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2.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-5, 2020 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679836

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic prompted universities across the United States to close campuses in Spring 2020. Universities are deliberating whether, when, and how they should resume in-person instruction in Fall 2020. In this essay, we discuss some practical considerations for the use of 2 potentially useful control strategies based on testing: (1) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing followed by case-patient isolation and quarantine of close contacts, and (2) serological testing followed by an "immune shield" approach, that is, low social distancing requirements for seropositive persons. The isolation of case-patients and quarantine of close contacts may be especially challenging, and perhaps prohibitively difficult, on many university campuses. The "immune shield" strategy might be hobbled by a low positive predictive value of the tests used in populations with low seroprevalence. Both strategies carry logistical, ethical, and financial implications. The main nonpharmaceutical interventions will remain methods based on social distancing (eg, capping class size) and personal protective behaviors (eg, universal facemask wearing in public space) until vaccines become available, or unless the issues discussed herein can be resolved in such a way that using mass testing as main control strategies becomes viable.

3.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-2, 2020 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326568

ABSTRACT

We investigated the adoption of World Health Organization (WHO) naming of COVID-19 into the respective languages among the Group of Twenty (G20) countries, and the variation of COVID-19 naming in the Chinese language across different health authorities. On May 7, 2020, we identified the websites of the national health authorities of the G20 countries to identify naming of COVID-19 in their respective languages, and the websites of the health authorities in mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan and Singapore and identify their Chinese name for COVID-19. Among the G20 nations, Argentina, China, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Saudi Arabia and Turkey do not use the literal translation of COVID-19 in their official language(s) to refer to COVID-19, as they retain "novel" in the naming of this disease. China is the only G20 nation that names COVID-19 a pneumonia. Among Chinese-speaking jurisdictions, Hong Kong and Singapore governments follow the WHO's recommendation and adopt the literal translation of COVID-19 in Chinese. In contrast, mainland China, Macau, and Taiwan refer to COVID-19 as a type of pneumonia in Chinese. We urge health authorities worldwide to adopt naming in their native languages that are consistent with WHO's naming of COVID-19.

4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(8): 1912-1914, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116451

ABSTRACT

In China, the doubling time of the coronavirus disease epidemic by province increased during January 20-February 9, 2020. Doubling time estimates ranged from 1.4 (95% CI 1.2-2.0) days for Hunan Province to 3.1 (95% CI 2.1-4.8) days for Xinjiang Province. The estimate for Hubei Province was 2.5 (95% CI 2.4-2.6) days.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Geography , Humans , Incidence , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Time Factors
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(8): 1915-1917, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108906

ABSTRACT

To determine the transmission potential of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in Iran in 2020, we estimated the reproduction number as 4.4 (95% CI 3.9-4.9) by using a generalized growth model and 3.5 (95% CI 1.3-8.1) by using epidemic doubling time. The reproduction number decreased to 1.55 after social distancing interventions were implemented.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Incidence , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Social Distance , Time Factors
6.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-4, 2020 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-99536

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Awareness and attentiveness have implications for the acceptance and adoption of disease prevention and control measures. Social media posts provide a record of the public's attention to an outbreak. To measure the attention of Chinese netizens to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a pre-established nationally representative cohort of Weibo users was searched for COVID-19-related key words in their posts. METHODS: COVID-19-related posts (N = 1101) were retrieved from a longitudinal cohort of 52 268 randomly sampled Weibo accounts (December 31, 2019-February 12, 2020). RESULTS: Attention to COVID-19 was limited prior to China openly acknowledging human-to-human transmission on January 20. Following this date, attention quickly increased and has remained high over time. Particularly high levels of social media traffic appeared around when Wuhan was first placed in quarantine (January 23-24, 8-9% of the overall posts), when a scandal associated with the Red Cross Society of China occurred (February 1, 8%), and, following the death of Dr Li Wenliang (February 6-7, 11%), one of the whistleblowers who was reprimanded by the Chinese police in early January for discussing this outbreak online. CONCLUSION: Limited early warnings represent missed opportunities to engage citizens earlier in the outbreak. Governments should more proactively communicate early warnings to the public in a transparent manner.

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