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2.
Ther Adv Chronic Dis ; 13: 20406223221076890, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779561

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence points toward a very high prevalence of prolonged neurological symptoms among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors. To date, there are no solidified criteria for 'long-COVID' diagnosis. Nevertheless, 'long-COVID' is conceptualized as a multi-organ disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that may be indicative of underlying pulmonary, cardiovascular, endocrine, hematologic, renal, gastrointestinal, dermatologic, immunological, psychiatric, or neurological disease. Involvement of the central or peripheral nervous system is noted in more than one-third of patients with antecedent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, while an approximately threefold higher incidence of neurological symptoms is recorded in observational studies including patient-reported data. The most frequent neurological manifestations of 'long-COVID' encompass fatigue; 'brain fog'; headache; cognitive impairment; sleep, mood, smell, or taste disorders; myalgias; sensorimotor deficits; and dysautonomia. Although very limited evidence exists to date on the pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the manifestation of 'long-COVID', neuroinflammatory and oxidative stress processes are thought to prevail in propagating neurological 'long-COVID' sequelae. In this narrative review, we sought to present a comprehensive overview of our current understanding of clinical features, risk factors, and pathophysiological processes of neurological 'long-COVID' sequelae. Moreover, we propose diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms that may aid in the prompt recognition and management of underlying causes of neurological symptoms that persist beyond the resolution of acute COVID-19. Furthermore, as causal treatments for 'long-COVID' are currently unavailable, we propose therapeutic approaches for symptom-oriented management of neurological 'long-COVID' symptoms. In addition, we emphasize that collaborative research initiatives are urgently needed to expedite the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies for neurological 'long-COVID' sequelae.

5.
J Med Virol ; 92(11): 2866-2869, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596965

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is characterized by an excessive proinflammatory cytokine storm, resulting in acute lung injury and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The role of corticosteroids is controversial in severe COVID-19 pneumonia and associated hyper-inflammatory syndrome. We reported a case series of six consecutive COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia, ARDS and laboratory indices of hyper-inflammatory syndrome. All patients were treated early with a short course of corticosteroids, and clinical outcomes were compared before and after corticosteroids administration. All patients evaded intubation and intensive care admission, ARDS resolved within 11.8 days (median), viral clearance was achieved in four patients within 17.2 days (median), and all patients were discharged from the hospital in 16.8 days (median). Early administration of short course corticosteroids improves clinical outcome of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and evidence of immune hyperreactivity.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Steroids/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Registries , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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