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1.
Hematology, Transfusion and Cell Therapy ; 44(Supplement 2):S499-S500, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2179174

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Relatar um caso de Guillain - Barre em paciente de 12 anos de idade que utilizou plasmaferese terapeutica como primeira linha, focando nos aspectos tecnicos do procedimento;Discutir as possiveis causas para o desabastecimento de imunoglobulina intravenosa (IGIV) atual. Metodologia: Coleta de dados clinicos no prontuario. Revisao de literatura, com enfase em plasmaferese na populacao pediatrica, suas indicacoes, paticularidades tecnicas e eventos adversos. Resultados: Paciente de 12 anos de idade, sexo feminino, 35 quilos, previamente higida, deu entrada no pronto - socorro com quadro de tetraparesia desproporcional - forca grau III em MMII e grau IV em MMSS - associada a mialgia difusa. Sem quadro infeccioso ou vacinacao recente antecedendo. Equipe da neurologia levantou hipotese de sindrome de Guillain- Barre e solicitou plasmaferese terapeutica, pois nao havia disponibilidade de IGIV. Foram realizadas 04 sessoes utilizando o sistema COM.TEC (Fresenius Kabi) com troca de uma volemia cada. O fluxo medio de extracao foi de 37,5ml/min (30-45ml/min). A taxa media de ACD infundido na paciente foi de 234ml e a proporcao ACD:sangue foi de 1:16. A duracao media foi de 73 minutos por procedimento. Em todas as sessoes foi utilizado reposicao profilatica com solucao de 10ml de gluconato de calcio 10%. A paciente apresentou tontura e parestesia perioral nas duas primeiras sessoes. Sem outros eventos adversos. Recebeu alta apos quarta sessao, ja sendo capaz de deambular sem auxilio. Discussao: A Sindrome de Guillain Barre corresponde a um grupo de polirradiculopatias autoimunes, inflamatorias e desmielinizantes. Os tratamentos de primeira linha constituem IGIV e plasmaferese. A IGIV costuma ser preferida principalmente em criancas por maior facilidade posologica e nao envolver uso de dispositivos invasivos. O desabastecimento de IGIV desde 2019 em diversos paises do mundo, inclusive no Brasil, tem dificultado o acesso a este tratamento. Entre as possiveis causas para este desabastecimento, podemos citar: aumento da demanda nao acompanhada por aumento na producao, impactos da pandemia de COVID- 19 sobre materia-prima (doadores de sangue) e logistica (transporte, etc), descontinuacao do produto por alguns laboratorios, entre outros. Segundo o ultimo guideline da Sociedade Americana de Aferese nao ha diferenca no desfecho entre IGIV e plasmaferese. Entre os principais eventos adversos da plasmaferese em pacientes pediatricos, destacam- se os relacionados ao acesso central (infeccoes, complicacoes mecanicas, entre outros), hipocalcemia, o volume extracorporeo utilizado no procedimento e riscos de intoxicacao por citrato. A paciente do caso apresentou apenas sintomas leves de hipocalcemia, que melhoraram apos reducao do fluxo de extracao. Conclusao: A plasmaferese terapeutica em pacientes pediatricos tem se mostrado eficaz, seja em primeira linha ou como tratamento complementar. Ajustes na taxa de extracao, reposicao profilatica de calcio e cuidados com o acesso central aumentam a seguranca do procedimento. Copyright © 2022

2.
ACS Chem Biol ; 17(10): 2911-2922, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050257

ABSTRACT

Using the regioselective cyanobenzothiazole condensation reaction with an N-terminal cysteine and the chloroacetamide reaction with an internal cysteine, a phage-displayed macrocyclic 12-mer peptide library was constructed and subsequently validated. Using this library in combination with iterative selections against two epitopes from the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike protein, macrocyclic peptides that strongly inhibit the interaction between the Spike RBD and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the human host receptor of SARS-CoV-2, were identified. The two epitopes were used instead of the Spike RBD to avoid selection of nonproductive macrocyclic peptides that bind RBD but do not directly inhibit its interactions with ACE2. Antiviral tests against SARS-CoV-2 showed that one macrocyclic peptide is highly potent against viral reproduction in Vero E6 cells with an EC50 value of 3.1 µM. The AlphaLISA-detected IC50 value for this macrocyclic peptide was 0.3 µM. The current study demonstrates that two kinetically controlled reactions toward N-terminal and internal cysteines, respectively, are highly effective in the construction of phage-displayed macrocyclic peptides, and the selection based on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike epitopes is a promising methodology in the identification of peptidyl antivirals.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Epitopes/metabolism , Peptide Library , Cysteine/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Protein Binding , Peptides/pharmacology , Peptides/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bacteriophages/metabolism
3.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(10)2022 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043968

ABSTRACT

Few reports exist on the COVID-19 epidemiology of migrant populations. We tested 370 migratory individuals from ten countries arriving at a migrant house along the US-Mexico border based on a rapid assay detecting SARS-CoV-2 antigen. Fifty-six were positive, for a prevalence of 15.1% (95%-CIs of 11.8-19.2%). Only 21 positive persons presented signs or symptoms associated with the infection (95%-CIs = 25-49%). Most (51.7%) positive migrants arrived in the previous two days before being tested, indicating that the virus infection was acquired during their transit. Out of the total of 56 positive individuals, 37.5% were from El Salvador, 33.9% from Honduras, and 21.4% from Guatemala. This study suggests that vulnerable populations traveling from countries in Latin America and seeking residence in the US are high-risk individuals for exposure to SARS-CoV-2. The rapid antigen COVID-19 testing on arrival at the migrant house, and subsequent 10-day quarantine, was a critical step to help minimize further transmission. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that public health services provided to migratory and vulnerable populations are necessary for pandemic control.

4.
biorxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.10.06.511203

ABSTRACT

With the coexistence of multiple lineages and increased international travel, recombination and gene flow are likely to become increasingly important in the adaptive evolution of SARS-CoV-2. This could result in the incipient parallel evolution of multiple recombinant lineages. However, identifying recombinant lineages is challenging, and the true extent of recombinant evolution in SARS-CoV-2 may be underestimated. This study describes the first SARS-CoV-2 Deltacron recombinant case identified in Brazil. We demonstrate that the recombination breakpoint is at the beginning of Spike gene (S). The 5' genome portion (circa 22 kb) resembles the AY.101 lineage (VOC Delta), and the 3' genome portion (circa 8 kb nucleotides) is most similar to the BA.1.1 lineage (VOC Omicron). Furthermore, evolutionary genomic analyses indicate that the new strain emerged after a single recombination event between lineages of diverse geographical locations in December 2021 in South Brazil. This Deltacron, named AYBA-RS, is one out of almost 30 recombinants described this year. The submission of only four sequences in the GISAID database suggests that this Brazilian lineage had a minor epidemiological impact. On the other hand, the recent emergence of this and various other Deltacron recombinant lineages (i.e., XD, XF, and XS) suggests that gene flow and recombination may play an increasingly important role in the COVID-19 pandemic. We explain the evolutionary and population genetic theory that support this assertion, and we conclude that this stresses the need for continued genomic and epidemiological surveillance. This is particularly important for countries where multiple variants are present, as well as for countries that receive significant inbound international travel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Retinoschisis
6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2112-2115, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984970

ABSTRACT

After identifying a captive herd of white-tailed deer in central Texas with >94% seroprevalence with SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in September 2021, we worked retrospectively through archived serum samples of 21 deer and detected seroconversion of all animals between December 2020 and January 2021. We then collected prospective samples to conclude that the duration of persistence of neutralizing antibodies is at least 13 months for 19 (90.5%) of the animals, with two animals converting to seronegative after six and eight months. Antibody titres generally waned over this time frame, but three deer had a temporary 4- to 8-fold increases in plaque reduction neutralization test titres over a month after seroconversion; anamnestic response cannot be ruled out.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deer , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/veterinary , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Texas/epidemiology
7.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-1987536.v2

ABSTRACT

Objective To characterize clinical and epidemiologic features of SARS-CoV-2 in companion animals detected through both passive and active surveillance in the U.S. Animals 204 companion animals (109 cats, 95 dogs) across 33 states with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections between March 2020 and December 2021. Procedures Public health officials, animal health officials, and academic researchers investigating zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 transmission events reported clinical, laboratory and epidemiological information through a standardized One Health surveillance process developed by CDC and partners. Results Among dogs and cats identified through passive surveillance, 94% (n=87) had reported exposure to a person with COVID-19 before infection. Clinical signs of illness were present in 74% of pets identified through passive surveillance and 27% of pets identified through active surveillance. Duration of illness in pets averaged 15 days in cats and 12 days in dogs. The average time between human and pet onset of illness was 10 days. Viral nucleic acid was first detected at 3 days post exposure in both cats and dogs. Antibodies were detected starting 5 days post exposure and titers were highest at 9 days in cats and 14 days in dogs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Our data support that cats and dogs primarily become infected with SARS-CoV-2 following exposure to a person with COVID-19, most often their owners. Case investigation and surveillance that includes both people and animals is necessary to understand transmission dynamics and viral evolution of zoonotic diseases like SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
8.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891880

ABSTRACT

Housing may be at once the most powerful and underused tool at our disposal to improve population health. Using examples from the USA, we argue that current levels of housing insecurity are the result of clear and inequitable policy choices, leading to the entrenchment of health inequities-particularly, across race and class. Solutions to housing insecurity must, therefore, be structural. The COVID-19 pandemic has opened a window of opportunity for these structural housing policy reforms. Through justice- and action-oriented research, health researchers can inform the development and implementation of housing policies that advance health equity. We offer a series of recommendations to better position our field to achieve this goal.

9.
biorxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.07.06.498864

ABSTRACT

Using the regioselective cyanobenzothiazole condensation reaction with the N-terminal cysteine and the chloroacetamide reaction with an internal cysteine, a phage-displayed macrocyclic 12-mer peptide library was constructed and subsequently validated. Using this library in combination with iterative selections against two epitopes from the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, macrocyclic peptides that strongly inhibit the interaction between the Spike RBD and ACE2, the human host receptor of SARS-CoV-2, were identified. The two epitopes were used instead of the Spike RBD to avoid selection of nonproductive macrocyclic peptides that bind RBD but do not directly inhibit its interactions with ACE2. Antiviral tests against SARS-CoV-2 showed that one macrocyclic peptide is highly potent against viral reproduction in Vero E6 cells with an EC50 value of 3.1 micromolar. The AlphaLISA-detected IC50 value for this macrocyclic peptide was 0.3 micromolar. The current study demonstrates that two kinetically-controlled reactions toward N-terminal and internal cysteines, respectively, are highly effective in the construction of phage-displayed macrocyclic peptides, and the selection based on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike epitopes is a promising methodology in the identification of peptidyl antivirals.


Subject(s)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
10.
Journal of Clinical Outcomes Management ; 29(1):27-31, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884742

ABSTRACT

Background: Patient outcomes of COVID-19 have improved throughout the pandemic. However, because it is not known whether outcomes of COVID-19 in the type 1 diabetes (T1D) population improved over time, we investigated differences in COVID-19 outcomes for patients with T1D in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data collected via a registry of patients with T1D and COVID-19 from 56 sites between April 2020 and January 2021. We grouped cases into first surge (April 9, 2020, to July 31, 2020, n = 188) and late surge (August 1, 2020, to January 31, 2021, n = 410), and then compared outcomes between both groups using descriptive statistics and logistic regression models. Results: Adverse outcomes were more frequent during the first surge, including diabetic ketoacidosis (32% vs 15%, P< .001), severe hypoglycemia (4% vs 1%, P= .04), and hospitalization (52% vs 22%, P< .001). Patients in the first surge were older (28 [SD,18.8] years vs 18.0 [SD, 11.1] years, P< .001), had higher median hemoglobin A1c levels (9.3 [interquartile range {IQR}, 4.0] vs 8.4 (IQR, 2.8), P< .001), and were more likely to use public insurance (107 [57%] vs 154 [38%], P< .001). The odds of hospitalization for adults in the first surge were 5 times higher compared to the late surge (odds ratio, 5.01;95% CI, 2.11-12.63). Conclusion: Patients with T1D who presented with COVID-19 during the first surge had a higher proportion of adverse outcomes than those who presented in a later surge.

11.
J Med Entomol ; 59(4): 1479-1483, 2022 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873941

ABSTRACT

Flies and other arthropods mechanically transmit multiple pathogens and a recent experimental study demonstrated house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), can mechanically transmit SARS-CoV-2. The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of mechanical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by domestic insects and their potential as a xenosurveillance tool for detection of the virus. Flies were trapped in homes where at least one confirmed human COVID-19 case(s) resided using sticky and liquid-baited fly traps placed inside and outside the home in the Texas counties of Brazos, Bell, and Montgomery, from June to September 2020. Flies from sticky traps were identified, pooled by taxa, homogenized, and tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). Liquid traps were drained, and the collected fluid similarly tested after RNA concentration. We processed the contents of 133 insect traps from 40 homes, which contained over 1,345 individual insects of 11 different Diptera families and Blattodea. These individuals were grouped into 243 pools, and all tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Fourteen traps in seven homes were deployed on the day that cat or dog samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by nasal, oral, body, or rectal samples. This study presents evidence that biting and nonbiting flies and cockroaches (Blattodea) are not likely to contribute to mechanical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 or be useful in xenosurveillance for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cockroaches , Dog Diseases , Houseflies , Muscidae , Animals , Dogs , Humans , Insect Control , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
12.
2021 IEEE 13th International Conference on Humanoid, Nanotechnology, Information Technology, Communication and Control, Environment, and Management, HNICEM 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1788678

ABSTRACT

The study observes the Pandemic Crisis (Covid 19) that resulted in impacts on the Transportation category in the area National Capital Region. Public transportation is an important aspect of human's ability to travel to different places whether its personal or business purpose, it's a part of life that people take for granted and can't be taken away easily. But due to the pandemic era, people have been careful in their choices, which resulted in the change standard when it comes to public transportation choices. With that said, to understand and observe these impacts, a scenario must be made such as before and after the pandemic designed as an environment for the study to take root. The study has used machine learning called Random Forest Algorithm with the used several parameters to create a prediction model. As for the method in gathering data, a survey of Google Form is utilized to gather 200 participants of the National Capital Region with varying parameters for their choice of public transportation. The machine algorithm has shown satisfactory accuracy of 89.88% and 88.88%. As an important note, it is observed that travel expense has more impact on public transportation choices than other parameters. The Random Forest Algorithm has been utilized in creating classification types of models and can help future researchers improve the machine learning approach. © 2021 IEEE.

13.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0057622, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759303

ABSTRACT

Free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) across the United States are increasingly recognized for infection and transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Through a cross-sectional study of 80 deer at three captive cervid facilities in central and southern Texas, we provide evidence of 34 of 36 (94.4%) white-tailed deer at a single captive cervid facility seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 by neutralization assay (PRNT90), with endpoint titers as high as 1,280. In contrast, all tested white-tailed deer and axis deer (Axis axis) at two other captive cervid facilities were seronegative, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in respiratory swabs from deer at any of the three facilities. These data support transmission among captive deer that cannot be explained by human contact for each infected animal, as only a subset of the seropositive does had direct human contact. The facility seroprevalence was more than double of that reported from wild deer, suggesting that the confined environment may facilitate transmission. Further exploration of captive cervids and other managed animals for their role in the epizootiology of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for understanding impacts on animal health and the potential for spillback transmission to humans or other animal taxa. IMPORTANCE As SARS-CoV-2 vaccine coverage of the human population increases and variants of concern continue to emerge, identification of the epidemiologic importance of animal virus reservoirs is critical. We found that nearly all (94.4%) of the captive white-tailed deer at a cervid facility in central Texas had neutralizing antibodies for SARS-CoV-2. This seroprevalence is over double than that which has been reported from free-ranging deer from other regions of the United States. Horizontal transmission among deer may be facilitated in confinement. Tracking new infections among wild and confined deer is critical for understanding the importance of animal reservoirs for both veterinary and human health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deer , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Texas/epidemiology
14.
biorxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.01.05.475172

ABSTRACT

Free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginanus) across the United States are increasingly recognized as involved in SARS-CoV-2 transmission cycles. Through a cross-sectional study of 80 deer at three captive cervid facilities in central and southern Texas, we provide evidence of 34 of 36 (94.4%) white-tailed deer at a single captive cervid facility seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 by neutralization assay (PRNT90), with endpoint titers as high as 1280. In contrast, all tested white-tailed deer and axis deer (Axis axis) at two other captive cervid facilities were seronegative, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in respiratory swabs from deer at any of the three facilities. These data support transmission among captive deer that cannot be explained by human contact for each infected animal, as only a subset of the seropositive does had direct human contact. The facility seroprevalence was more than double of that reported from wild deer, suggesting that the confined environment may facilitate transmission. Further exploration of captive cervids and other managed animals for their role in the epizootiology of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for understanding impacts on animal health and the potential for spillback transmission to humans or other animal taxa.

15.
Online Journal of Health Ethics ; 17(1):1-9, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1593536
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2139585, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589284

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although evictions have been associated with adverse mental health outcomes, it remains unclear which stages of the eviction process are associated with mental distress among renters. Variation in COVID-19 pandemic eviction protections across US states enables identification of intervention targets within the eviction process to improve renters' mental health. Objective: To measure the association between the strength of eviction protections (ie, stages blocked by eviction moratoriums) and mental distress among renters during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used individual-level, nationally representative data from the Understanding Coronavirus in America Survey to measure associations between state eviction moratorium protections and mental distress. The sample of 2317 respondents included renters with annual household incomes less than $75 000 who reported a state of residence and completed surveys between March 10 and September 3, 2020, prior to the federal eviction moratorium order by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Exposures: Time-varying strength of state moratorium protections as a categorical variable: none, weak (blocking court hearings, judgments, or enforcement without blocking notice or filing), or strong (blocking all stages of the eviction process beginning with notice and filing). Main Outcomes and Measures: Moderate to severe mental distress was measured using the 4-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Linear regression models were adjusted for time-varying state COVID-19 incidence and mortality, public health restrictions, and unemployment rates. Models included individual and time fixed effects as well as clustered standard errors. Results: The sample consisted of 2317 individuals (20 853 total observations) composed largely (1788 [78%] weighted) of middle-aged adults (25-64 years of age) and women (1538 [60%]); 640 respondents (23%) self-reported as Hispanic or Latinx, 314 respondents (20%) as non-Hispanic Black, and 1071 respondents (48%) as non-Hispanic White race and ethnicity. Relative to no state-level eviction moratorium protections, strong protections were associated with a 12.6% relative reduction (risk ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.76-0.99) in the probability of mental distress, whereas weak protections were not associated with a statistically significant reduction (risk ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.86-1.06). Conclusions and Relevance: This analysis of the Understanding Coronavirus in America Survey data found that strong eviction moratoriums were associated with protection against mental distress, suggesting that distress begins early in the eviction process with notice and filing. This finding is consistent with the idea that to reduce mental distress among renters, policy makers should focus on primary prevention of evictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Public Policy , State Government , Adult , Female , Humans , Income , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Unemployment , United States
17.
researchsquare; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-1005788.v1

ABSTRACT

Background:The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which continues to cause infections and mortality worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted primarily via the respiratory route and has experimentally been found to be stable on surfaces for multiple days. Flies (Diptera) and other arthropods mechanically transmit several pathogens, including turkey coronavirus. A previous experimental study demonstrated house flies, Musca domestica, can mechanically transmit SARS-CoV-2, but the ability of flies in general to acquire and deposit this virus in natural settings has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of mechanical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by peridomestic insects and their potential as a xenosurveillance tool for detection of the virus.Methods:In order to optimize chances of viral detection, flies were trapped in homes where at least one confirmed human COVID-19 case(s) resided. Sticky and liquid baited fly traps were deployed inside and outside of the homes of SARS-CoV-2 human cases in Brazos, Bell, and Montgomery Counties, from June to September 2020. Flies from sticky traps were identified, pooled by taxa, homogenized, and tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using qRT-PCR. Liquid traps were drained, and the collected fluid similarly tested after RNA concentration. Experimental viral detection pipeline and viral inactivation were confirmed in a Biosafety Level 3 lab.  As part of a separate ongoing study, companion animals in the home were sampled and tested for SARS-CoV-2 on the same day of insect trap deployment.Results:We processed the contents of 133 insect traps from 44 homes, which contained over 1,345 individual insects of 11 different Diptera families and Blattodea.These individuals were grouped into 243 pools, and all tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA.  Dead flies exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in a BSL3 lab were processed using the same methods and viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR. Fourteen traps in seven homes were deployed on the day that cat or dog samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by nasal, oral, body, or rectal samples.Conclusions:This study presents evidence that biting and non-biting flies are not likely to contribute to mechanical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 or be useful in xenosurveillance for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
18.
Research on Biomedical Engineering ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1446304

ABSTRACT

Purpose: With the exponential spread of the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide, regulatory authorities are taking measures to avoid shortages of medical devices, particularly personal protective equipment (PPE) and medical equipment. The Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA), specifically the Medical Devices General Office (GGTPS), has been reviewing regulatory guidelines and procedures and simplifying approvals for medical devices. Methods: Using public records, we present the Brazilian health regulatory scenario during the first four months of the pandemic (between December 31, 2019, and April 30, 2020). Results: The ANVISA-GGTPS has been making efforts to increase the availability of medical devices for use by healthcare professionals and patients. It has simplified the rigorous regulatory system, as rising COVID-19 cases lead to a shortage of the availability of them. Conclusion: The challenges to overcome shortages raises a pertinent question about how governments, with their respective regulatory authorities, productive supply chains, and Industry 4.0 components, will guarantee the availability of medical goods and maintain the fast flow of the goods in a flexible way, while meeting the standards of quality, safety, and effectiveness. © 2021, Sociedade Brasileira de Engenharia Biomedica.

19.
Virus Evol ; 7(2): veab069, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416152

ABSTRACT

Mutations at both the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the amino (N)-terminal domain (NTD) of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike (S) glycoprotein can alter its antigenicity and promote immune escape. We identified that SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in Brazil with mutations of concern in the RBD independently acquired convergent deletions and insertions in the NTD of the S protein, which altered the NTD antigenic-supersite and other predicted epitopes at this region. Importantly, we detected the community transmission of different P.1 lineages bearing NTD indels ∆69-70 (which can impact several SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic protocols), ∆144 and ins214ANRN, and a new VOI N.10 derived from the B.1.1.33 lineage carrying three NTD deletions (∆141-144, ∆211, and ∆256-258). These findings support that the ongoing widespread transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil generates new viral lineages that might be more resistant to antibody neutralization than parental variants of concern.

20.
Sustainability (Switzerland) ; 13(17), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1395001

ABSTRACT

As an economic, social, and cultural activity, tourism shapes the relationship between visitors and local communities in tourist destinations. While tourism generates economic growth and employment opportunities for residents, its benefits come with a social cost. This article high-lights the results of an online survey that was carried out at the beginning of 2021 in the seven major Galician cities along the Route of Santiago de Compostela (the Way of St. James) in Spain, which is a historical, natural, and cultural tourist attraction that is inscribed in the UNESCO’s World Heritage List in the category of cultural assets. The goal of the research work was to get to know first-hand the opinion of local communities about the positive and negative effects of tourism in their cities, on the Route of Santiago, and in the region of Galicia as a whole. Research work shows that residents’ perception of tourism leans toward the positive side, although it also reveals the need for tourism planners to involve host communities in tourism development. This research study about a World Heritage site should prove useful for political decision makers, tourism planners, and ex-perts, both in Galicia and elsewhere. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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