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1.
Kidney360 ; 2(12): 1917-1927, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789955

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with ESKD on maintenance dialysis receive dialysis in common spaces with other patients and have a higher risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infections. They may have persistently or intermittently positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests after infection. We describe the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the serologic response in a convenience sample of patients with ESKD to understand the duration of infectivity. Methods: From August to November 2020, we enrolled patients on maintenance dialysis with SARS-CoV-2 infections from outpatient dialysis facilities in Atlanta, Georgia. We followed participants for approximately 42 days. We assessed COVID-19 symptoms and collected specimens. Oropharyngeal (OP), anterior nasal (AN), and saliva (SA) specimens were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, using RT-PCR, and sent for viral culture. Serology, including neutralizing antibodies, was measured in blood specimens. Results: Fifteen participants, with a median age of 58 (range, 37‒77) years, were enrolled. Median duration of RT-PCR positivity from diagnosis was 18 days (interquartile range [IQR], 8‒24 days). Ten participants had at least one, for a total of 41, positive RT-PCR specimens ≥10 days after symptoms onset. Of these 41 specimens, 21 underwent viral culture; one (5%) was positive 14 days after symptom onset. Thirteen participants developed SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, 11 of which included neutralizing antibodies. RT-PCRs remained positive after seroconversion in eight participants and after detection of neutralizing antibodies in four participants; however, all of these samples were culture negative. Conclusions: Patients with ESKD on maintenance dialysis remained persistently and intermittently SARS-CoV-2-RT-PCR positive. However, of the 15 participants, only one had infectious virus, on day 14 after symptom onset. Most participants mounted an antibody response, including neutralizing antibodies. Participants continued having RT-PCR-positive results in the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, but without replication-competent virus detected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Middle Aged , Outpatients , RNA, Viral , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Immunol ; 208(6): 1500-1508, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715878

ABSTRACT

Oral fluids offer a noninvasive sampling method for the detection of Abs. Quantification of IgA and IgG Abs in saliva allows studies of the mucosal and systemic immune response after natural infection or vaccination. We developed and validated an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to detect and quantify salivary IgA and IgG Abs against the prefusion-stabilized form of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein expressed in suspension-adapted HEK-293 cells. Normalization against total Ab isotype was performed to account for specimen differences, such as collection time and sample volume. Saliva samples collected from 187 SARS-CoV-2 confirmed cases enrolled in 2 cohorts and 373 prepandemic saliva samples were tested. The sensitivity of both EIAs was high (IgA, 95.5%; IgG, 89.7%) without compromising specificity (IgA, 99%; IgG, 97%). No cross-reactivity with endemic coronaviruses was observed. The limit of detection for SARS-CoV-2 salivary IgA and IgG assays were 1.98 ng/ml and 0.30 ng/ml, respectively. Salivary IgA and IgG Abs were detected earlier in patients with mild COVID-19 symptoms than in severe cases. However, severe cases showed higher salivary Ab titers than those with a mild infection. Salivary IgA titers quickly decreased after 6 wk in mild cases but remained detectable until at least week 10 in severe cases. Salivary IgG titers remained high for all patients, regardless of disease severity. In conclusion, EIAs for both IgA and IgG had high specificity and sensitivity for the confirmation of current or recent SARS-CoV-2 infections and evaluation of the IgA and IgG immune response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Saliva/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Diseases , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Progression , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Reference Standards , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
3.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-24, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Characterize and compare SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses in plasma and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from nursing home residents during and after natural infection. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Nursing home. PARTICIPANTS: SARS-CoV-2-infected nursing home residents. METHODS: A convenience sample of 14 SARS-CoV-2-infected nursing home residents, enrolled 4-13 days after real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction diagnosis, were followed for 42 days. Post diagnosis, plasma SARS-CoV-2-specific pan-Immunoglobulin (Ig), IgG, IgA, IgM, and neutralizing antibodies were measured at 5 timepoints and GCF SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgA were measured at 4 timepoints. RESULTS: All participants demonstrated immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among 12 phlebotomized participants, plasma was positive for pan-Ig and IgG in all 12, neutralizing antibodies in 11, IgM in 10, and IgA in 9. Among 14 participants with GCF specimens, GCF was positive for IgG in 13 and IgA in 12. Immunoglobulin responses in plasma and GCF had similar kinetics; median times to peak antibody response was similar across specimen types (4 weeks for IgG; 3 weeks for IgA). Participants with pan-Ig, IgG, and IgA detected in plasma and GCF IgG remained positive through this evaluation's end 46-55 days post-diagnosis. All participants were viral culture negative by the first detection of antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Nursing home residents had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in plasma and GCF after infection. Kinetics of antibodies detected in GCF mirrored those from plasma. Non-invasive GCF may be useful for detecting and monitoring immunologic responses in populations unable or unwilling to be phlebotomized.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2128615, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453504

ABSTRACT

Importance: The number of clinics marketing stem cell products for joint diseases, chronic pain, and most recently, COVID-19, has increased despite warnings from the US Food and Drug Administration that stem cell products for these and other indications have not been proven safe or effective. Objective: To examine bacterial infections in 20 patients who received umbilical cord blood-derived products marketed as stem cell treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series is a national public health investigation including case-finding, medical record review and abstraction, and laboratory investigation, including sterility testing of products and whole-genome sequencing of patient and product isolates. Participants included patients who developed bacterial infections following administration of umbilical cord blood-derived products marketed as stem cell treatment during August 2017 to September 2018. Data analysis was performed from March 2019 to September 2021. Exposures: Umbilical cord blood-derived products marketed as stem cell treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Data were collected on patient infections and exposures. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention performed sterility testing on undistributed and distributed vials of product marketed as stem cell treatment and performed whole-genome sequencing to compare patient and product bacterial isolates. Results: Culture-confirmed bacterial infections were identified in 20 patients (median [range] age, 63 [2-89] years; 13 male patients [65%]) from 8 US states who sought stem cell treatment for conditions including pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and injury; all but 1 required hospitalization. The most frequently isolated bacteria from patients with infections were common enteric species, including Escherichia coli (14 patients) and Enterobacter cloacae (7 patients). Of unopened, undistributed products sampled for testing, 65% (22 of 34 vials) were contaminated with at least 1 of 16 bacterial species, mostly enteric. A patient isolate from Arizona matched isolates obtained from products administered to patients in Florida, and patient isolates from Texas matched undistributed product sent from the company in California. Conclusions and Relevance: Unapproved stem cell products can expose patients to serious risks without proven benefit. Sequencing results suggest a common source of extensive contamination, likely occurring during the processing of cord blood into product. Patients and health care practitioners who are considering the use of unapproved products marketed as stem cell treatment should be aware of their unproven benefits and potential risks, including serious infections.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/etiology , Blood Safety/statistics & numerical data , Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Disease Outbreaks , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Blood Safety/standards , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Child, Preschool , Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation/standards , Female , Humans , Male , Marketing , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Public Health Surveillance , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration , Young Adult
5.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(10): 1318-1321, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347469

ABSTRACT

Facility-wide testing performed at 4 outpatient hemodialysis facilities in the absence of an outbreak or escalating community incidence did not identify new SARS-CoV-2 infections and illustrated key logistical considerations essential to successful implementation of SARS-CoV-2 screening. Facilities could consider prioritizing facility-wide SARS-CoV-2 testing during suspicion of an outbreak in the facility or escalating community spread without robust infection control strategies in place. Being prepared to address operational considerations will enhance implementation of facility-wide testing in the outpatient dialysis setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Outpatients , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S58-S64, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing remains essential for early identification and clinical management of cases. We compared the diagnostic performance of 3 specimen types for characterizing SARS-CoV-2 in infected nursing home residents. METHODS: A convenience sample of 17 residents were enrolled within 15 days of first positive SARS-CoV-2 result by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and prospectively followed for 42 days. Anterior nasal swabs (AN), oropharyngeal swabs (OP), and saliva specimens (SA) were collected on the day of enrollment, every 3 days for the first 21 days, and then weekly for 21 days. Specimens were tested for presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using RT-PCR and replication-competent virus by viral culture. RESULTS: Comparing the 3 specimen types collected from each participant at each time point, the concordance of paired RT-PCR results ranged from 80% to 88%. After the first positive result, SA and OP were RT-PCR-positive for ≤48 days; AN were RT-PCR-positive for ≤33 days. AN had the highest percentage of RT-PCR-positive results (21/26 [81%]) when collected ≤10 days of participants' first positive result. Eleven specimens were positive by viral culture: 9 AN collected ≤19 days following first positive result and 2 OP collected ≤5 days following first positive result. CONCLUSIONS: AN, OP, and SA were effective methods for repeated testing in this population. More AN than OP were positive by viral culture. SA and OP remained RT-PCR-positive longer than AN, which could lead to unnecessary interventions if RT-PCR detection occurred after viral shedding has likely ceased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Arkansas , Humans , Nursing Homes , RNA, Viral/genetics
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S58-S64, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205577

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing remains essential for early identification and clinical management of cases. We compared the diagnostic performance of 3 specimen types for characterizing SARS-CoV-2 in infected nursing home residents. METHODS: A convenience sample of 17 residents were enrolled within 15 days of first positive SARS-CoV-2 result by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and prospectively followed for 42 days. Anterior nasal swabs (AN), oropharyngeal swabs (OP), and saliva specimens (SA) were collected on the day of enrollment, every 3 days for the first 21 days, and then weekly for 21 days. Specimens were tested for presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using RT-PCR and replication-competent virus by viral culture. RESULTS: Comparing the 3 specimen types collected from each participant at each time point, the concordance of paired RT-PCR results ranged from 80% to 88%. After the first positive result, SA and OP were RT-PCR-positive for ≤48 days; AN were RT-PCR-positive for ≤33 days. AN had the highest percentage of RT-PCR-positive results (21/26 [81%]) when collected ≤10 days of participants' first positive result. Eleven specimens were positive by viral culture: 9 AN collected ≤19 days following first positive result and 2 OP collected ≤5 days following first positive result. CONCLUSIONS: AN, OP, and SA were effective methods for repeated testing in this population. More AN than OP were positive by viral culture. SA and OP remained RT-PCR-positive longer than AN, which could lead to unnecessary interventions if RT-PCR detection occurred after viral shedding has likely ceased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Arkansas , Humans , Nursing Homes , RNA, Viral/genetics
8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(3): ofab048, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To estimate the infectious period of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in older adults with underlying conditions, we assessed duration of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positivity, and culture positivity among nursing home residents. METHODS: We enrolled residents within 15 days of their first positive SARS-CoV-2 test (diagnosis) at an Arkansas facility from July 7 to 15, 2020 and instead them for 42 days. Every 3 days for 21 days and then weekly, we assessed COVID-19 symptoms, collected specimens (oropharyngeal, anterior nares, and saliva), and reviewed medical charts. Blood for serology was collected on days 0, 6, 12, 21, and 42. Infectivity was defined by positive culture. Duration of culture positivity was compared with duration of COVID-19 symptoms and RT-PCR positivity. Data were summarized using measures of central tendency, frequencies, and proportions. RESULTS: We enrolled 17 of 39 (44%) eligible residents. Median participant age was 82 years (range, 58-97 years). All had ≥3 underlying conditions. Median duration of RT-PCR positivity was 22 days (interquartile range [IQR], 8-31 days) from diagnosis; median duration of symptoms was 42 days (IQR, 28-49 days). Of 9 (53%) participants with any culture-positive specimens, 1 (11%) severely immunocompromised participant remained culture-positive 19 days from diagnosis; 8 of 9 (89%) were culture-positive ≤8 days from diagnosis. Seroconversion occurred in 12 of 12 (100%) surviving participants with ≥1 blood specimen; all participants were culture-negative before seroconversion. CONCLUSIONS: Duration of infectivity was considerably shorter than duration of symptoms and RT-PCR positivity. Severe immunocompromise may prolong SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Seroconversion indicated noninfectivity in this cohort.

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