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Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873993


OBJECTIVES: To assess immunogenicity of a heterologous 4th dose of a mRNA (BNT162b2) SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) patients with poor/non-response to inactivated vaccine (Sinovac-CoronaVac). METHODS: 164 ARD patients who were COVID-19 poor/non-responders (negative anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG and/or neutralising antibodies-NAb) to the 3rd dose of Sinovac-CoronaVac received an additional heterologous dose of mRNA (BNT162b2) three months after last dose. IgG and NAb were evaluated before and after the 4th dose. RESULTS: Significant increases were observed after 4th dose in IgG (66.4% vs 95.1%, p< 0.001), NAb positivity (5.5% vs 83.5%, p< 0.001) and GMT (29.5 vs 215.8 AU/ml, p< 0.001), and 28 (17.1%) remained poor/non-responders. Patients with negative IgG after 4th dose were more frequently under rituximab (p= 0.001). Negative NAb was associated with older age (p= 0.015), rheumatoid arthritis (p= 0.002), systemic sclerosis (p= 0.026), leflunomide (p= 0.016), and rituximab use (p= 0.007). In multiple logistic regression analysis, prednisone dose ≥7.5 mg/day (OR = 0.34; p= 0.047), leflunomide (OR = 0.32, p= 0.036) and rituximab use (OR = 0.19, p= 0.022) were independently associated with negative NAb after the 4th vaccine dose. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study to provide evidence of a remarkable humoral response after the 4th dose of heterologous mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in ARD patients with poor/no-response to the 3rd dose of an inactivated vaccine. We further identified that treatment, particularly rituximab and prednisone, impaired antibody response to this additional dose. TRIAL REGISTRATION:,, CoronavRheum #NCT04754698.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e3547, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574414


OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with high mortality among hospitalized patients and incurs high costs. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection can trigger both inflammatory and thrombotic processes, and these complications can lead to a poorer prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the association and temporal trends of D-dimer and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels with the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), hospital mortality, and costs among inpatients with COVID-19. METHODS: Data were extracted from electronic patient records and laboratory databases. Crude and adjusted associations for age, sex, number of comorbidities, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score at admission, and D-dimer or CRP logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations. RESULTS: Between March and June 2020, COVID-19 was documented in 3,254 inpatients. The D-dimer level ≥4,000 ng/mL fibrinogen equivalent unit (FEU) mortality odds ratio (OR) was 4.48 (adjusted OR: 1.97). The CRP level ≥220 mg/dL OR for death was 7.73 (adjusted OR: 3.93). The D-dimer level ≥4,000 ng/mL FEU VTE OR was 3.96 (adjusted OR: 3.26). The CRP level ≥220 mg/dL OR for VTE was 2.71 (adjusted OR: 1.92). All these analyses were statistically significant (p<0.001). Stratified hospital costs demonstrated a dose-response pattern. Adjusted D-dimer and CRP levels were associated with higher mortality and doubled hospital costs. In the first week, elevated D-dimer levels predicted VTE occurrence and systemic inflammatory harm, while CRP was a hospital mortality predictor. CONCLUSION: D-dimer and CRP levels were associated with higher hospital mortality and a higher incidence of VTE. D-dimer was more strongly associated with VTE, although its discriminative ability was poor, while CRP was a stronger predictor of hospital mortality. Their use outside the usual indications should not be modified and should be discouraged.

Biomarkers , COVID-19 , Biomarkers/analysis , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Prospective Studies , Receptors, Immunologic/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
Nat Med ; 27(10): 1744-1751, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526090


CoronaVac, an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, has been approved for emergency use in several countries. However, its immunogenicity in immunocompromised individuals has not been well established. We initiated a prospective phase 4 controlled trial (no. NCT04754698, CoronavRheum) in 910 adults with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) and 182 age- and sex-frequency-matched healthy adults (control group, CG), who received two doses of CoronaVac. The primary outcomes were reduction of ≥15% in both anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroconversion (SC) and neutralizing antibody (NAb) positivity 6 weeks (day 69 (D69)) after the second dose in the ARD group compared with that in the CG. Secondary outcomes were IgG SC and NAb positivity at D28, IgG titers and neutralizing activity at D28 and D69 and vaccine safety. Prespecified endpoints were met, with lower anti-SARS-Cov-2 IgG SC (70.4 versus 95.5%, P < 0.001) and NAb positivity (56.3 versus 79.3%, P < 0.001) at D69 in the ARD group than in the CG. Moreover, IgG titers (12.1 versus 29.7, P < 0.001) and median neutralization activity (58.7 versus 64.5%, P = 0.013) were also lower at D69 in patients with ARD. At D28, patients with ARD presented with lower IgG frequency (18.7 versus 34.6%, P < 0.001) and NAb positivity (20.6 versus 36.3%, P < 0.001) than that of the CG. There were no moderate/severe adverse events. These data support the use of CoronaVac in patients with ARD, suggesting reduced but acceptable short-term immunogenicity. The trial is still ongoing to evaluate the long-term effectiveness/immunogenicity.

Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged