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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(21): 2144-2152, 2022 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859823

ABSTRACT

A 60-year-old woman with a past medical history of asthma presented with fulminant myocarditis 9 days after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 16 days after developing symptoms consistent with COVID-19. Her hospital course was complicated by the need for veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ventricular arrhythmias, and pseudomonas bacteremia. She ultimately recovered and was discharged to home with normal left ventricular systolic function. Thereafter, she developed symptomatic ventricular tachycardia, for which she received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and antiarrhythmic drug therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Myocarditis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , COVID-19/complications , Critical Pathways , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
JACC Case Rep ; 4(10): 567-575, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763790

ABSTRACT

A 60-year-old woman with a past medical history of asthma presented with fulminant myocarditis 9 days after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 16 days after developing symptoms consistent with COVID-19. Her hospital course was complicated by the need for veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ventricular arrhythmias, and pseudomonas bacteremia. She ultimately recovered and was discharged to home with normal left ventricular systolic function. Thereafter, she developed symptomatic ventricular tachycardia, for which she received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and antiarrhythmic drug therapy.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(9): 917-928, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706820

ABSTRACT

Clinical, laboratory, and autopsy findings support an association between coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and thromboembolic disease. Acute COVID-19 infection is characterized by mononuclear cell reactivity and pan-endothelialitis, contributing to a high incidence of thrombosis in large and small blood vessels, both arterial and venous. Observational studies and randomized trials have investigated whether full-dose anticoagulation may improve outcomes compared with prophylactic dose heparin. Although no benefit for therapeutic heparin has been found in patients who are critically ill hospitalized with COVID-19, some studies support a possible role for therapeutic anticoagulation in patients not yet requiring intensive care unit support. We summarize the pathology, rationale, and current evidence for use of anticoagulation in patients with COVID-19 and describe the main design elements of the ongoing FREEDOM COVID-19 Anticoagulation trial, in which 3,600 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 not requiring intensive care unit level of care are being randomized to prophylactic-dose enoxaparin vs therapeutic-dose enoxaparin vs therapeutic-dose apixaban. (FREEDOM COVID-19 Anticoagulation Strategy [FREEDOM COVID]; NCT04512079).


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Thrombosis/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Thromboembolism/virology , Thrombosis/virology
4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(8): 1139-1140, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440139
5.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 7(5): 438-446, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377964

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To evaluate the acute and chronic patterns of myocardial injury among patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), and their mid-term outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who had a hospital encounter within the Mount Sinai Health System (New York City) between 27 February 2020 and 15 October 2020 were evaluated for inclusion. Troponin levels assessed between 72 h before and 48 h after the COVID-19 diagnosis were used to stratify the study population by the presence of acute and chronic myocardial injury, as defined by the Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction. Among 4695 patients, those with chronic myocardial injury (n = 319, 6.8%) had more comorbidities, including chronic kidney disease and heart failure, while acute myocardial injury (n = 1168, 24.9%) was more associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers. Both types of myocardial injury were strongly associated with impaired survival at 6 months [chronic: hazard ratio (HR) 4.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.44-5.06; acute: HR 4.72, 95% CI 4.14-5.36], even after excluding events occurring in the first 30 days (chronic: HR 3.97, 95% CI 2.15-7.33; acute: HR 4.13, 95% CI 2.75-6.21). The mortality risk was not significantly different in patients with acute as compared with chronic myocardial injury (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.94-1.36), except for a worse prognostic impact of acute myocardial injury in patients <65 years of age (P-interaction = 0.043) and in those without coronary artery disease (P-interaction = 0.041). CONCLUSION: Chronic and acute myocardial injury represent two distinctive patterns of cardiac involvement among COVID-19 patients. While both types of myocardial injury are associated with impaired survival at 6 months, mortality rates peak in the early phase of the infection but remain elevated even beyond 30 days during the convalescent phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Troponin/analysis , Acute Disease/epidemiology , Acute Disease/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/mortality , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , New York City/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(10): 1001-1011, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371478

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) can progress to an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which involves alveolar infiltration by activated neutrophils. The beta-blocker metoprolol has been shown to ameliorate exacerbated inflammation in the myocardial infarction setting. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of metoprolol on alveolar inflammation and on respiratory function in patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS. METHODS: A total of 20 COVID-19 patients with ARDS on invasive mechanical ventilation were randomized to metoprolol (15 mg daily for 3 days) or control (no treatment). All patients underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) before and after metoprolol/control. The safety of metoprolol administration was evaluated by invasive hemodynamic and electrocardiogram monitoring and echocardiography. RESULTS: Metoprolol administration was without side effects. At baseline, neutrophil content in BAL did not differ between groups. Conversely, patients randomized to metoprolol had significantly fewer neutrophils in BAL on day 4 (median: 14.3 neutrophils/µl [Q1, Q3: 4.63, 265 neutrophils/µl] vs median: 397 neutrophils/µl [Q1, Q3: 222, 1,346 neutrophils/µl] in the metoprolol and control groups, respectively; P = 0.016). Metoprolol also reduced neutrophil extracellular traps content and other markers of lung inflammation. Oxygenation (PaO2:FiO2) significantly improved after 3 days of metoprolol treatment (median: 130 [Q1, Q3: 110, 162] vs median: 267 [Q1, Q3: 199, 298] at baseline and day 4, respectively; P = 0.003), whereas it remained unchanged in control subjects. Metoprolol-treated patients spent fewer days on invasive mechanical ventilation than those in the control group (15.5 ± 7.6 vs 21.9 ± 12.6 days; P = 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot trial, intravenous metoprolol administration to patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS was safe, reduced exacerbated lung inflammation, and improved oxygenation. Repurposing metoprolol for COVID-19-associated ARDS appears to be a safe and inexpensive strategy that can alleviate the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Critical Illness/therapy , Metoprolol/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies
7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(25): 3226-3227, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274286
8.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 7(9): 1120-1130, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198841

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to determine the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). BACKGROUND: COVID-19 results in increased inflammatory markers previously associated with atrial arrhythmias. However, little is known about their incidence or specificity in COVID-19 or their association with outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 3,970 patients admitted with polymerase chain reaction-positive COVID-19 between February 4 and April 22, 2020, with manual review performed of 1,110. The comparator arm included 1,420 patients with influenza hospitalized between January 1, 2017, and January 1, 2020. RESULTS: Among 3,970 inpatients with COVID-19, the incidence of AF/AFL was 10% (n = 375) and in patients without a history of atrial arrhythmias it was 4% (n = 146). Patients with new-onset AF/AFL were older with increased inflammatory markers including interleukin 6 (93 vs. 68 pg/ml; p < 0.01), and more myocardial injury (troponin-I: 0.2 vs. 0.06 ng/ml; p < 0.01). AF and AFL were associated with increased mortality (46% vs. 26%; p < 0.01). Manual review captured a somewhat higher incidence of AF/AFL (13%, n = 140). Compared to inpatients with COVID-19, patients with influenza (n = 1,420) had similar rates of AF/AFL (12%, n = 163) but lower mortality. The presence of AF/AFL correlated with similarly increased mortality in both COVID-19 (relative risk: 1.77) and influenza (relative risk: 1.78). CONCLUSIONS: AF/AFL occurs in a subset of patients hospitalized with either COVID-19 or influenza and is associated with inflammation and disease severity in both infections. The incidence and associated increase in mortality in both cohorts suggests that AF/AFL is not specific to COVID-19, but is rather a generalized response to the systemic inflammation of severe viral illnesses.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(1): 151-160, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early reports indicate that AKI is common among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and associated with worse outcomes. However, AKI among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in the United States is not well described. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study involved a review of data from electronic health records of patients aged ≥18 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the Mount Sinai Health System from February 27 to May 30, 2020. We describe the frequency of AKI and dialysis requirement, AKI recovery, and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with mortality. RESULTS: Of 3993 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, AKI occurred in 1835 (46%) patients; 347 (19%) of the patients with AKI required dialysis. The proportions with stages 1, 2, or 3 AKI were 39%, 19%, and 42%, respectively. A total of 976 (24%) patients were admitted to intensive care, and 745 (76%) experienced AKI. Of the 435 patients with AKI and urine studies, 84% had proteinuria, 81% had hematuria, and 60% had leukocyturia. Independent predictors of severe AKI were CKD, men, and higher serum potassium at admission. In-hospital mortality was 50% among patients with AKI versus 8% among those without AKI (aOR, 9.2; 95% confidence interval, 7.5 to 11.3). Of survivors with AKI who were discharged, 35% had not recovered to baseline kidney function by the time of discharge. An additional 28 of 77 (36%) patients who had not recovered kidney function at discharge did so on posthospital follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: AKI is common among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and is associated with high mortality. Of all patients with AKI, only 30% survived with recovery of kidney function by the time of discharge.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/urine , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hematuria/etiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, Private/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Inpatients , Leukocytes , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Proteinuria/etiology , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Urine/cytology
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e24018, 2020 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has infected millions of people worldwide and is responsible for several hundred thousand fatalities. The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated thoughtful resource allocation and early identification of high-risk patients. However, effective methods to meet these needs are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to analyze the electronic health records (EHRs) of patients who tested positive for COVID-19 and were admitted to hospitals in the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City; to develop machine learning models for making predictions about the hospital course of the patients over clinically meaningful time horizons based on patient characteristics at admission; and to assess the performance of these models at multiple hospitals and time points. METHODS: We used Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) and baseline comparator models to predict in-hospital mortality and critical events at time windows of 3, 5, 7, and 10 days from admission. Our study population included harmonized EHR data from five hospitals in New York City for 4098 COVID-19-positive patients admitted from March 15 to May 22, 2020. The models were first trained on patients from a single hospital (n=1514) before or on May 1, externally validated on patients from four other hospitals (n=2201) before or on May 1, and prospectively validated on all patients after May 1 (n=383). Finally, we established model interpretability to identify and rank variables that drive model predictions. RESULTS: Upon cross-validation, the XGBoost classifier outperformed baseline models, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) for mortality of 0.89 at 3 days, 0.85 at 5 and 7 days, and 0.84 at 10 days. XGBoost also performed well for critical event prediction, with an AUC-ROC of 0.80 at 3 days, 0.79 at 5 days, 0.80 at 7 days, and 0.81 at 10 days. In external validation, XGBoost achieved an AUC-ROC of 0.88 at 3 days, 0.86 at 5 days, 0.86 at 7 days, and 0.84 at 10 days for mortality prediction. Similarly, the unimputed XGBoost model achieved an AUC-ROC of 0.78 at 3 days, 0.79 at 5 days, 0.80 at 7 days, and 0.81 at 10 days. Trends in performance on prospective validation sets were similar. At 7 days, acute kidney injury on admission, elevated LDH, tachypnea, and hyperglycemia were the strongest drivers of critical event prediction, while higher age, anion gap, and C-reactive protein were the strongest drivers of mortality prediction. CONCLUSIONS: We externally and prospectively trained and validated machine learning models for mortality and critical events for patients with COVID-19 at different time horizons. These models identified at-risk patients and uncovered underlying relationships that predicted outcomes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Machine Learning/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Electronic Health Records , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(11): e008920, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who develop cardiac injury are reported to experience higher rates of malignant cardiac arrhythmias. However, little is known about these arrhythmias-their frequency, the underlying mechanisms, and their impact on mortality. METHODS: We extracted data from a registry (NCT04358029) regarding consecutive inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 who were receiving continuous telemetric ECG monitoring and had a definitive disposition of hospital discharge or death. Between patients who died versus discharged, we compared a primary composite end point of cardiac arrest from ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation or bradyarrhythmias such as atrioventricular block. RESULTS: Among 800 patients with COVID-19 at Mount Sinai Hospital with definitive dispositions, 140 patients had telemetric monitoring, and either died (52) or were discharged (88). The median (interquartile range) age was 61 years (48-74); 73% men; and ethnicity was White in 34%. Comorbidities included hypertension in 61%, coronary artery disease in 25%, ventricular arrhythmia history in 1.4%, and no significant comorbidities in 16%. Compared with discharged patients, those who died had elevated peak troponin I levels (0.27 versus 0.02 ng/mL) and more primary end point events (17% versus 4%, P=0.01)-a difference driven by tachyarrhythmias. Fatal tachyarrhythmias invariably occurred in the presence of severe metabolic imbalance, while atrioventricular block was largely an independent primary event. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who die experience malignant cardiac arrhythmias more often than those surviving to discharge. However, these events represent a minority of cardiovascular deaths, and ventricular tachyarrhythmias are mainly associated with severe metabolic derangement. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04358029.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Heart Rate , Action Potentials , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prognosis , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Young Adult
12.
Cancer Cell ; 38(5): 594-597, 2020 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972295

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), like cancer, is a complex disease with clinical phases of progression. Initially conceptualized as a respiratory disease, COVID-19 is increasingly recognized as a multi-organ and heterogeneous illness. Disease staging is a method for measuring the progression and severity of an illness using objective clinical and molecular criteria. Integral to cancer staging is "metastasis," defined as the spread of a disease-producing agent, including neoplastic cells and pathogens such as certain viruses, from the primary site to distinct anatomic locations. Staging provides valuable frameworks and benchmarks for clinical decision-making in patient management, improved prognostication, and evidence-based treatment selection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Inflammation/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(20): 2334-2348, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899039

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with pre-existing heart failure (HF) are likely at higher risk for adverse outcomes in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), but data on this population are sparse. OBJECTIVES: This study described the clinical profile and associated outcomes among patients with HF hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: This study conducted a retrospective analysis of 6,439 patients admitted for COVID-19 at 1 of 5 Mount Sinai Health System hospitals in New York City between February 27 and June 26, 2020. Clinical characteristics and outcomes (length of stay, need for intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital mortality) were captured from electronic health records. For patients identified as having a history of HF by International Classification of Diseases-9th and/or 10th Revisions codes, manual chart abstraction informed etiology, functional class, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). RESULTS: Mean age was 63.5 years, and 45% were women. Compared with patients without HF, those with previous HF experienced longer length of stay (8 days vs. 6 days; p < 0.001), increased risk of mechanical ventilation (22.8% vs. 11.9%; adjusted odds ratio: 3.64; 95% confidence interval: 2.56 to 5.16; p < 0.001), and mortality (40.0% vs. 24.9%; adjusted odds ratio: 1.88; 95% confidence interval: 1.27 to 2.78; p = 0.002). Outcomes among patients with HF were similar, regardless of LVEF or renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitor use. CONCLUSIONS: History of HF was associated with higher risk of mechanical ventilation and mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, regardless of LVEF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Heart Failure , Hospitalization , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(17): 2011-2023, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872170

ABSTRACT

The cardiovascular system is affected broadly by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Both direct viral infection and indirect injury resulting from inflammation, endothelial activation, and microvascular thrombosis occur in the context of coronavirus disease 2019. What determines the extent of cardiovascular injury is the amount of viral inoculum, the magnitude of the host immune response, and the presence of co-morbidities. Myocardial injury occurs in approximately one-quarter of hospitalized patients and is associated with a greater need for mechanical ventilator support and higher hospital mortality. The central pathophysiology underlying cardiovascular injury is the interplay between virus binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor and the impact this action has on the renin-angiotensin system, the body's innate immune response, and the vascular response to cytokine production. The purpose of this review was to describe the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular injury, including that of thromboembolic disease and arrhythmia, and to discuss their clinical sequelae.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(17): 1999-2010, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872169

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a new coronavirus disease (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) has raised global concerns regarding the health and safety of a vulnerable population. Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) incites a profound inflammatory response leading to tissue injury and organ failure. COVID-19 is characterized by the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and thrombosis. The clinical syndrome is propelled by inflammation producing acute lung injury, large-vessel thrombosis, and in situ microthrombi that may contribute to organ failure. Myocardial injury is common, but true myocarditis is rare. Elderly patients, those with established cardiovascular disease, and mechanically ventilated patients face the highest mortality risk. Therapies for COVID-19 are evolving. The antiviral drug remdesivir, dexamethasone, transfusion of convalescent plasma, and use of antithrombotic therapy are promising. Most require additional prospective studies. Although most patients recover, those who survive severe illness may experience persistent physical and psychological disabilities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(17): 2024-2035, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872167

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic exposes unexpected cardiovascular vulnerabilities and the need to improve cardiometabolic health. Four cardiometabolic drivers-abnormal adiposity, dysglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension-are examined in the context of COVID-19. Specific recommendations are provided for lifestyle change, despite social distancing restrictions, and pharmacotherapy, particularly for those with diabetes. Inpatient recommendations emphasize diligent and exclusive use of insulin to avert hyperglycemia in the face of hypercytokinemia and potential islet cell injury. Continuation of statins is advised, but initiating statin therapy to treat COVID-19 is as yet unsubstantiated by the evidence. The central role of the renin-angiotensin system is discussed. Research, knowledge, and practice gaps are analyzed with the intent to motivate prompt action. An emerging model of COVID-related cardiometabolic syndrome encompassing events before, during the acute phase, and subsequently in the chronic phase is presented to guide preventive measures and improve overall cardiometabolic health so future viral pandemics confer less threat.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Humans , Metabolic Syndrome/prevention & control , Pandemics
19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(16): 1815-1826, 2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-849705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thromboembolic disease is common in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). There is limited evidence on the association of in-hospital anticoagulation (AC) with outcomes and postmortem findings. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine association of AC with in-hospital outcomes and describe thromboembolic findings on autopsies. METHODS: This retrospective analysis examined the association of AC with mortality, intubation, and major bleeding. Subanalyses were also conducted on the association of therapeutic versus prophylactic AC initiated ≤48 h from admission. Thromboembolic disease was contextualized by premortem AC among consecutive autopsies. RESULTS: Among 4,389 patients, median age was 65 years with 44% women. Compared with no AC (n = 1,530; 34.9%), therapeutic AC (n = 900; 20.5%) and prophylactic AC (n = 1,959; 44.6%) were associated with lower in-hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45 to 0.62 and aHR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.57, respectively), and intubation (aHR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.94 and aHR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.58 to 0.89, respectively). When initiated ≤48 h from admission, there was no statistically significant difference between therapeutic (n = 766) versus prophylactic AC (n = 1,860) (aHR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.73 to 1.02; p = 0.08). Overall, 89 patients (2%) had major bleeding adjudicated by clinician review, with 27 of 900 (3.0%) on therapeutic, 33 of 1,959 (1.7%) on prophylactic, and 29 of 1,530 (1.9%) on no AC. Of 26 autopsies, 11 (42%) had thromboembolic disease not clinically suspected and 3 of 11 (27%) were on therapeutic AC. CONCLUSIONS: AC was associated with lower mortality and intubation among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Compared with prophylactic AC, therapeutic AC was associated with lower mortality, although not statistically significant. Autopsies revealed frequent thromboembolic disease. These data may inform trials to determine optimal AC regimens.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Autopsy/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Thromboembolism , Aged , Anticoagulants/classification , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , New York City/epidemiology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Risk Adjustment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/mortality , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/virology
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