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1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 2020573, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799504

ABSTRACT

Limited information is available about post-marketing safety of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines. Using data from SmartVax, an active surveillance system for monitoring vaccine safety, adverse events following immunizations (AEFIs) were compared between the two JE vaccines available in Australia (a chimeric live attenuated vaccine [Imojev] and a Vero cell-derived inactivated vaccine [JEspect]). Data from 2756 patients (1855 Imojev and 901 JEspect) were included. Overall (7.0%), systemic (2.8%), and local (1.9%) AEFIs were uncommon. There were no significant differences in the odds of overall (OR = 1.27; 95%CI: 0.91-1.77), systemic (OR = 1.23; 95%CI: 0.74-2.06), or local (OR = 1.20; 95%CI: 0.65-2.22) AEFIs with Imojev compared to JEspect. There was an increase in odds of overall AEFI in patients aged <5 years (OR = 2.39; 95%CI: 1.10-5.19) compared to those aged >50 years. Both JE vaccines available in Australia are safe and well tolerated. Odds of AEFIs were age-dependent, young children should be carefully observed for AEFIs after vaccination.


Subject(s)
Encephalitis, Japanese , Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines , Animals , Australia , Child , Child, Preschool , Chlorocebus aethiops , Encephalitis, Japanese/prevention & control , Humans , Middle Aged , Vaccines, Attenuated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vero Cells , Watchful Waiting
2.
Z Gesundh Wiss ; 30(11): 2743-2752, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797597

ABSTRACT

Objective: During the coronavirus pandemic lockdowns, general medical complications have received the most attention, and few studies have examined the association between the COVID-19 lockdown and eating disorders (ED). This study aimed to investigate the impact of the coronavirus lockdowns on ED symptoms severity and summarize factors associated with lockdowns that led to changes in eating disorders. Method: PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies measuring the impact of coronavirus lockdowns on ED symptoms. Results: A total of 132 studies were retrieved, after abstract screening and removal of duplicates, 21 papers were full-text screened, and 11 eligible papers were identified. Factors associated with symptomatic deterioration in ED patients during COVID-19 lockdowns included disruption of lifestyle routine, social isolation, reduced access to usual support networks, limited or no access to healthcare and mental care services, and social anxiety. Discussion: Overall, the pandemic lockdowns were associated with worsening of eating disorders.This triggering environment can lead to increased anxiety and depression symptoms, change in dietary habits, and eventually result in worsening eating disorder symptoms.

3.
Pathog Glob Health ; 116(5): 269-281, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662085

ABSTRACT

This study aims to estimate the prevalence and longevity of detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and T and B memory cells after recovery. In addition, the prevalence of COVID-19 reinfection and the preventive efficacy of previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 were investigated. A synthesis of existing research was conducted. The Cochrane Library, the China Academic Journals Full Text Database, PubMed, and Scopus, and preprint servers were searched for studies conducted between 1 January 2020 to 1 April 2021. Included studies were assessed for methodological quality and pooled estimates of relevant outcomes were obtained in a meta-analysis using a bias adjusted synthesis method. Proportions were synthesized with the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation and binary outcomes using the odds ratio (OR). Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 and Cochran's Q statistics and publication bias was assessed using Doi plots. Fifty-four studies from 18 countries, with around 12,000,000 individuals, followed up to 8 months after recovery, were included. At 6-8 months after recovery, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 specific immunological memory remained high; IgG - 90.4% (95%CI 72.2-99.9, I2 = 89.0%), CD4+ - 91.7% (95%CI 78.2-97.1y), and memory B cells 80.6% (95%CI 65.0-90.2) and the pooled prevalence of reinfection was 0.2% (95%CI 0.0-0.7, I2 = 98.8). Individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 had an 81% reduction in odds of a reinfection (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.1-0.3, I2 = 90.5%). Around 90% of recovered individuals had evidence of immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2, at 6-8 months after recovery and had a low risk of reinfection.RegistrationPROSPERO: CRD42020201234.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Reinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23775, 2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565730

ABSTRACT

Early warning tools are crucial for the timely application of intervention strategies and the mitigation of the adverse health, social and economic effects associated with outbreaks of epidemic potential such as COVID-19. This paper introduces, the Epidemic Volatility Index (EVI), a new, conceptually simple, early warning tool for oncoming epidemic waves. EVI is based on the volatility of newly reported cases per unit of time, ideally per day, and issues an early warning when the volatility change rate exceeds a threshold. Data on the daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 are used to demonstrate the use of EVI. Results from the COVID-19 epidemic in Italy and New York State are presented here, based on the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19, from January 22, 2020, until April 13, 2021. Live daily updated predictions for all world countries and each of the United States of America are publicly available online. For Italy, the overall sensitivity for EVI was 0.82 (95% Confidence Intervals: 0.75; 0.89) and the specificity was 0.91 (0.88; 0.94). For New York, the corresponding values were 0.55 (0.47; 0.64) and 0.88 (0.84; 0.91). Consecutive issuance of early warnings is a strong indicator of main epidemic waves in any country or state. EVI's application to data from the current COVID-19 pandemic revealed a consistent and stable performance in terms of detecting new waves. The application of EVI to other epidemics and syndromic surveillance tasks in combination with existing early warning systems will enhance our ability to act swiftly and thereby enhance containment of outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , New York/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Time Factors
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 753493, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551555

ABSTRACT

Accurate and current information has been highlighted across the globe as a critical requirement for the COVID-19 pandemic response. To address this need, many interactive dashboards providing a range of different information about COVID-19 have been developed. A similar tool in Australia containing current information about COVID-19 could assist general practitioners and public health responders in their pandemic response efforts. The COVID-19 Real-time Information System for Preparedness and Epidemic Response (CRISPER) has been developed to provide accurate and spatially explicit real-time information for COVID-19 cases, deaths, testing and contact tracing locations in Australia. Developed based on feedback from key users and stakeholders, the system comprises three main components: (1) a data engine; (2) data visualization and interactive mapping tools; and (3) an automated alert system. This system provides integrated data from multiple sources in one platform which optimizes information sharing with public health responders, primary health care practitioners and the general public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Australia/epidemiology , Humans , Information Systems , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e193, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366777

ABSTRACT

There is a paucity of evidence about the prevalence and risk factors for symptomatic infection among children. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its risk factors in children and adolescents aged 0-18 years in Qatar. We conducted a cross-sectional study of all children aged 0-18 years diagnosed with COVID-19 using polymerase chain reaction in Qatar during the period 1st March to 31st July 2020. A generalised linear model with a binomial family and identity link was used to assess the association between selected factors and the prevalence of symptomatic infection. A total of 11 445 children with a median age of 8 years (interquartile range (IQR) 3-13 years) were included in this study. The prevalence of symptomatic COVID-19 was 36.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 35.7-37.5), and it was similar between children aged <5 years (37.8%), 5-9 years (34.3%) and 10 + years (37.3%). The most frequently reported symptoms among the symptomatic group were fever (73.5%), cough (34.8%), headache (23.2%) and sore throat (23.2%). Fever (82.8%) was more common in symptomatic children aged <5 years, while cough (38.7%) was more prevalent in those aged 10 years or older, compared to other age groups. Variables associated with an increased risk of symptomatic infection were; contact with confirmed cases (RD 0.21; 95% CI 0.20-0.23; P = 0.001), having visited a health care facility (RD 0.54; 95% CI 0.45-0.62; P = 0.001), and children aged under 5 years (RD 0.05; 95% CI 0.02-0.07; P = 0.001) or aged 10 years or older (RD 0.04; 95% CI 0.02-0.06; P = 0.001). A third of the children with COVID-19 were symptomatic with a higher proportion of fever in very young children and a higher proportion of cough in those between 10 and 18 years of age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Qatar/epidemiology , Risk Factors
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046206, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356940

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The increase in international travel brought about by globalisation has enabled the rapid spread of emerging pathogens with epidemic and pandemic potential. While travel connectivity-based assessments may help understand patterns of travel network-mediated epidemics, such approaches are rarely carried out in sufficient detail for Oceania where air travel is the dominant method of transportation between countries. DESIGN: Travel data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, Stats NZ and the United Nations World Tourism Organization websites were used to calculate travel volumes in 2018 within Oceania and between Oceania and the rest of the world. The Infectious Disease Vulnerability Index (IDVI) was incorporated into the analysis as an indicator of each country's capacity to contain an outbreak. Travel networks were developed to assess the spread of infectious diseases (1) into and from Oceania, (2) within Oceania and (3) between each of the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) and their most connected countries. RESULTS: Oceania was highly connected to countries in Asia, Europe and North America. Australia, New Zealand and several PICTs were highly connected to the USA and the UK (least vulnerable countries for outbreaks based on the IDVI), and to China (intermediate low vulnerable country). High variability was also observed between the PICTs in the geographical distribution of their international connections. The PICTs with the highest number of international connections were Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam and Papua New Guinea. CONCLUSION: Travel connectivity assessments may help to accurately stratify the risk of infectious disease importation and outbreaks in countries depending on disease transmission in other parts of the world. This information is essential to track future requirements for scaling up and targeting outbreak surveillance and control strategies in Oceania.


Subject(s)
Air Travel , Communicable Diseases , Australia/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Travel
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