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1.
Emerging Infectious Diseases ; 29(2):04, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198459

ABSTRACT

Persons with COVID-19-like illnesses are advised to stay home to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2. We assessed relationships between telework experience and COVID-19 illness with work attendance when ill. Adults experiencing fever, cough, or loss of taste or smell who sought healthcare or COVID-19 testing in the United States during March-November 2020 were enrolled. Adults with telework experience before illness were more likely to work at all (onsite or remotely) during illness (87.8%) than those with no telework experience (49.9%) (adjusted odds ratio 5.48, 95% CI 3.40-8.83). COVID-19 case-patients were less likely to work onsite (22.1%) than were persons with other acute respiratory illnesses (37.3%) (adjusted odds ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.24-0.53). Among COVID-19 case-patients with telework experience, only 6.5% worked onsite during illness. Telework experience before illness gave mildly ill workers the option to work and improved compliance with public health recommendations to stay home during illness.

2.
Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America ; 06, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2188616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccination coverage remains lower in communities with higher social vulnerability. Factors such as SARS-CoV-2 exposure risk and access to health care are often correlated with social vulnerability and may therefore contribute to a relationship between vulnerability and observed vaccine effectiveness (VE). Understanding whether these factors impact VE could contribute to our understanding of real-world VE. METHOD(S): We used electronic health record data from seven health systems to assess vaccination coverage among patients with medically attended COVID-19-like illness. We then used a test-negative design to assess VE for 2- and 3-dose mRNA adult (>=18 years) vaccine recipients across Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) quartiles. SVI rankings were determined by geocoding patient addresses to census tracts;rankings were grouped into quartiles for analysis. RESULT(S): In July 2021, primary series vaccination coverage was higher in the least vulnerable quartile than in the most vulnerable quartile (56% vs. 36%, respectively). In February 2022, booster dose coverage among persons who had completed a primary series was higher in the least vulnerable quartile than in the most vulnerable quartile (43% vs. 30%). VE among 2-dose and 3-dose recipients during the Delta and Omicron BA.1 periods of predominance was similar across SVI quartiles. CONCLUSION(S): COVID-19 vaccination coverage varied substantially by SVI. Differences in VE estimates by SVI were minimal across groups after adjusting for baseline patient factors. However, lower vaccination coverage among more socially vulnerable groups means that the burden of illness is still disproportionately borne by the most socially vulnerable populations. Copyright Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America 2023.

3.
Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 29:29, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Three doses of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines produce robust antibody responses, but data are limited among individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. From a cohort of health care personnel (75.5%), first responders (4.6%), and other frontline workers (19.8%) in 6 US states, we longitudinally assessed antibody waning after dose-2, and response to dose-3, according to SARS-CoV-2 infection history.

4.
MMWR - Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report ; 71(5152):1625-1630, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204208

ABSTRACT

Monovalent COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, designed against the ancestral strain of SARS-CoV-2, successfully reduced COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality in the United States and globally (1,2). However, vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19-associated hospitalization has declined over time, likely related to a combination of factors, including waning immunity and, with the emergence of the Omicron variant and its sublineages, immune evasion (3). To address these factors, on September 1, 2022, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended a bivalent COVID-19 mRNA booster (bivalent booster) dose, developed against the spike protein from ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and Omicron BA.4/BA.5 sublineages, for persons who had completed at least a primary COVID-19 vaccination series (with or without monovalent booster doses) >=2 months earlier (4). Data on the effectiveness of a bivalent booster dose against COVID-19 hospitalization in the United States are lacking, including among older adults, who are at highest risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness. During September 8-November 30, 2022, the Investigating Respiratory Viruses in the Acutely Ill (IVY) Network assessed effectiveness of a bivalent booster dose received after >=2 doses of monovalent mRNA vaccine against COVID-19-associated hospitalization among immunocompetent adults aged >=65 years. When compared with unvaccinated persons, VE of a bivalent booster dose received >=7 days before illness onset (median = 29 days) against COVID-19-associated hospitalization was 84%. Compared with persons who received >=2 monovalent-only mRNA vaccine doses, relative VE of a bivalent booster dose was 73%. These early findings show that a bivalent booster dose provided strong protection against COVID-19-associated hospitalization in older adults and additional protection among persons with previous monovalent-only mRNA vaccination. All eligible persons, especially adults aged >=65 years, should receive a bivalent booster dose to maximize protection against COVID-19 hospitalization this winter season. Additional strategies to prevent respiratory illness, such as masking in indoor public spaces, should also be considered, especially in areas where COVID-19 community levels are high (4,5).

5.
MMWR - Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report ; 71(5152):1616-1624, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204207

ABSTRACT

During June-October 2022, the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.5 sublineage accounted for most of the sequenced viral genomes in the United States, with further Omicron sublineage diversification through November 2022.* Bivalent mRNA vaccines contain an ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain component plus an updated component of the Omicron BA.4/BA.5 sublineages. On September 1, 2022, a single bivalent booster dose was recommended for adults who had completed a primary vaccination series (with or without subsequent booster doses), with the last dose administered >=2 months earlier (1). During September 13-November 18, the VISION Network evaluated vaccine effectiveness (VE) of a bivalent mRNA booster dose (after 2, 3, or 4 monovalent doses) compared with 1) no previous vaccination and 2) previous receipt of 2, 3, or 4 monovalent-only mRNA vaccine doses, among immunocompetent adults aged >=18 years with an emergency department/urgent care (ED/UC) encounter or hospitalization for a COVID-19-like illness. VE of a bivalent booster dose (after 2, 3, or 4 monovalent doses) against COVID-19-associated ED/UC encounters was 56% compared with no vaccination, 31% compared with monovalent vaccination only with last dose 2-4 months earlier, and 50% compared with monovalent vaccination only with last dose >=11 months earlier. VE of a bivalent booster dose (after 2, 3, or 4 monovalent doses) against COVID-19-associated hospitalizations was 57% compared with no vaccination, 38% compared with monovalent vaccination only with last dose 5-7 months earlier, and 45% compared with monovalent vaccination only with last dose >=11 months earlier. Bivalent vaccines administered after 2, 3, or 4 monovalent doses were effective in preventing medically attended COVID-19 compared with no vaccination and provided additional protection compared with past monovalent vaccination only, with relative protection increasing with time since receipt of the last monovalent dose. All eligible persons should stay up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations, including receiving a bivalent booster dose. Persons should also consider taking additional precautions to avoid respiratory illness this winter season, such as masking in public indoor spaces, especially in areas where COVID-19 community levels are high.

6.
Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 12:12, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the United States, influenza activity during the 2021-2022 season was modest and sufficient enough to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness for the first time since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. We estimated influenza vaccine effectiveness against lab-confirmed outpatient acute illness caused by predominant A(H3N2) viruses.

7.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report ; 71(35):1109-1114, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2073379

ABSTRACT

What is already known on this topic? In June 2022, COVID-19 vaccines were authorized for use in children aged 6 months-5 years. Intent to vaccinate and vaccination rates in children have been low. What is added by this report? During July 2021-May 2022, in a longitudinal cohort of 393 children aged <5 years in four states, parental intent to vaccinate children against COVID-19 and perception of COVID-19 vaccine safety and effectiveness declined over a 3-month period, but intent to vaccinate and perceptions of vaccine safety returned to baseline after 6 months. What are the implications for public health practice? Identifying and addressing barriers to COVID-19 vaccination in children aged <5 years and educating parents about COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness and safety in young children are critical to increasing pediatric COVID-19 vaccination coverage.

9.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report ; 71(7):255-263, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1812722

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic? Protection against COVID-19 after 2 doses of mRNA vaccine wanes, but little is known about durability of protection after 3 doses. What is added by this report? Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19-associated emergency department/urgent care (ED/UC) visits and hospitalizations was higher after the third dose than after the second dose but waned with time since vaccination. During the Omicron-predominant period, VE against COVID-19-associated ED/UC visits and hospitalizations was 87% and 91%, respectively, during the 2 months after a third dose and decreased to 66% and 78% by the fourth month after a third dose. Protection against hospitalizations exceeded that against ED/UC visits. What are the implications for public health practice? All eligible persons should remain up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations to best protect against COVID-19-associated hospitalizations and ED/UC visits.

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