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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0155321, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759307

ABSTRACT

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection is generally known for many viruses. A potential risk of ADE in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has also been discussed since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic; however, clinical evidence of the presence of antibodies with ADE potential is limited. Here, we show that ADE antibodies are produced by SARS-CoV-2 infection and the ADE process can be mediated by at least two different host factors, Fcγ receptor (FcγR) and complement component C1q. Of 89 serum samples collected from acute or convalescent COVID-19 patients, 62.9% were found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG. FcγR- and/or C1q-mediated ADE were detected in 50% of the IgG-positive sera, whereas most of them showed neutralizing activity in the absence of FcγR and C1q. Importantly, ADE antibodies were found in 41.4% of the acute COVID-19 patients. Neutralizing activity was also detected in most of the IgG-positive sera, but it was counteracted by ADE in subneutralizing conditions in the presence of FcγR or C1q. Although the clinical importance of ADE needs to be further investigated with larger numbers of COVID-19 patient samples, our data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 utilizes multiple mechanisms of ADE. C1q-mediated ADE may particularly have a clinical impact since C1q is present at high concentrations in plasma and its receptors are ubiquitously expressed on the surfaces of many types of cells, including respiratory epithelial cells, which SARS-CoV-2 primarily infects. IMPORTANCE Potential risks of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been discussed and the proposed mechanism mostly depends on the Fc gamma receptor (FcγR). However, since FcγRs are exclusively expressed on immune cells, which are not primary targets of SARS-CoV-2, the clinical importance of ADE of SARS-CoV-2 infection remains controversial. Our study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces antibodies that increase SARS-CoV-2 infection through another ADE mechanism in which complement component C1q mediates the enhancement. Although neutralizing activity was also detected in the serum samples, it was counteracted by ADE in the presence of FcγR or C1q. Considering the ubiquity of C1q and its cellular receptors, C1q-mediated ADE may more likely occur in respiratory epithelial cells, which SARS-CoV-2 primarily infects. Our data highlight the importance of careful monitoring of the antibody properties in COVID-19 convalescent and vaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
Antibody-Dependent Enhancement , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Complement C1q , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Receptors, IgG , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742755

ABSTRACT

The continued progression of the COVID-19 pandemic can partly be attributed to the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to mutate and introduce new viral variants. Some of these variants with the potential to spread quickly and conquer the globe are termed variants of concern (VOC). The existing vaccines implemented on a global scale are based on the ancestral strain, which has resulted in increased numbers of breakthrough infections as these VOC have emerged. It is imperative to show protection against VOC infection with newly developed vaccines. Previously, we evaluated two vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein alone (VSV-SARS2) or in combination with the Ebola virus glycoprotein (VSV-SARS2-EBOV) and demonstrated their fast-acting potential. Here, we prolonged the time to challenge; we vaccinated hamsters intranasally (IN) or intramuscularly 28 days prior to infection with three SARS-CoV-2 VOC-the Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants. IN vaccination with either the VSV-SARS2 or VSV-SARS2-EBOV resulted in the highest protective efficacy as demonstrated by decreased virus shedding and lung viral load of vaccinated hamsters. Histopathologic analysis of the lungs revealed the least amount of lung damage in the IN-vaccinated animals regardless of the challenge virus. This data demonstrates the ability of a VSV-based vaccine to not only protect from disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 VOC but also reduce viral shedding.

3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 788235, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650090

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in global effects on human health, economic stability, and social norms. The emergence of viral variants raises concerns about the efficacy of existing vaccines and highlights the continued need for the development of efficient, fast-acting, and cost-effective vaccines. Here, we demonstrate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of two vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein either alone (VSV-SARS2) or in combination with the Ebola virus glycoprotein (VSV-SARS2-EBOV). Intranasally vaccinated hamsters showed an early CD8+ T cell response in the lungs and a greater antigen-specific IgG response, while intramuscularly vaccinated hamsters had an early CD4+ T cell and NK cell response. Intranasal vaccination resulted in protection within 10 days with hamsters not showing clinical signs of pneumonia when challenged with three different SARS-CoV-2 variants. This data demonstrates that VSV-based vaccines are viable single-dose, fast-acting vaccine candidates that are protective from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ebolavirus/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Ebolavirus/genetics , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Plasmids , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Vero Cells , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics
4.
Vaccine X ; : 100126, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500106

ABSTRACT

The speed at which several COVID-19 vaccines went from conception to receiving FDA and EMA approval for emergency use is an achievement unrivaled in the history of vaccine development. Mass vaccination efforts using the highly effective vaccines are currently underway to generate sufficient herd immunity and reduce transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Despite the most advanced vaccine technology, global recipient coverage, especially in resource-poor areas remains a challenge as genetic drift in naïve population pockets threatens overall vaccine efficacy. In this study, we described the production of insect-cell expressed SARS-CoV-2 spike protein ectodomain constructs and examined their immunogenicity in mice. We demonstrated that, when formulated with CoVaccine HTTM adjuvant, an oil-in-water nanoemulsion compatible with lyophilization, our vaccine candidates elicit a broad-spectrum IgG response, high neutralizing antibody (NtAb) titers against SARS-CoV-2 prototype and variants of concern, specifically B.1.351 (Beta) and P.1. (Gamma), and an antigen-specific IFN-γ secreting response in outbred mice. Of note, different ectodomain constructs yielded variations in NtAb titers against the prototype strain and some VOC. Dose response experiments indicated that NtAb titers increased with antigen dose, but not adjuvant dose, and may be higher with a lower adjuvant dose. Our findings lay the immunological foundation for the development of a dry-thermostabilized vaccine that is deployable without refrigeration.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(6)2021 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282654

ABSTRACT

Ebola virus (EBOV) is the cause of sporadic outbreaks of human hemorrhagic disease in Africa, and the best-characterized virus in the filovirus family. The West African epidemic accelerated the clinical development of vaccines and therapeutics, leading to licensure of vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics for human use in recent years. The most widely used vaccine is based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) (VSV-EBOV). Due to its favorable immune cell targeting, this vaccine has also been used as a base vector for the development of second generation VSV-based vaccines against Influenza, Nipah, and Zika viruses. However, in these situations, it may be beneficial if the immunogenicity against EBOV GP is minimized to induce a better protective immune response against the other foreign immunogen. Here, we analyzed if EBOV GP can be truncated to be less immunogenic, yet still able to drive replication of the vaccine vector. We found that the EBOV GP glycan cap and the mucin-like domain are both dispensable for VSV-EBOV replication. The glycan cap, however, appears critical for mediating a protective immune response against lethal EBOV challenge in mice.

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