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1.
Neurol Sci ; 43(6): 3479-3487, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750716

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) represents a frequent but under-recognized phenomenon in Parkinson's disease (PD). During COVID-19 pandemic, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have become pivotal in the management of chronic diseases like PD, not only to assess motor impairment, but also for vital signs monitoring. This pilot study aimed to propose a real-time remote home-monitoring system and protocol for PD patients with OH. METHODS: Vital parameters were acquired by wireless devices and transmitted to an ICT platform, providing data and smart notifications to the healthcare provider through an interactive web portal. Eight patients with idiopathic PD and OH underwent 5-day monitoring. Data about OH episodes, therapeutic interventions, impact on daily activities, and patient satisfaction were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The proposed solution allowed the identification of 65 OH episodes and subsequent medical interventions. Thirty-five episodes were asymptomatic, especially in the postprandial and in the afternoon recordings. Systolic-blood-pressure (SBP) and diastolic-blood-pressure (DBP) were significantly lower in symptomatic episodes, while the pressure drops resulted significantly higher in presence of symptoms. High usability and patient satisfaction scores were observed. CONCLUSION: The proposed home-monitoring system and protocol have proved to provide useful information and to allow prompt interventions in the management of PD patients with OH during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypotension, Orthostatic , Parkinson Disease , Telemedicine , Blood Pressure/physiology , Humans , Hypotension, Orthostatic/diagnosis , Hypotension, Orthostatic/epidemiology , Hypotension, Orthostatic/etiology , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Pilot Projects
3.
Acta Neurol Belg ; 122(2): 497-503, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 lockdown has influenced people lifestyle, behaviour, physical activity (PA), and working habits as well as, possibly, migraine. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of lockdown on the burden of migraine attacks during COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: Patients were interviewed, and data about demographics, PA, daily behaviour, working habits, disability (HIT-6) and characteristics of migraine and drugs consumption were compared between the first month of the lockdown in Italy (March 2020), and a reference month prior the lockdown (January 2020). RESULTS: 37 patients were analysed, classified as migraine without aura (MwoA) (n = 26) and migraine with aura (MwA) plus migraine with and without aura (MwA/MwoA) (n = 11). During the lockdown, a greater proportion of patients with insufficient PA (65% vs 31%; p = 0.012) were found. Reduced mean headache duration [3 h, (2-12) vs 2 h (1-8); p = 0.041] and HIT score [59 (51-63) vs 50 (44-57); p = 0.001] were found in MwoA patients during the lockdown, while no changes found in patients with MwA + MwA/MwoA. CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown induced significant changes in PA and working habits of people with migraine and was found to be associated with improved migraine-related symptoms which might depend by different lifestyle habits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Migraine with Aura , Migraine without Aura , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Life Style , Migraine with Aura/complications , Migraine without Aura/complications
4.
Journal of the Neurological Sciences ; 429:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1461454
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5432-5437, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363681

ABSTRACT

This case series describes three patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed polyradiculoneuritis as a probable neurological complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electroneurography. In all of them, the therapeutic approach included the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (0.4 gr/kg for 5 days), which resulted in the improvement of neurological symptoms. Clinical neurophysiology revealed the presence of conduction block, absence of F waves, and in two cases, a significant decrease in amplitude of compound motor action potential cMAP. Due to the potential role of inflammation on symptoms development and prognosis, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid during the acute phase, while only serum was tested after recovery. Both IL-6 and IL-8 were found increased during the acute phase, both in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, whereas 4 months after admission (at complete recovery), only IL-8 remained elevated in the serum. These results confirm the inflammatory response that might be linked to peripheral nervous system complications and encourage the use of IL-6 and IL-8 as prognostic biomarkers in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Action Potentials/drug effects , Acute Disease , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
9.
J Neurol ; 269(2): 587-596, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356007

ABSTRACT

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) can be affected by COVID-19, and dysautonomia may be a possible complication in post-COVID individuals. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) have been suggested to be common after SARS-CoV-2 infection, but other components of ANS function may be also impaired. The Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale 31 (COMPASS-31) questionnaire is a simple and validated tool to assess dysautonomic symptoms. The aim of the present study was to administer the COMPASS-31 questionnaire to a sample of post-COVID patients with and without neurological complaints. Participants were recruited among the post-COVID ambulatory services for follow-up evaluation between 4 weeks and 9 months from COVID-19 symptoms onset. Participants were asked to complete the COMPASS-31 questionnaire referring to the period after COVID-19 disease. Heart rate and blood pressure were manually taken during an active stand test for OH and POTS diagnosis. One-hundred and eighty participants were included in the analysis (70.6% females, 51 ± 13 years), and OH was found in 13.8% of the subjects. Median COMPASS-31 score was 17.6 (6.9-31.4), with the most affected domains being orthostatic intolerance, sudomotor, gastrointestinal and pupillomotor dysfunction. A higher COMPASS-31 score was found in those with neurological symptoms (p < 0.01), due to more severe orthostatic intolerance symptoms (p < 0.01), although gastrointestinal (p < 0.01), urinary (p < 0.01), and pupillomotor (p < 0.01) domains were more represented in the non-neurological symptoms group. This study confirms the importance of monitoring ANS symptoms as a possible complication of COVID-19 disease that may persist in the post-acute period.


Subject(s)
Autonomic Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19 , Hypotension, Orthostatic , Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5432-5437, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258081

ABSTRACT

This case series describes three patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed polyradiculoneuritis as a probable neurological complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electroneurography. In all of them, the therapeutic approach included the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (0.4 gr/kg for 5 days), which resulted in the improvement of neurological symptoms. Clinical neurophysiology revealed the presence of conduction block, absence of F waves, and in two cases, a significant decrease in amplitude of compound motor action potential cMAP. Due to the potential role of inflammation on symptoms development and prognosis, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid during the acute phase, while only serum was tested after recovery. Both IL-6 and IL-8 were found increased during the acute phase, both in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, whereas 4 months after admission (at complete recovery), only IL-8 remained elevated in the serum. These results confirm the inflammatory response that might be linked to peripheral nervous system complications and encourage the use of IL-6 and IL-8 as prognostic biomarkers in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Action Potentials/drug effects , Acute Disease , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
11.
Int J Med Inform ; 152: 104442, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245977

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When it comes to critical early post-acute TIA/stroke phase, there is a lack of a comprehensive multi-parametric telemonitoring system. The COVID-19 emergency, its related global mobility restrictions and fear of hospitalization further highlighted the need of a comprehensive solution. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to design and test a pragmatic e-Health system based on multiparametric telemonitoring to support of TIA/stroke patients in sub-acute phase during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We proposed a telemonitoring system and protocol for TIA/minor stroke patients during COVID-19 pandemic for patients at risk of stroke recurrence. This system involves the use of portable devices for BP/HR/SpO2/temperature sensing, panic-button, gateway, and a dedicated ICT platform. The protocol is a 14-day multiparametric telemonitoring, therapy, and emergency intervention based on vital sign alteration notifications. We conducted a proof-of-concept validation test on 8 TIA/minor stroke patients in the early post-acute phase (< 14 days from ischemic event). RESULTS: The proposed solution allowed to promptly and remotely identify vital sign alterations at home during the early post-acute phase, allowing therapy and behavioral intervention adjustments. Also, we observed a significant improvement of quality of life, as well as a significant reduction of anxiety and depression status. TUQ showed ease of use, good interface quality and high user satisfaction of the proposed solution. The 3-month follow-up showed total adherence of prescribed therapy and no stroke/TIA recurrence or other emergency department admissions. CONCLUSION: The proposed e-Health solution and telemonitoring protocol may be highly useful for early post-acute remote patient management, thus supporting constant monitoring and patient adherence to the treatment pathway, especially during the COVID-19 emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Stroke , Telemedicine , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
12.
J Neurol ; 268(10): 3569-3573, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130772

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations may be common in COVID-19 patients. They may include several syndromes, such as a suggested autoimmune abnormal response, which may result in encephalitis and new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE). Quickly recognizing such cases and starting the most appropriate therapy is mandatory due to the related rapid worsening and bad outcomes. This case series describes two adult patients admitted to the university hospital and positive to novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who developed drug-resistant status epilepticus. Both patients underwent early electroencephalography (EEG) assessment, which showed a pathological EEG pattern characterized by general slowing, rhythmic activity and continuous epileptic paroxysmal activity. A suspected autoimmune etiology, potentially triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection, encouraged a rapid work-up for a possible autoimmune encephalitis diagnosis. Therapeutic approach included the administration of 0.4 g/kg intravenous immunoglobulin, which resulted in a complete resolution of seizures after 5 and after 10 days, respectively, without adverse effects and followed by a normalization of the EEG patterns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Status Epilepticus , Adult , Electroencephalography , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures , Status Epilepticus/drug therapy
13.
Neuroradiology ; 63(9): 1419-1427, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060974

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The fear of COVID-19 infection may discourage patients from going to the hospital even in case of sudden onset of disabling symptoms. There is growing evidence of the reduction of stroke admissions and higher prevalence of severe clinical presentation. Yet, no studies have investigated the perfusion pattern of acute strokes admitted during the lockdown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on hyper-acute stroke CT perfusion (CTP) pattern during the first months of the pandemic in Italy. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we analyzed CTP images and clinical data of ischemic stroke patients admitted between 9 March and 2 June 2020 that underwent CTP (n = 30), to compare ischemic volumes and clinical features with stroke patients admitted during the same period in 2019 (n = 51). In particular, CTP images were processed to calculate total hypoperfused volumes, core volumes, and mismatch. The final infarct volumes were calculated on follow-up CT. RESULTS: Significantly higher total CTP hypoperfused volume (83.3 vs 18.5 ml, p = 0.003), core volume (27.8 vs 1.0 ml, p < 0.001), and unfavorable mismatch (0.51 vs 0.91, p < 0.001) were found during the COVID-19 period compared to no-COVID-19 one. The more unfavorable perfusion pattern at admission resulted in higher infarct volume on follow-up CT during COVID-19 (35.5 vs 3.0 ml, p < 0.001). During lockdown, a reduction of stroke admissions (- 37%) and a higher prevalence of severe clinical presentation (NIHSS ≥ 10; 53% vs 36%, p = 0.029) were observed. CONCLUSION: The results of CTP analysis provided a better insight in the higher prevalence of major severity stroke patients during the COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Communicable Disease Control , Fear , Humans , Pandemics , Perfusion , Perfusion Imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Int J Biometeorol ; 65(4): 627-630, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915217

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 may increase the risk of heat-related symptoms during hot weather since vulnerable populations, including the elderly and those with neurological disabilities, must continue to self-isolate, often indoors. Within the chronic neurological patient population, indoor conditions in summer months present a hazard because of impaired and/or altered thermoregulation, including poor hydration status due to both autonomic and behavioral dysfunction(s). To address this increased risk, telemedicine protocols should include an assessment of the patient's environmental parameters, and when combined with physiological data from wearable devices, identify those with neurological diseases who are at higher risk of heat illness. Personalized medicine during times of self-isolation must be encouraged, and using smart technology in ambient assisted living solutions, including e-health to monitor physiological parameters are highly recommended, not only during extreme weather conditions but also during times of increased isolation and vulnerability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurology , Aged , Hot Temperature , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 61(3): 452-460, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The worldwide lockdown in response to COVID-19 pandemics has often led to physical inactivity and social distancing. When combined, these factors may affect quality and life and increase the risk of different diseases. Therefore, assessment of physical activity levels should be encouraged to monitor and identify those at a higher risk of inactivity. Smart technology is a promising tool to assess physical activity and health and may be particularly useful during a period of general lockdown. METHODS: An online survey was developed and shared among the Italian general population to collect data about physical activity and daily routine changes between January 2020 and the lockdown period from March 23 to March 29. Participants were asked to provide data such as daily step count (Steps) or heart rate (HR) measured and collected by their smart technology devices. RESULTS: Four hundred participants were included in the final analysis. During the lockdown, the number of steps dropped from 8284±4390 to 3294±3994 steps (P<0.001), while mean peak HR decreased from 61.3±18.2% to 55.9±17.3% (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide objective data about the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on physical activity, thus encouraging the use of smart devices to monitor and promote healthy lifestyles while faced with a confinement condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Fitness Trackers , Mobile Applications , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Surveys , Heart Rate , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic , Pandemics , Sedentary Behavior , Smartphone , Young Adult
16.
J Med Eng Technol ; 44(8): 468-471, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-800821

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemics required a reorganisation of social spaces to prevent the spread of the virus. Due to the common presence of fever in the symptomatic patients, temperature measurement is one of the most common screening protocols. Indeed, regulations in many countries require temperature measurements before entering shops, workplaces, and public buildings. Due to the necessity of providing rapid non-contact and non-invasive protocols to measure body temperature, infra-red thermometry is mostly used. Many countries are now facing the need to organise the return to school and universities in the COVID-19 era, which require solutions to prevent the risk of contagion between students and/or teachers and technical/administrative staff. This paper highlights and discusses some of the strengths and limitations of infra-red cameras, including the site of measurements and the influence of the environment, and recommends to be careful to consider such measurements as a single "safety rule" for a good return to normality.


Subject(s)
Body Temperature/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Schools , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Fever/diagnosis , Humans , Infrared Rays , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thermography
18.
J Neurol Sci ; 414: 116889, 2020 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186519

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemics required several changes in stroke management and it may have influenced some clinical or functional characteristics. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemics on stroke management during the first month of Italy lockdown. In addition, we described the emergency structured pathway adopted by an Italian University Hub Stroke Unit in the cross-border Italy-Slovenia area. METHODS: We analyzed admitted patients' clinical features and outcomes between 9th March 2020 and 9th April 2020 (first month of lockdown), and compared them with patients admitted during the same period in 2019. RESULTS: Total admissions experienced a reduction of 45% during the lockdown compared to the same period in 2019 (16 vs 29, respectively), as well as a higher prevalence of severe stroke (NIHSS>10) at admission (n = 8, 50% vs n = 8, 28%). A dramatic prevalence of stroke of unknown symptom onset was observed in 2020 (n = 8, 50% vs n = 3, 10%). During lockdown, worse functional and independence outcomes were found, despite the similar proportion of reperfused patients. Similar 'symptoms alert-to-admission' and 'door-to-treatment' times were observed. During lockdown hospitalization was shorter and fewer patients completed the stroke work-up. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the adopted strategies for stroke management during the COVID-19 emergency have suggested being effective, while suffering a reduced and delayed reporting of symptoms. Therefore, we recommend raising awareness among the population against possible stroke symptoms onset. Thus, think F.A.S.T. and do not stay-at-home at all costs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Management , Health Services Accessibility , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Stroke/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Clinical Protocols , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delayed Diagnosis , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Fear , Female , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Units , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University/organization & administration , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/mortality , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data
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