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1.
Lancet ; 398(10299): 522-534, 2021 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and efforts to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission substantially affected health services worldwide. To better understand the impact of the pandemic on childhood routine immunisation, we estimated disruptions in vaccine coverage associated with the pandemic in 2020, globally and by Global Burden of Disease (GBD) super-region. METHODS: For this analysis we used a two-step hierarchical random spline modelling approach to estimate global and regional disruptions to routine immunisation using administrative data and reports from electronic immunisation systems, with mobility data as a model input. Paired with estimates of vaccine coverage expected in the absence of COVID-19, which were derived from vaccine coverage models from GBD 2020, Release 1 (GBD 2020 R1), we estimated the number of children who missed routinely delivered doses of the third-dose diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) vaccine and first-dose measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) in 2020. FINDINGS: Globally, in 2020, estimated vaccine coverage was 76·7% (95% uncertainty interval 74·3-78·6) for DTP3 and 78·9% (74·8-81·9) for MCV1, representing relative reductions of 7·7% (6·0-10·1) for DTP3 and 7·9% (5·2-11·7) for MCV1, compared to expected doses delivered in the absence of the COVID-19 pandemic. From January to December, 2020, we estimated that 30·0 million (27·6-33·1) children missed doses of DTP3 and 27·2 million (23·4-32·5) children missed MCV1 doses. Compared to expected gaps in coverage for eligible children in 2020, these estimates represented an additional 8·5 million (6·5-11·6) children not routinely vaccinated with DTP3 and an additional 8·9 million (5·7-13·7) children not routinely vaccinated with MCV1 attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic. Globally, monthly disruptions were highest in April, 2020, across all GBD super-regions, with 4·6 million (4·0-5·4) children missing doses of DTP3 and 4·4 million (3·7-5·2) children missing doses of MCV1. Every GBD super-region saw reductions in vaccine coverage in March and April, with the most severe annual impacts in north Africa and the Middle East, south Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. We estimated the lowest annual reductions in vaccine delivery in sub-Saharan Africa, where disruptions remained minimal throughout the year. For some super-regions, including southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania for both DTP3 and MCV1, the high-income super-region for DTP3, and south Asia for MCV1, estimates suggest that monthly doses were delivered at or above expected levels during the second half of 2020. INTERPRETATION: Routine immunisation services faced stark challenges in 2020, with the COVID-19 pandemic causing the most widespread and largest global disruption in recent history. Although the latest coverage trajectories point towards recovery in some regions, a combination of lagging catch-up immunisation services, continued SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and persistent gaps in vaccine coverage before the pandemic still left millions of children under-vaccinated or unvaccinated against preventable diseases at the end of 2020, and these gaps are likely to extend throughout 2021. Strengthening routine immunisation data systems and efforts to target resources and outreach will be essential to minimise the risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks, reach children who missed routine vaccine doses during the pandemic, and accelerate progress towards higher and more equitable vaccination coverage over the next decade. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Measles Vaccine , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Child , Global Health , Humans , Models, Statistical
2.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(2): e186-e194, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has revealed the vulnerability of immunisation systems worldwide, although the scale of these disruptions has not been described at a global level. This study aims to assess the impact of COVID-19 on routine immunisation using triangulated data from global, country-based, and individual-reported sources obtained during the pandemic period. METHODS: This report synthesised data from 170 countries and territories. Data sources included administered vaccine-dose data from January to December, 2019, and January to December, 2020, WHO regional office reports, and a WHO-led pulse survey administered in April, 2020, and June, 2020. Results were expressed as frequencies and proportions of respondents or reporting countries. Data on vaccine doses administered were weighted by the population of surviving infants per country. FINDINGS: A decline in the number of administered doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-containing vaccine (DTP3) and first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) in the first half of 2020 was noted. The lowest number of vaccine doses administered was observed in April, 2020, when 33% fewer DTP3 doses were administered globally, ranging from 9% in the WHO African region to 57% in the South-East Asia region. Recovery of vaccinations began by June, 2020, and continued into late 2020. WHO regional offices reported substantial disruption to routine vaccination sessions in April, 2020, related to interrupted vaccination demand and supply, including reduced availability of the health workforce. Pulse survey analysis revealed that 45 (69%) of 65 countries showed disruption in outreach services compared with 27 (44%) of 62 countries with disrupted fixed-post immunisation services. INTERPRETATION: The marked magnitude and global scale of immunisation disruption evokes the dangers of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks in the future. Trends indicating partial resumption of services highlight the urgent need for ongoing assessment of recovery, catch-up vaccination strategy implementation for vulnerable populations, and ensuring vaccine coverage equity and health system resilience. FUNDING: US Agency for International Development.

3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(45): 1563-1569, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513269

ABSTRACT

In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan,* with the objective of eliminating measles† in five of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2020 (1). The Immunization Agenda 2021-2030 (IA2030)§ uses measles incidence as an indicator of the strength of immunization systems. The Measles-Rubella Strategic Framework 2021-2030¶ and the Measles Outbreaks Strategic Response Plan 2021-2023** are aligned with the IA2030 and highlight robust measles surveillance systems to document immunity gaps, identify root causes of undervaccination, and develop locally tailored solutions to ensure administration of 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) to all children. This report describes progress toward World Health Assembly milestones and measles elimination objectives during 2000-2020 and updates a previous report (2). During 2000-2010, estimated MCV first dose (MCV1) coverage increased globally from 72% to 84%, peaked at 86% in 2019, but declined to 84% in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. All countries conducted measles surveillance, although fewer than one third achieved the sensitivity indicator target of ≥2 discarded†† cases per 100,000 population in 2020. Annual reported measles incidence decreased 88% during 2000-2016, from 145 to 18 cases per 1 million population, rebounded to 120 in 2019, before falling to 22 in 2020. During 2000-2020, the annual number of estimated measles deaths decreased 94%, from 1,072,800 to 60,700, averting an estimated 31.7 million measles deaths. To achieve regional measles elimination targets, enhanced efforts are needed to reach all children with 2 MCV doses, implement robust surveillance, and identify and close immunity gaps.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Measles/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Immunization Programs , Incidence , Infant , Measles/epidemiology , Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , World Health Organization
4.
Prev Med ; 144: 106399, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139631

ABSTRACT

WHO/UNICEF estimates for HPV vaccination coverage from 2010 to 2019 are analyzed against the backdrop of the 90% coverage target for HPV vaccination by 2030 set in the recently approved global strategy for cervical cancer elimination as a public health problem. As of June 2020, 107 (55%) of the 194 WHO Member States have introduced HPV vaccination. The Americas and Europe are by far the WHO regions with the most introductions, 85% and 77% of their countries having already introduced respectively. A record number of introductions was observed in 2019, most of which in low- and middle- income countries (LMIC) where access has been limited. Programs had an average performance coverage of around 67% for the first dose and 53% for the final dose of HPV. LMICs performed on average better than high- income countries for the first dose, but worse for the last dose due to higher dropout. Only 5 (6%) countries achieved coverages with the final dose of more than 90%, 22 countries (21%) achieved coverages of 75% or higher while 35 (40%) had a final dose coverage of 50% or less. When expressed as world population coverage (i.e., weighted by population size), global coverage of the final HPV dose for 2019 is estimated at 15%. There is a long way to go to meet the 2030 elimination target of 90%. In the post-COVID era attention should be paid to maintain the pace of introductions, specially ensuring the most populous countries introduce, and further improving program performance globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Europe , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United Nations , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage , World Health Organization
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