARS-CoV-2 antigens including spike and nucleocapsid constructs was evaluated in 1509 children and 396 adults by high-throughput Luminex assays in samples collected weekly in 22 summer schools and 2 pre-schools in 27 venues in Barcelona, Spain, from June 29th to July 31st, 2020. RESULTS: Saliva antibody conversion between two visits over a 5-week period was 3.22% (49/1518) or 2.36% if accounting for potentially cross-reactive antibodies, six times higher than the cumulative infection rate (0.53%) assessed by weekly saliva RT-PCR screening. IgG conversion was higher in adults (2.94%, 11/374) than children (1.31%, 15/1144) (p=0.035), IgG and IgA levels moderately increased with age, and antibodies were higher in females. Most antibody converters increased both IgG and IgA antibodies but some augmented either IgG or IgA, with a faster decay over time for IgA than IgG. Nucleocapsid rather than spike was the main antigen target. Anti-spike antibodies were significantly higher in individuals not reporting symptoms than symptomatic individuals, suggesting a protective role against COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Saliva antibody profiling including three isotypes and multiplexing antigens is a useful and user-friendlier tool for screening pediatric populations to detect low viral load exposures among children, particularly while they are not vaccinated and vulnerable to highly contagious variants, and to recommend public health policies during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Pandemics , Saliva , Schools , Spain/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
8.
J Pediatr ; 241: 126-132.e3, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527773

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the time to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negativity after the first positive RT-PCR test, factors associated with longer time to RT-PCR negativity, proportion of children seroconverting after proven severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, and factors associated with the lack of seroconversion. STUDY DESIGN: The Epidemiological Study of Coronavirus in Children of the Spanish Society of Pediatrics is a multicenter study conducted in Spanish children to assess the characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019. In a subset of patients, 3 serial RT-PCR tests on nasopharyngeal swab specimens were performed after the first RT-PCR test, and immunoglobulin G serology for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibodies was performed in the acute and follow-up (<14 and ≥14 days after diagnosis) phase. RESULTS: In total, 324 patients were included in the study. The median time to RT-PCR negativity was 17 days (IQR, 8-29 days), and 35% of patients remained positive more than 4 weeks after the first RT-PCR test. The probability of RT-PCR negativity did not differ across groups defined by sex, disease severity, immunosuppressive drugs, or clinical phenotype. Globally, 24% of children failed to seroconvert after infection. Seroconversion was associated with hospitalization, persistence of RT-PCR positivity, and days of fever. CONCLUSIONS: Time to RT-PCR negativity was long, regardless of the severity of symptoms or other patient features. This finding should be considered when interpreting RT-PCR results in a child with symptoms, especially those with mild symptoms. Seroprevalence and postimmunization studies should consider that 11 in 4 infected children fail to seroconvert.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Seroconversion , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Registries , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors
9.
J Infect ; 82(3): 414-451, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study describes the characteristics of children requiring admission with an acute lower-respiratory disease (ALRD) during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemics. METHODS: Epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological data from patients with ALRD (pneumonia, bronchiolitis, bronchospasm) admitted to a reference paediatric hospital in Spain during the pandemic peak (week 11-20/2020) were prospectively analysed. RESULTS: 110 patients were included. 7 were SARS-CoV-2(+) and they were older in comparison to SARS-CoV-2(-). Among SARS-CoV-2(+) patients, pneumonia was the main clinical diagnosis (6/7) and bronchospasm was absent. Only 1 of 29 infants diagnosed with bronchiolitis was SARS-CoV-2(+). Lower values of leucocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and platelets and higher values of creatinine were found in SARS-CoV-2(+). Human-rhinovirus/enterovirus was the main detection (11/32). There were not differences in PICU admission rates between SARS-CoV-2(+) and (-). CONCLUSIONS: Most of the ALRD episodes identified during the pandemics were not related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 was mainly found causing pneumonia in older children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Spain/epidemiology
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(9): e397-e401, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387751

ABSTRACT

Some clusters of children with a multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been reported. We describe the epidemiological and clinical features of children with MIS-C in Spain. MIS-C is a potentially severe condition that presents in children with recent SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Spain/epidemiology , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
11.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 107(2): 216-221, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367412

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a specific protocol for SARS-CoV-2 detection in breast milk matrix and to determine the impact of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection on the presence, concentration and persistence of specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: This is a prospective, multicentre longitudinal study (April-December 2020) in 60 mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or who have recovered from COVID-19. A control group of 13 women before the pandemic were also included. SETTING: Seven health centres from different provinces in Spain. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in breast milk, targeting the N1 region of the nucleocapsid gene and the envelope (E) gene; presence and levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins (Igs)-IgA, IgG and IgM-in breast milk samples from patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: All breast milk samples showed negative results for presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. We observed high intraindividual and interindividual variability in the antibody response to the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein for each of the three isotypes IgA, IgM and IgG. Main Protease (MPro) domain antibodies were also detected in milk. 82.9% (58 of 70) of milk samples were positive for at least one of the three antibody isotypes, with 52.9% of these positive for all three Igs. Positivity rate for IgA was relatively stable over time (65.2%-87.5%), whereas it raised continuously for IgG (from 47.8% for the first 10 days to 87.5% from day 41 up to day 206 post-PCR confirmation). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the safety of breast feeding and highlights the relevance of virus-specific SARS-CoV-2 antibody transfer. This study provides crucial data to support official breastfeeding recommendations based on scientific evidence. Trial registration number NCT04768244.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Milk, Human/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/analysis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins/analysis , Longitudinal Studies , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain
12.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(8): e287-e293, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify risk factors causing critical disease in hospitalized children with COVID-19 and to build a predictive model to anticipate the probability of need for critical care. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective study of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 52 Spanish hospitals. The primary outcome was the need for critical care. We used a multivariable Bayesian model to estimate the probability of needing critical care. RESULTS: The study enrolled 350 children from March 12, 2020, to July 1, 2020: 292 (83.4%) and 214 (73.7%) were considered to have relevant COVID-19, of whom 24.2% required critical care. Four major clinical syndromes of decreasing severity were identified: multi-inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) (17.3%), bronchopulmonary (51.4%), gastrointestinal (11.6%), and mild syndrome (19.6%). Main risk factors were high C-reactive protein and creatinine concentration, lymphopenia, low platelets, anemia, tachycardia, age, neutrophilia, leukocytosis, and low oxygen saturation. These risk factors increased the risk of critical disease depending on the syndrome: the more severe the syndrome, the more risk the factors conferred. Based on our findings, we developed an online risk prediction tool (https://rserver.h12o.es/pediatria/EPICOAPP/, username: user, password: 0000). CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for severe COVID-19 include inflammation, cytopenia, age, comorbidities, and organ dysfunction. The more severe the syndrome, the more the risk factor increases the risk of critical illness. Risk of severe disease can be predicted with a Bayesian model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
13.
J Clin Invest ; 131(6)2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133407

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has recently been described in children (MIS-C), partially overlapping with Kawasaki disease (KD). We hypothesized that (a) MIS-C and prepandemic KD cytokine profiles may be unique and justify the clinical differences observed, and (b) SARS-CoV-2-specific immune complexes (ICs) may explain the immunopathology of MIS-C. Seventy-four children were included: 14 with MIS-C, 9 patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR without MIS-C (COVID), 14 with prepandemic KD, and 37 healthy controls (HCs). Thirty-four circulating cytokines were quantified in pretreatment serum or plasma samples and the presence of circulating SARS-CoV-2 ICs was evaluated in MIS-C patients. Compared with HCs, the MIS-C and KD groups showed most cytokines to be significantly elevated, with IFN-γ-induced response markers (including IFN-γ, IL-18, and IP-10) and inflammatory monocyte activation markers (including MCP-1, IL-1α, and IL-1RA) being the main triggers of inflammation. In linear discriminant analysis, MIS-C and KD profiles overlapped; however, a subgroup of MIS-C patients (MIS-Cplus) differentiated from the remaining MIS-C patients in IFN-γ, IL-18, GM-CSF, RANTES, IP-10, IL-1α, and SDF-1 and incipient signs of macrophage activation syndrome. Circulating SARS-CoV-2 ICs were not detected in MIS-C patients. Our findings suggest a major role for IFN-γ in the pathogenesis of MIS-C, which may be relevant for therapeutic management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Cytokines/blood , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigen-Antibody Complex/blood , Antigens, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Interferon-gamma/blood , Male , Models, Immunological , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
14.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(7): 2099-2106, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092067

ABSTRACT

Fever without source (FWS) in infants is a frequent cause of consultation at the emergency department, and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 could affect the approach to those infants. The aim of this study is to define the clinical characteristics and rates of bacterial coinfections of infants < 90 days with FWS as the first manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This is a cross-sectional study of infants under 90 days of age with FWS and positive SARS-CoV2 PCR in nasopharyngeal swab/aspirate, attended at the emergency departments of 49 Spanish hospitals (EPICO-AEP cohort) from March 1 to June 26, 2020. Three hundred and thirty-three children with COVID-19 were included in EPICO-AEP. A total of 67/336 (20%) were infants less than 90 days old, and 27/67(40%) presented with FWS. Blood cultures were performed in 24/27(89%) and were negative in all but one (4%) who presented a Streptococcus mitis bacteremia. Urine culture was performed in 26/27(97%) children and was negative in all, except in two (7%) patients. Lumbar puncture was performed in 6/27(22%) cases, with no growth of bacteria. Two children had bacterial coinfections: 1 had UTI and bacteremia, and 1 had UTI. C-reactive was protein over 20 mg/L in two children (one with bacterial coinfection), and procalcitonin was normal in all. One child was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit because of apnea episodes. No patients died.Conclusion: FWS was frequent in infants under 90 days of age with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Standardized markers to rule out bacterial infections remain useful in this population, and the outcome is generally good. What is Known: • Fever without source (FWS) in infants is a common cause of consultation at the emergency department, and young infants have a higher risk of serious bacterial infections (SBI). • The emergence of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 could affect the approach to young infants with FWS in the emergency department. management of those children is a challenge because information about bacterial coinfection and prognosis is scarce. What is New: • SARS-CoV-2 infection should be ruled out in young infants (< 90 days of age) with FWS in areas with community transmission. • Bacterial coinfection rarely coexists in those infants. • Inflammatory markers were not increased in children without bacterial coinfection. • Outcome is good in most patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant , RNA, Viral
16.
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) ; 93(6): 420.e1-420.e6, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-920105

ABSTRACT

With over 575,000 deaths and about 13.3 million cases globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a terrible impact globally during the 6 months since cases were first detected in China. Conscious of the many challenges presented in settings with abundance of resources and with robust health systems, where mortality has been significant and transmission difficult to control, there was a logical concern to see how the virus could impact African countries, and their fragile and weak health systems. Such an anticipated "tsunami", with potentially devastating consequences, seems however to not have yet arrived, and African countries, albeit witnessing an increasing degree of autochthonous transmission, seem to this day relatively unaffected by the pandemic. In this article we review the current situation of the pandemic in the African continent, trying to understand the determinants of its slow progress.


Con más de 575.000 muertes y cerca de 13.3 millones de casos a nivel global, la pandemia por COVID-19 ha causado un terrible impacto en apenas medio año de evolución desde que por primera vez fuesen detectados casos en China. Conscientes de las dificultades planteadas en entornos con sistemas de salud robustos, donde la mortalidad ha sido significativa, y la transmisión difícilmente controlable, había una lógica preocupación por ver cómo el virus podría afectar a los países africanos, donde sus frágiles sistemas de salud auguraban un impacto aún mayor. Este "tsunami" anunciado, de potenciales consecuencias devastadoras, parece sin embargo no haber llegado todavía, y los países africanos, donde ya se ha evidenciado una creciente transmisión, no están viendo el impacto en la salud de sus habitantes que muchos habían predicho. En este artículo repasamos la situación actual de la pandemia en el continente Africano, intentando entender los determinantes de su lenta progresión.

18.
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) ; 93(6), 2020.
Article | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691896

ABSTRACT

With over 575,000 deaths and about 13.3 million cases globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a terrible impact globally during the 6 months since cases were first detected in China. Conscious of the many challenges presented in settings with abundance of resources and with robust health systems, where mortality has been significant and transmission difficult to control, there was a logical concern to see how the virus could impact African countries, and their fragile and weak health systems. Such an anticipated "tsunami", with potentially devastating consequences, seems however to not have yet arrived, and African countries, albeit witnessing an increasing degree of autochthonous transmission, seem to this day relatively unaffected by the pandemic. In this article we review the current situation of the pandemic in the African continent, trying to understand the determinants of its slow progress.

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