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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 693-702, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936536

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: India introduced BBV152/Covaxin and AZD1222/Covishield vaccines in January 2021. We estimated the effectiveness of these vaccines against severe COVID-19 among individuals aged ≥45 years. METHODS: We did a multi-centric, hospital-based, case-control study between May and July 2021. Cases were severe COVID-19 patients, and controls were COVID-19 negative individuals from 11 hospitals. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated for complete (2 doses ≥ 14 days) and partial (1 dose ≥ 21 days) vaccination; interval between two vaccine doses and vaccination against the Delta variant. We used the random effects logistic regression model to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) after adjusting for relevant known confounders. RESULTS: We enrolled 1143 cases and 2541 control patients. The VE of complete vaccination was 85% (95% CI: 79-89%) with AZD1222/Covishield and 71% (95% CI: 57-81%) with BBV152/Covaxin. The VE was highest for 6-8 weeks between two doses of AZD1222/Covishield (94%, 95% CI: 86-97%) and BBV152/Covaxin (93%, 95% CI: 34-99%). The VE estimates were similar against the Delta strain and sub-lineages. CONCLUSION: BBV152/Covaxin and AZD1222/Covishield were effective against severe COVID-19 among the Indian population during the period of dominance of the highly transmissible Delta variant in the second wave of the pandemic. An escalation of two-dose coverage with COVID-19 vaccines is critical to reduce severe COVID-19 and further mitigate the pandemic in the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Pediatr Neurol ; 136: 20-27, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914895

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The neurological manifestation following a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is varied, and till now, only a few studies have reported the same. METHODS: We used retrospective data from May to July 2021 and prospective study data from August to September 2021, including that from children aged between one month and 18 years who presented to a tertiary care referral center with the neurological manifestation and had a history of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection or exposure and positive SARS-CoV-2 serology. The neuroradiological manifestations were further categorized as in a predesigned proforma. RESULTS: Case records of the 18 children who fulfilled the criteria were included in the study; among them, seven (38.8%) were male and 11 (61.1%) were female. Predominant presentation in our study group was status epilepticus (six of 18) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (five of 18). Other manifestations included stroke (two of 18), demyelinating syndromes (three of 18), and autoimmune encephalitis (two of 18). Most of the children had favorable outcomes except for one mortality in our cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Delayed complications following SARS-CoV-2 infection are seen in children. A temporal correlation was noted between the COVID-19 infection and the increasing number of neurological cases after the second wave. Steroids could be beneficial while treating such patients, especially in the presence of high inflammatory markers. Testing for SARS-CoV-2 serology during the pandemic can give a clue to the underlying etiology. Further multicentric studies are required to understand the varied neurological manifestations following SARS-CoV-2 infection in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Child , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During October 2020, Delta variant was detected for the first time in India and rampantly spread across the globe. It also led to second wave of pandemic in India which affected millions of people. However, there is limited information pertaining to the SARS-CoV-2 strain infecting the children in India. METHODS: Here, we assessed the SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in the pediatric population of India during the second wave of the pandemic. Clinical and demographic details linked with the nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs (NPS/OPS) collected from SARS-CoV-2 cases (n = 583) aged 0-18 year and tested positive by real-time RT-PCR were retrieved from March to June 2021. RESULTS: Symptoms were reported among 37.2% of patients and 14.8% reported to be hospitalized. The E gene CT value had significant statistical difference at the point of sample collection when compared to that observed in the sequencing laboratory. Out of these 512 sequences 372 were VOCs, 51 were VOIs. Most common lineages observed were Delta, followed by Kappa, Alpha and B.1.36, seen in 65.82%, 9.96%, 6.83% and 4.68%, respectively in the study population. CONCLUSION: Overall, it was observed that Delta strain was the leading cause of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Indian children during the second wave of the pandemic. We emphasize on the need of continuous genomic surveillance in SARS-CoV-2 infection even amongst children.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 888195, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911066

ABSTRACT

Background: During the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, outbreaks of Zika were reported from Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, and Maharashtra, India in 2021. The Dengue and Chikungunya negative samples were retrospectively screened to determine the presence of the Zika virus from different geographical regions of India. Methods: During May to October 2021, the clinical samples of 1475 patients, across 13 states and a union territory of India were screened and re-tested for Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika by CDC Trioplex Real time RT-PCR. The Zika rRTPCR positive samples were further screened with anti-Zika IgM and Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. Next generation sequencing was used for further molecular characterization. Results: The positivity was observed for Zika (67), Dengue (121), and Chikungunya (10) amongst screened cases. The co-infections of Dengue/Chikungunya, Dengue/Zika, and Dengue/Chikungunya/Zika were also observed. All Zika cases were symptomatic with fever (84%) and rash (78%) as major presenting symptoms. Of them, four patients had respiratory distress, one presented with seizures, and one with suspected microcephaly at birth. The Asian Lineage of Zika and all four serotypes of Dengue were found in circulation. Conclusion: Our study indicates the spread of the Zika virus to several states of India and an urgent need to strengthen its surveillance.

5.
Mol Ther ; 30(5): 2058-2077, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612108

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need to tackle viral variants, expand the number of antigens, and assess diverse delivery systems for vaccines against emerging viruses. In the present study, a DNA vaccine candidate was generated by combining in tandem envelope protein domain III (EDIII) of dengue virus serotypes 1-4 and a dengue virus (DENV)-2 non-structural protein 1 (NS1) protein-coding region. Each domain was designed as a serotype-specific consensus coding sequence derived from different genotypes based on the whole genome sequencing of clinical isolates in India and complemented with data from Africa. This sequence was further optimized for protein expression. In silico structural analysis of the EDIII consensus sequence revealed that epitopes are structurally conserved and immunogenic. The vaccination of mice with this construct induced pan-serotype neutralizing antibodies and antigen-specific T cell responses. Assaying intracellular interferon (IFN)-γ staining, immunoglobulin IgG2(a/c)/IgG1 ratios, and immune gene profiling suggests a strong Th1-dominant immune response. Finally, the passive transfer of immune sera protected AG129 mice challenged with a virulent, non-mouse-adapted DENV-2 strain. Our findings collectively suggest an alternative strategy for dengue vaccine design by offering a novel vaccine candidate with a possible broad-spectrum protection and a successful clinical translation either as a stand alone or in a mix and match strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue Vaccines , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Vaccines, DNA , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue Vaccines/genetics , Dengue Virus/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
7.
Acta Biomed ; 92(3): e2021024, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak ofsevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted inexponential rise in the number of patients getting hospitalised with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is a paucity of data from South East Asian Region related to the predictors of clinical outcomes in these patients. This formed the basis of conducting our study. METHODS: This was an analytical cross-sectional study. Demographic, clinical, radiological and laboratory data of 125 patients was collected on admission. The study outcome was death or discharge after recovery. For univariate analysis, unpaired t-test, Chi-square and Fisher's Exact test were used. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted for Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and few laboratory parameters. Logistic regression was applied for multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Elderly age, ischemic heart disease and smoking were significantly associated with mortality. Elevated levels of D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and reduced lymphocyte counts were the predictors of mortality. The ROCs for SOFA score curve showed a cut-off value ≥ 3.5 (sensitivity- 91.7% and specificity- 87.5%), for IL-6 the cut-off value was ≥ 37.9 (sensitivity- 96% and specificity- 78%) and for lymphocyte counts, a cut off was calculated to be less than and equal to 1.46 x 109per litre (sensitivity-75.2%and specificity- 83.3%). CONCLUSION: Old age, smoking history, ischemic heart disease and laboratory parameters including elevated D-dimer, raised LDH and low lymphocyte counts at baseline are associated with COVID-19 mortality. A higher SOFA score at admission is a poor prognosticator in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , India/epidemiology , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(1): ofaa599, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052207

ABSTRACT

We studied the pattern and duration of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) shedding in 32 asymptomatic and 11 paucisymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 cases. Viral RNA shedding in exhaled breath progressively diminished and became negative after 6 days of a positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction test. Therefore, the duration of isolation can be minimized to 6 days.

10.
Front Genet ; 11: 854, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-723203

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute onset pneumonia caused by a novel Betacoronavirus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly evolved into a pandemic. Though its origin has been linked to the Wuhan City of China's Hubei Province in December 2019, recent reports claim that the original animal-to-human transmission of the virus probably happened sometime between September and October 2019 in Guangdong Province, rather than Hubei. As of July 3, 2020, India has reported a case positivity rate of 6.5% and a fatality rate of 2.8%, which are among the lowest in the world. Also, the severity of the disease is much less among Indians as evidenced by the low rate of ICU admission (15.3%) and the need for mechanical ventilation (4.16%). As per the World Health Organization (WHO) situation report 165 on July 3, 2020, India has one of the lowest deaths per 100,000 population (1.32 deaths against a global average of 6.04). Several factors related to the pathogen, host and environment might have some role in reducing the susceptibility of Indians to COVID-19. These include some ongoing mutations that can alter the virulence of the circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains, host factors like innate immunity, genetic diversity in immune responses, epigenetic factors, genetic polymorphisms of ACE2 receptors, micro RNAs and universal BCG vaccination, and environmental factors like high temperature and humidity which may alter the viability and transmissibility of the strain. This perspective -highlights the potential factors that might be responsible for the observed low COVID-19 fatality rate in Indian population. It puts forward several hypotheses which can be a ground for future studies determining individual and population susceptibility to COVID-19 and thus, may offer a new dimension to our current understanding of the disease.

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